This work in progress addresses unresolved and ‘problem’ areas in geology and astrophysics:
- Galaxy, star, planet, and planetesimal formation;
- The nature and formation of cold dark matter in galactic halos and its effect on the solar system;
- Aqueous differentiation of comets and dwarf planets due to planetesimal collisions or binary spiral-in mergers;
- Plate tectonics, the granite problem, the mantled gneiss-dome problem, and the dolomite problem; and
- Icy-body impacts vs. rocky-iron impacts, endothermic chemical reactions in impacts,
STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS:
– Aqueous Differentiation:
Melting water ice, forming salt water oceans. Melting may be catastrophic as in the spiral-in merger of binary planetesimals or gradual, as orbital perturbation torquing which may gradually melt water ice. Salt-water oceans are suggested to precipitate authigenic mineral grains. Catastrophic binary spiral-in mergers may form sedimentary cores with lithify and undergo metamorphism when the ocean freezes solid, with ice expansion building pressure on the core, greatly exceeding the gravitational pressure.
– Rocky-iron S-type and M-type asteroids:
High-density volatile-depleted planetesmials are suggested to have ‘condensed’ by gravitational instability (GI) from the primary debris disk formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Rocky-iron asteroids condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the stellar merger, near the orbit of Mercury, and indeed Mercury is suggested to be a ‘hybrid accretion’ planet, formed from the accretion of GI formed asteroids, hence hybrid. Most asteroids internally differentiated to form iron-nickel cores by radioactive decay of stellar-merger f-process radionuclides. Finally, many leftover asteroids not hybrid accreted into Mercury were evaporated into Jupiter’s inner resonances by the orbit clearing of the terrestrial planets.
– C-type chondrites:
Chondrites are suggested to have condensed by GI from the stellar-merger primary debris disk against Jupiter’s inner resonances over a period of some 5 million years. Chondrites typically contain chondrules which may be dust accretions melted in super-intense solar flares during the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in merger. CI chondrites without chondrules, which lie above the terrestrial fractionation line, apparently condensed from presolar material, and thus may be of scattered disk or Oort cloud comet origin.
– Close Binary:
‘Hard’ close-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) tend to spiral in due to external perturbation, becoming progressively ‘harder’ orbits over time, often merging to form ‘contact binaries’. ‘Close binary’ orbits are defined to be ‘hard’ orbits.
Circa 1–20 km planetesimals condensed by GI from the protoplanetary disk prior to the suggested spiral-in merger of binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Many or most comets formed in binary pairs, most of which spiraled in to form peanut-shaped ‘contact binaries’. Comets presumably formed at bitterly-cold temperatures, condensing a high percentage of highly-volatile ices which readily sublime in response to orbital torquing, creating internal voids which reduce the density of the nuclei. A suggested former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun spiraled out from the solar system barycenter for 4 billion years, shepherding the main body of inner Oort cloud comets outward beyond itself into the inner Oort cloud (IOC).
– (Former) Companion to the Sun:
Our protostar is suggested to have undergone ‘flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation’, forming a brown-dwarf proto-Companion in a circumbinary orbit around former binary-Sun. Proto-Companion itself underwent flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation, forming a proto-gas-giant planet in a circumbinary orbit around former binary-Companion. Secular stellar core collapse is suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion to spiral in, causing their wide-binary separation to increase over time. Binary-Sun merged at 4,568 Ma and binary Companion merged at 542 Ma. The asymmetrical binary-Companion merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun, which ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon.
– Flip-flop fragmentation, with or without bifurcation:
Excess angular momentum of gaseous protostars, proto brown-dwarfs and proto gas-giant planets in which the surrounding envelope is much more massive than the central core may undergo disk-instability flip-flop fragmentation, where the more massive disk fragments coalesce into a central mass which inertially displaces the former core into a satellite status. Excess-excess angular momentum may cause the disk instability to fragment into a close binary pair, putting the former core into a circumbinary orbit.
– Flip-flop perturbation:
The suggested 4 billion year exponential spiral out of our former binary-Companion perturbed trans-Neptunian objects (TNO) into the inner solar system when the solar system barycenter (SSB) nominally crossed their semimajor axes, causing aphelia precession flip-flop perturbation from TNO aphelia being gravitationally attracted toward the Companion to being centrifugally slung away from it 180°. And once the semimajor axes was reached, the TNO would flip-flop twice with every eccentric Sun-Companion orbit of the SSB.
– Gravitational instability (GI):
The mechanism whereby gas, dust and ice gravitationally collapse to form planetesimals, planets, moons and stars. GI of objects smaller than a Jeans mass appear to require assistance, generally in the form of infalling material from an accretion disk, pressurized against a planetary or binary stellar resonance.
– Hybrid Accretion (Thayne Currie 2005):
Planetesimals condensed by GI may accrete to form planets (hence hybrid), typically in low orbits from planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of solitary stars; however, binary stars may also condense planetesimals at inner edge of their circumbinary protoplanetary disk which may accrete to form more distant hybrid planets. ‘Super-Earths’ are defined here to form by hybrid accretion, regardless of their size, so the terms super-Earth and hybrid planet are used interchangeably. In own solar system, Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be super-Earths, formed by hybrid accretion beyond our former binary Sun. Hybrid accretion super-Earths often to form in cascades from the inside out, with the innermost planet forming first followed by orbit clearing etc.
(Inner Oort cloud), also known as the ‘Hills Cloud’, which is the doughnut-shaped comet cloud with its inner edge in the range of 2,000 – 5,000 AU and outer edge at perhaps 20,000 AU, suggested to have been shepherded outward by stellar evolution of our former quadruple star system beyond our former binary-Companion brown dwarf.
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘hot classical’:
Minor planets condensed in situ by GI from the suggested 4,568 Ma ‘primary debris disk’ against Neptune’s outer resonances. These included most Plutinos and cubewanos between Neptune’s 2:3 and 1:2 resonance; however, solar system barycenter perturbation greatly depleted the reservoir during the late heavy bombardment, also causing most former binary pairs to spiral in and merge. The binary spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma created the primary debris which was somewhat volatile depleted compared to the protoplanetary disc from which comets and scattered disc objects (SDOs) condensed. KBOs are a subset of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs).
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘cold classical’:
Minor planets condensed in situ by GI from the suggested 542 Ma ‘secondary debris disk’ against Neptune’s outer resonances, principally the outer 2:3 resonance. These include typically binary Plutinos and typically binary ‘cold’ classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits. The spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma created the ‘secondary debris disk’ from which binary Pluto and the cold classical KBOs condensed.
Binary spiral-in stellar mergers of stellar or gas-giant objects are suggested to undergo ‘merger fragmentation’, which rids spiral-in merging binary cores of excess angular momentum. Tidal gravity in spiral-in merging cores may distort the binary cores into bar-mode arms with trailing tails inside their inflated common envelope. Then an increase in magnetic field may extend the tails, transferring angular momentum outward in a positive feedback mechanism which allows the cores to merge, cracking the magnetic whip which propels the tails into a high orbit, forming proto-Venus and proto-Earth in the suggested binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma. Merger fragmentation forms ‘merger planets’ and ‘merger moons’.
(Outer Oort cloud), the spherical (isotropic) comet cloud, from perhaps 20,000 – 50,000 AU and beyond, assumedly perturbed from the IOC by various internal solar-system and external perturbation.
– LRN (LRNe plural):
(Luminous red nova), a stellar explosion with a luminosity between that of a nova and a supernova, thought to be caused by the spiral-in merger of (main-sequence) binary stars. Stellar-merger LRNe may be the typical origin of debris disks which may condense asteroids in low orbits, chondrites in intermediate orbits and icy planetesimals in more distant orbits against planetary resonances. ‘Red transients’ are also thought to be caused by stellar mergers, so LRNe and red transients may be used interchangeably. Mergers of pre-main-sequence stars may cause significantly-less violent explosions.
– Minor planets or planetesimals:
A generic term for anything smaller than a planet, not specifically a moon. Planetesimals or minor planets may apply to comets, protoplanetary scattered disc objects (SDOs), asteroids, chondrites, and KBOs.
SDO (scattered disc object):
Objects suggested to have condensed by GI at the inner edge of the presolar, circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun near the orbit of Uranus, slightly before 4,568 Ma. Subsequent hybrid accretion of Uranus and Neptune scattered the leftover SDOs to the scattered disc, which is suggested to officially begin at the 1:3 resonance with Neptune. SDOs and comets may be part of the same original population or from closely-related presolar populations. SDOs originally condensed with highly-volatile ices, most of which have since sublimed due to internal torquing caused by orbital perturbation, which is suggested to have creating an internal latticework of voids, creating low-density objects.
(Solar-system barycenter) The suggested gravitational balance point between the Sun and a former binary-Companion brown dwarf prior to its asymmetrical spiral-in merger at 542 Ma, which gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. As the binary-Companion’s binary components spiraled in, the Companion spiraled out from the Sun for 4 billion years. The SSB perturbed TNOs by causing eccentric planetesimal orbits to flip flop from being gravitationally attracted toward the Companion to centrifugally slung away from it when the SSB crossed planetesimals’ semi-major axes. SSB perturbation caused the late heavy bombardment of KBOs during the Hadean Eon and perturbed SDOs during the Phanerozoic Eon.
– Stellar Core Collapse:
Orbit clearing may be viewed as a form of core collapse, whereby high-mass planets clear their orbits of lower-mass planetesimals by tending to ‘evaporate’ them outward into higher orbits. Similarly, resonant coupling may cause close-binary stars to spiral in and evaporate smaller companion stars outward into higher wide-binary orbits, transferring energy and angular momentum from more-massive ‘hard’ close-binary orbits to increasing ‘soft’ wide-binary separation.
– Super-Earth: (See Hybrid Accretion)
– TNO (trans-Neptunian object):
TNOs encompass multiple reservoirs, the primary-debris-disk hot classical KBOs, the secondary-debris-disk cold classical KBOs, and protoplanetary SDOs and Oort cloud comets
– Wide Binary:
‘Soft’ wide-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) are defined as binary pairs that tend to spiral out due to external perturbation, with wide-binary orbits becoming progressively softer over time. Wide-binary components may themselves be comprised of close-binary pairs, such as our former (close)-binary-Sun and (close)-binary-Companion in a wide-binary separation.
Jeans instability fragmentation:
Hydrostatic (Bok) globules may undergo Jeans instability when giant stars sublime icy chondrules, increasing the gaseous stellar metallicity concentration, causing the ‘sound crossing time’ to exceed the ‘freefall time’. Beyond a critical size and mass, a Jeans instability will fragment into multiple nuclei, which may be the origin of distant wide-binary stars separated by many 100s or even more than 1000 AU. This section, however, will focus on suggested secondary fragmentation mechanisms, due to excess angular momentum, which transform solitary nucleation centers, whether the original Jeans mass fragmented or not.
‘Flip-flop fragmentation with/without bifurcation’ is suggested as a punctuated equilibrium mechanism of outward angular momentum transfer, which also degrades potential energy to heat energy in a punctuated equilibrium fashion. In an early protostar with sufficient angular momentum, presumably an early Class 0 protostar with a recently-formed second hydrostatic core, the vast majority of the mass resides in an envelope (accretion disk), partially supported by angular momentum, surrounding a gas-giant-mass core. The greater overlying mass is suggested to constitute an unstable state which may amplify asymmetries with positive feedback, resulting in runaway disk instability. Because the overlying mass is much greater than the core, it displaces the core to a satellite status. Less specific angular momentum will result in a solitary disk-fragmentation object (without bifurcation), and more will result in a similar-sized close-binary pair, orbited by the former core in a circumbinary orbit.
Binary spiral-in mergers of gas-giant planets and stars are suggested to undergo ‘merger fragmentation’, which hurls off twin objects which rid the merging cores of angular momentum. The spiral-in merger of binary stars first forms a contact binary followed by a common envelope. Tidal gravity in spiral-in merging cores may distort the binary cores into bar-mode arms with trailing tails inside their inflated common envelope. Then an increase in magnetic field may extend the tails, transferring angular momentum outward in a positive feedback mechanism which allows the cores to merge, cracking the magnetic whip which propels the tails into a high orbit, forming proto-Venus and proto-Earth in the suggested binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma. Merger fragmentation forms ‘merger planets’ and ‘merger moons’.
A third planet formation mechanism also involves GI, but it also incorporates accretion in a process, designated ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005). Planetesimals are suggested to require assistance to undergo GI in protoplanetary disks or subsequent debris disks, which generally takes the form of the magnetic corotation radius in an accretion disk around a solitary star or a binary stellar residence at the inside edge of a circumbinary disk. Planetesmials can also condense against giant-planet resonances which are not overlapped by other giant planet resonances. In our solar system, only Jupiter’s inner resonances and Neptune’s outer resonances appear to have condensed planetesimals by GI. Assumedly, infalling material gets compressed in a magnetic or resonant pressure dam, promoting GI. Then hybrid accretion occurs where sufficient planetesimal density creates self-gravitating hybrid-accretion planets. Super-Earths are suggested to form by hybrid accretion from planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius around a solitary star. Super-Earth is defined here to be any planet formed by hybrid accretion, regardless of size. Hybrid-accretion super-Earths often form in cascades, presumably from the inside out, with the innermost super-Earth forming first, followed by orbit clearing etc. Hybrid accretion planets are also suggested to form at the inner edge of circumbinary disks around binary stars, presumably like suggested super-Earths, Uranus and Neptune, with leftover planetesimals scattered to the scattered disc.
In Jeans instability, the cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the center become optically thick at ~10-13 g/cm3 after 105 yr (Larson 1969), at which point when the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Supersonically infalling gas in the envelope is decelerated and thermalized at the surface of the first core (Masunaga et al. 1998).
When the temperature reaches about 2000 K, the hydrogen begins to dissociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’, the birth of a protostar. The protostar grows in mass by accreting the infalling material from the circumstellar envelope, while the protostar keeps its radius at ~4 Rsun during the main accretion phase. (Masunaga et al. 1998)
The formation of dark cores in giant molecular clouds has been extensively modeled, since the seminal paper by Richard Larson in 1969, NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, however, nearby first and second cores are in very short supply due to their relatively-short lifespans and the present low stellar formation rate of the Milky Way. Consequently, only several nearby ‘first cores’ have been suggested, but none sufficiently match computer models to be declared as such.
“Enoch et al. (2009a)
discovered a massive circumstellar disk of ∼1 Ms comparable
to a central protostar around a Class 0 object, indicating that
(1) the disk already exists in the main accretion phase and
(2) the disk mass is significantly larger than the theoretical
prediction.” (Machida et al. 2011)
“However, if the
evolution is followed to the higher density regime where the gas becomes adiabatic,
a disk-like structure forms which allows another mode of binary formation
to develop, i.e., disk fragmentation around the central protostar. For example,
calculations based on a piecewise polytropic equation of state show that the central
portion of a collapsing core becomes adiabatic and forms a disc-like structure
around the central object, which subsequently fragments into “satellite” objects
(Matsumoto & Hanawa 2003).” (Andre et al. 2008)
However, a very peculiar feature of the system is a reversal of temperatures with mass–the higher mass brown dwarf is cooler than its lower-mass brown dwarf companion–making the higher mass brown dwarf appear younger than the lower mass companion and a factor of 2 lower in mass than its true mass.
Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution (2014)
“The size of the first core was found to vary somewhat in the different simulations (more unstable clouds form smaller first cores) while the size, mass, and temperature of the second cores are independent of initial cloud mass, size, and temperature.
Conclusions. Our simulations support the idea of a standard (universal) initial second core size of ~ 3 × 10−3 AU and mass ~ 1.4×10−3 M⊙.”
(Vaytet et al. 2013)
“Class 0 objects are the youngest accreting protostars observed right after point mass formation, when most of the mass of the system is still in the surrounding dense core/envelope (Andre et al. 2000).”
(Chen et al. 2012)
“The compact components
around the Class 0 protostars could be the precursors to
these Keplerian disks. However, it is unlikely that such
massive rotationally supported disks could be stably supported
given the expected low stellar mass for the Class 0
protostars: they should be prone to fragmentation”.
(Zhi-Yun Li et al. 2014)
The presumably Class 0 protostar evolutionary stage with a large (rotationally-flattened) envelope and a small second hydrostatic (point mass 3 × 10−3 AU) core is suggested here to be unstable, lending itself to ‘disk instability’, wherein fragmentation of the envelope inertially displaces the much-smaller, older, gas-giant-planet-sized core (~ 1.4×10−3 M⊙) to satellite status, in a process designated, ‘flip-flop fragmentation.
Solar system evolution:
The first-generation flip-flop fragmentation (FFF) in our proto solar system is suggested to have occurred with bifurcation, forming a close-binary proto-Sun orbited by the brown-dwarf-mass core (proto-Companion) in a wide-binary (binary-proto-Sun – proto-Companion) orbit around the solar system barycenter (SSB). The twin binary components of our binary proto-Sun underwent a second-generation FFF (without bifurcation), creating proto-Jupiter around the larger component and proto-Saturn around the smaller component. Higher generation FFF formed ‘FFF moons’ around binary-Jupiter and quadruple-Saturn.
Our former binary brown-dwarf companion apparently underwent at least one generation of FFF with bifurcation, presumably forming a similar-sized close-binary brown dwarf, orbited by a circumbinary gas/ice-giant planet. The suggested quadruple system (binary-Sun, binary-Companion) apparently underwent secular perturbation, causing the close-binary components to spiral in, increasing the (Sun-Companion) wide binary separation over time. Binary-Sun merged at 4,568 Ma, hurling off merger planets, proto-Venus and proto-Earth, and the ‘primary debris disk’ condensed asteroids at the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius near the present orbit of Mercury. Hybrid accretion of asteroids formed Mercury, followed by orbit clearing of the leftover asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Additionally, chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s inner resonances and Plutinos and cubewanos (Kuiper belt objects (KBOs)) condensed against Neptune’s outer resonances. Binary-Companion continued spiraling out from the solar system barycenter (SSB) over the next 4 billion years until the binary components merged at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical explosion that apparently gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. The 542 Ma ‘secondary debris disk’ is suggested to have condensed typically binary ‘cold classical KBOs’ in situ in low inclination, low eccentricity orbits, including binary Pluto.
Binary-Companion spiraled out from the SSB over the next 4 billion years, converting potential energy of the binary components into increasing the Sun-Companion eccentricity around the SSB, increasing the maximum Sun-Companion separation (at apoapsis) by an exponential rate over time. By Galilean relativity, from the perspective of the Sun, the SSB can be said to have eccentrically orbited through the Kuiper belt, due to the eccentric Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB. In addition to this periodic eccentric orbit, the apoapsis of the SSB increased at an eccentric rate over time, reaching ever deeper into the Kuiper belt during the Hadean and Early Archean, then into the scattered disc during the Proterozoic Eon. As the SSB nominally crossed the semi-major axis of minor planets, it caused ‘flip-flop perturbation’ (not to be confused with flip-flop fragmentation), causing minor planet aphelia to flip-flop from pointing toward the Companion to being centrifugally slung 180° away from it. This perturbation caused binary planetesimals to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation and perturbing them into the inner solar system during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). The apoapsis of the SSB passed through the Kuiper belt from 4.1 Ga through about 3.8 Ga. Then beginning at about 2,500 Ma, the apoapsis entered the scattered disc (nominally beginning at a 1:3 resonance with Neptune), ushering in the Proterozoic Eon.
Oort cloud comets may have condensed in circum-quaternary obits beyond binary-Companion, or they may be scattered disc objects that were scattered outward beyond former binary-Companion. Either way, hypothesized inner Oort cloud (IOC) comets are suggested to have been progressively shepherded out into barycentric orbits in the IOC by our former binary-Companion by progressive orbit clearing as the Sun-Companion orbits around the SSB became progressively more eccentric for 4 billion years.
Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF):
The greater inertia of a massive overlying envelope/accretion disk, largely supported by angular momentum, around a far-smaller, presumably Class 0, protostar core may become unstable if chaotic asymmetries are amplified by positive feedback into full fledged disk instability, where the radial symmetry is broken.
Flip-flop fragmentation disk instability in a disk with high specific angular momentum is suggested to fragment into a similar-size binary pair, with similar-size fragmentation promoted by conservation of both energy and angular momentum in a resultant system with the lowest possible energy state. The far-greater inertia of the fragmenting disk puts the resulting barycenter closer to the disk products, relegating the far-smaller former core to a circumbinary satellite status.
By definition, cores can not bifurcate due to their high gravitational binding energy; however, the continued gravitational contraction of a displaced flip-flop core may isolate a high angular momentum envelope within the displaced core Roche sphere which greatly exceeds the (point) mass of the continuously contracting core, setting the stage for a next-generation flip-flop fragmentation. So while an angular-momentum-supported core-product envelope may fragment, possibly into a similar-sized binary pair (bifurcation), the core itself can only be displaced, not bifurcated.
Inertial displacement of a core to a companion or satellite status results in decompression of the core. An adiabatic second hydrostatic core (SHSC) core (or ‘second core’) of a protostar experiences a shock front as the kinetic energy of infalling gas is converted to heat at the second core boundary, checking volatile loss. But when the core is displaced and the pressure of infalling gas is relieved, the core physically rebounds, causing a catastrophic volatile loss across its Roche sphere, dramatically increasing the metallicity of the displaced core, and multiple generations of displacement decompression will result in an icy composition or even a predominantly silicate terrestrial composition.
In the strict sense of the word, (flip-flop) ‘fragmentation’ (with bifurcation) may only be said to occur in the case where excess excess angular momentum which causes the disk to fragment into a binary pair of similar-sized similar masses, but the term will also be extended to describe a disk instability result (without bifurcation), which yields a solitary object from a disk instability, orbited by its displaced core. So to discriminate between flip-flop fragmentation which forms binary pairs compared to solitary objects, flip-flop fragmentation disk instability which forms a binary pair plus a displaced core will be designated, ‘flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation’, and disk instability that forms a solitary object plus a displaced core will be designated, ‘flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation’, with the absence of a bifurcation modifier (or ‘disk instability’) referring to the generic process with or without bifurcation.
If high specific angular momentum results in first-generation flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation followed by additional higher-generation fragmentations, then lower specific angular momentum results in fewer generations of disk instability along with fewer bifurcations. The lower limit of disk instability may be a diminutive solitary companion star, brown dwarf or hot around its solitary star, with smaller stars tending to form proportionately smaller first-generation flip-flop core companions. So that if Alpha Centauri forms a red dwarf Proxima Centauri sized displaced core around its bifurcated AB pair, then our Sun (at exactly half the mass of the Alpha Centauri A + B) would proportionately form a first-generation brown-dwarf displaced core at half the mass of Proxima Centauri.
In the case of flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation, the former core would be displaced by inertia into a circumbinary orbit around the similar-sized binary pair. This raises questions as to the characterization of the triple object orbital relationships, such as, would the resulting solar system barycenter always be beyond the larger component of the similar-sized binary pair? And could the binary orbital relationships be characterized in terms of the similar-sized binary pair typically (or always) be in a ‘hard’ close-binary orbit, where ‘hard’ orbits tend to ‘harden’ due to internal and external perturbations causing the pair to spiral in over time, and would the displaced core typically be in a ‘soft’ wide-binary orbit with respect to the similar-sized close-binary pair, where ‘soft’ orbits tend to ‘soften’ due to internal and external perturbations tended to make a displaced core spiral out over time?
Disk instability products remain bound inside the Roche sphere of the original disk, such that a disk instability (without bifurcation) occurring to a smaller binary-Jupiter component (formed by bifurcation in the previous generation) would assume a circumsecondary orbit around the smaller binary-Jupiter component (within its Roche sphere); however, a subsequent binary spiral-in of binary-Jupiter’s would at some point cause the angular-momentum-conserving moon to hop into a circumbinary orbit around both binary-Jupiter components, until the binary planetary components ultimately merged to form a solitary Jupiter.
(Note, numbers indicate generations, where 1) is first generation fragmentation, 2) second generation fragmentation, and etc.)
1) Stellar FFF with bifurcation:
– Input: Protostar
– Output: Binary proto-Sun, Proto-Companion
– Description: FFF of the stellar-mass disk around its brown-dwarf-mass core displaces the brown-dwarf-sized core (Companion) into satellite status around the bifurcated proto-binary-Sun
2a) Stellar FFF without bifurcation:
– Input: Larger binary proto-Sun component
– Output: Larger binary-Sun component, Proto-Jupiter
– Description: Proto-Jupiter core in orbit around the smaller binary-Sun component
2b) Stellar FFF without bifurcation:
– Input: Smaller binary proto-Sun component
– Output: Smaller binary-Sun component, Proto-Saturn
– Description: Proto-Saturn core in orbit around the smaller binary-Sun component
3a) Planetary FFF with bifurcation:
– Input: Proto-Jupiter
– Output: Binary proto-Jupiter, Mars(?)
– Description: Mars in orbit around proto-binary-Jupiter, Mars subsequently lost into heliocentric orbit when Jupiter transitions from circumprimary orbit around the largest binary-Sun component to a circumbinary orbit around binary-Sun
3b) Planetary FFF with bifurcation:
– Input: Proto-Saturn
– Output: Binary proto-Saturn, Titan
– Titan in orbit around binary proto-Saturn
4a) Twin planetary FFF without bifurcation:
– Input: Binary proto-Jupiter
– Output: Binary Jupiter, Ganymede and Callisto
– Description: Ganymede in orbit around the larger binary-Jupiter component and Callisto in orbit around the smaller binary-Jupiter component
4b) Twin planetary FFF with bifurcation:
– Input: Binary proto-Saturn
– Output: Quadruple proto-Saturn, Rhea and Iapetus
– Description: Rhea in orbit around the larger binary proto-Saturn components and Iapetus in orbit around the smaller binary proto-Saturn components
5b) Quadruple planetary FFF without bifurcation:
– Input: Quadruple proto-Saturn in two close-binary pairs
– Output: Quadruple-Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, and Dione
– Description: Mimas(?) and Enceladus(?) in orbit around the larger binary-Saturn pair, and Tethys(?) and Dione(?) around the smaller binary-Saturn pair
2c) Brown-dwarf FFF with bifurcation:
– Input: Proto-Companion
– Output: Binary-Companion, Proto gas-giant planet
– Description: Proto gas-giant planet in circumbinary orbit around binary-Companion
The general rule for flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation is that it’s followed by exactly one additional flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation. Thus the first-generation flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation that formed binary proto-Sun orbited by our suggested former brown-dwarf proto-Companion in a circumbinary orbit was followed by one additional flip-flop fragmentation to each binary proto-Sun components, creating proto-Jupiter and proto-Saturn. Alternatively if ‘merger fragmentation’ (see following section) is a myth and flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation is typically followed by two generations of flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation, then Venus and Earth would be flip-flop planets rather than merger planets.
Flip-flop planets and moons alone come up short in the satellite count of the planets and moons in our solar system, suggesting an additional formation mechanism that creates twin pairs of satellites for each merging pair of stellar or gas-giant-sized objects. This suggested process is designated, ‘merger fragmentation’, which can form ‘merger planets’ and ‘merger moons’.
While ‘contact binary’ stars can be stable for millions to billions of years, the ‘common envelope’ phase is unstable, lasting only months to years. As cores spiral in within an enshrouding common envelope, tidal gravity is suggested to distort the cores into a ‘bar-mode’ shape, with a symmetrical pair of bars of higher angular momentum gas extending radially outward from the cores, attached gravitationally and magnetically. To avoid a super-Keplerian rotation rate, the tidal bars may become smeared into twin trailing tails.
As the cores continue spiraling inward by inefficient outward transfer of angular momentum to an extended (red giant) common envelope and a super-intense (Wolf–Rayet) wind, the spiraling-in cores and increasing orbital rotation rate may gradually increase the magnetic field strength, gradually extending the bar-mode tails from a more lagging to a more radial posture, more efficiently transferring angular momentum outward. The efficient positive feedback of angular momentum transfer from the cores to the tails, by way of exponentially increasing magnetic field strength, may promote a runaway spiral-in merger of the cores which cracks the magnetic whip through the tails, propelling them forward in their orbits to become proto merger moons or proto merger planets like Venus and Earth.
As in isothermal gravitational collapse promoted by endothermic reactions, runaway spiral-in mergers may be promoted by lagging (endothermic) bar-mode tails, with angular momentum transfer mediated by exponentially-increasing magnetic field strength. Catastrophic magnetic events, however, might not preserve the gravitationally-bound state of bar-mode tails or cause a catastrophic super-intense magnetic field to slice through the tails rather than accelerating them, so a runaway positive feedback mechanism appears indicated rather than a catastrophic event. Similarly, a spiral-in merger (luminous red nova) explosion likely only occurred after twin bar-mode tails had been lofted into circa 1 AU orbit, in the case of proto-Venus and proto-Earth.
The predictive power of flip-flop and merger planets and moons, which purportedly explain 5 planets, 4 primary moons at Jupiter, 13 primary moons at Saturn, and confirming the prediction of a (former) Companion to the Sun which was predicted from numerous other solar system phenomena; however, the suggested additional less predictive planet formation mechanism of hybrid accretion, along with the inability to observe exomoons, reduces the chance of strengthening planet formation by flip-flop fragmentation and merger fragmentation from exoplanet observations.
At Jupiter, Io and Europa are suggested to be merger moons, whereas at Saturn 3 mergers of quadruple-Saturn formed the 6 merger moons, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Hyperion and Phoebe. Note the distinct falloff in the size and mass of the next smallest moon below Prometheus at Saturn and below Io at Jupiter, suggesting a predictive ideology. If Titan is the 3b-generation moon flip-flop moon of Saturn, then Mars may be the equivalent 3a-generation flip-flop moon of Jupiter, which was apparently lost into a heliocentric orbit when binary-Sun spiraled in, leaving Saturn and Jupiter behind. So Mars or Titan may be the oldest current objects in the solar system, following the loss of our former binary-Companion (at 542 Ma), which is suggested to have had a still older ‘Titan’ moon around its gas-giant planet.
Note, this merger-fragmentation discussion falls far short of even the merely conceptual mechanism suggested for flip-flop fragmentation, so this discussion mostly serves to suggest principles that a rigorous theory may want to consider (or refute).
Alternatively, if merger fragmentation is a myth the apparently, flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation is typically followed by two additional generations of flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation. In the absence of merger fragmentation (i.e. no merger planets and no merger moons), then our proto-Sun underwent two additional flip-flop fragmentations without bifurcation, forming Jupiter and Saturn in the second generation and Venus and Earth in the third generation. The absence of merger fragmentation with ‘double flip-flop fragmentation’, however, predicts two fewer primary flip-flop moons at Saturn, reducing predicability in the Saturnian system.
GI ‘condensation’ of planetesimals in accretion disks:
Pebble accretion does not appear to be borne out by an examination of chondrites that appear to have no internal structure beyond that of chondrules and CAIs. If chondrules formed by melting accretionary dust clumps in super-intense solar flares from the 3 million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger, then inner solar system accretion, inside the snow line, appears to end at chondrule-sized masses.
Gravitational instability (GI) within accretion disks is suggested to require a pressure dam to concentrate dust and ice grains spiraling in due to gas drag. Solar system pressure dams may be created by,
1) Inner or outer orbital resonances of giant planets, not overlapped by the resonances of other giant planets,
2) Magnetic corotation radius of a star, and
3) Binary stellar resonances that define the inner edge of a circumbinary accretion disk.
Primary protoplanetary disks and secondary debris disks are strongly influenced by binary-stellar and planetary resonances, with resonances suggested to create a backstop against which infalling material may create a pressure dam, concentrating accreting material. Gravitating masses smaller than a Jeans mass are suggested to require assistance to initiate GI, such as at resonant pressure dams in accretion disks where dust and ice can apparently be induced to ‘condense’ by GI into minor planets, chondrites, asteroids or comet, depending on the material and conditions.
Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI from the ‘primary debris disk’, against the Sun’s expanded magnetic corotation radius following its binary spiral-in merger at 4,568 Ma. Carbonaceous chondrites are suggested to have condensed in situ against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances. Similarly, Plutinos and hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are suggested to have condensed against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances. Other giant-planet resonances (Jupiter’s outer resonances and Uranus and Saturn’s resonances) are assumed to overlap, largely foiling the GI mechanism. Finally, cold classical KBOs (along with binary Pluto) are suggested to have condensed from the ‘secondary debris disk’, from the suggested binary-Companion merger at 542 Ma.
It’s unknown whether minor binary planets, binary asteroids and binary comets suggested to form by GI against planetary or stellar resonances undergo flip-flop fragmentation. Tidal forces within a solar system would seem to preclude the formation of a sufficiently large angular-momentum-supported envelope necessary necessary for disk instability, although a transient envelope may arise in the midst of dynamic collapse which occurs with sufficient angular momentum. So, differential sized objects, such as Pluto and Charon, may indeed represent flip-flop fragmentation, but similar sized objects, such as some of the cold classical Kuiper belt objects, appear to point to flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation, where a diminutive displaced core was either lost, or too small to detect at a trans-Neptunian distance.
Hybrid accretion (super-Earths):
When planetesimals are condensed in sufficient quantity from a protoplanetary disk, subsequent gravitational accretion may form planets by ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005). Planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius around a solitary young stellar object (YSO), at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, may hybrid accrete to form a cascade of super-Earths from the inside out, with the super-Earth in the lowest orbit forming first, followed by orbit clearing etc. Hybrid accretion planets are also suggested to form at the inner edge of circumbinary protoplanetary disks around binary stars, such as Uranus and Neptune, so the definition of ‘super-Earth’ is defined here as a planet formed by hybrid accretion, regardless of size. By this definition, Mercury is also a (diminutive) super-Earth, formed by the hybrid accretion of asteroids condensed against the super-intense magnetic field of the Sun immediately following its binary spiral-in merger. See section, CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS.
Flip-flop perturbation mechanism of the solar system barycenter (SSB) on trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs):
Secular perturbation of binary-Companion’s binary components caused them to spiral in for 4 billion years, translating close-binary potential energy into wide-binary potential energy, causing the Sun-Companion eccentricity to increase over time, presumably increasing the maximum wide-binary Sun-Companion separation (at apoapsis) at an exponential rate over time. By Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun, the solar system barycenter (SSB) could be said to have spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and into the scattered disk at an exponential rate for 4 billion years, fueled by the orbital potential energy of the binary-Companion brown-dwarf components.
(Negative) gravitational binding energy is an inverse square function with distance, such that an orbit 100 times further away will have 1/10,000 the binding energy. Angular momentum, by comparison, is an inverse square function of the semimajor axis, such that an orbit 10 times further away will have 10 times the angular momentum. Since the binding energy function is much steeper than the angular momentum function with respect to distance, the components of binary-Companion could effectively reduce the negative Sun-Companion binding energy of the system without materially affecting its angular momentum. Periapsis of an orbit is a good measure of its relative angular momentum while apoapsis is a good measure of its relative binding energy, so the 4 billion year spiral-in of the binary components of binary-Companion effectively increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis at an exponential rate, (by Galilean relativity) causing the SSB apoapsis to spiral out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time, perturbing planetesimals with progressively greater semi-major axes over time (becoming progressively eccentric over time).
In addition, the exponential spiral out of the SSB apoapsis (with respect to the Sun), the increasingly-eccentric Sun-Companion orbits around the SSB caused SSB to periodically sweep through the Kuiper belt and later through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc (with respect to the Sun), with the periodicity of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB.
The periapsis of the SSB (with respect to the Sun) is suggested to have been below the perihelia of KBOs and SDOs, i.e., below 30.1 AU, but apart from being below the orbit of Neptune, the actual value of the SSB periapsis is suggested to be largely irrelevant.
With the SSB closer to the Sun than trans-Neptunian object (TNO) orbits at periapsis (clumping KBOs and SDOs together as TNOs), TNOs in eccentric orbits would have their aphelia gravitationally attracted toward binary-Companion, aligning TNOs with the Sun-SSB-Companion axis. As the SSB orbited out through the Kuiper belt towards apoapsis (with respect to the Sun), it would cross progressively cross the semi-major axes of TNOs.
When the SSB nominally crossed the semi-major axis of a TNO (neglecting the orbital position of the TNO by assuming the Sun-Companion period is much much greater than the TNO period), the centrifugal force away from the Companion became greater than the gravitational attraction toward it, causing TNOs aphelia to flip-flop from pointing toward the Companion to pointing 180° away from it. Then as the SSB moved back toward periapsis, the aphelia would flip-flop back toward the Companion. This double TNO aphelia flip-flop with each Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’ (not to be confused with flip-flop fragmentation).
Earth ocean tide analogy of flip-flop perturbation ‘aphelia precession’:
On Earth, ‘spring tide’ aligns itself with the Earth Moon axis (with a slight time lag), with the tide on the Moon side created by gravitational attraction toward the Moon and with the tide on the far side of the Earth, away from the Moon, due to the centrifugal force of the Earth’s rotation around the Earth-Moon barycenter, where the barycenter lies inside the Earth. Similarly, when the SSB nominally reached the semimajor axis of TNOs, the tidal effect would switch from gravitational attraction toward to centrifugal acceleration away from the Companion, causing TNO aphelia to flip-flop or precess back and forth. Thus flip-flop perturbation is nothing more than periodic ‘aphelia precession’. Note, the semi-major axis [half way between perihelion and aphelion] is stated as the ‘nominal’ crossover point for gravitational vs. centrifugal acceleration without proof in this conceptual approach. Also note that this greatly simplified approach ignores the the position of the SDO in its orbit around the Sun, so the actual precession would likely reverse itself repeatedly with each Sun-Companion period.
Since gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system, with a suspected separation of 100s of AU. But aphelia precession of KBOs and SDOs may have caused a persistent torque which over 4 billion years had a significant cumulative effect, so perhaps minor planets were a significant contributor to the secular perturbation which caused the binary spiral in merger of our former brown-dwarf binary-Companion.
Beat patterns between TNO orbits and the Sun-Companion orbit may have robbed some planetesimals of heliocentric energy and angular momentum, causing their perihelia to spiral in to the planetary realm, where the giant planets decided their ultimate fate. Planetesimals with different orbital periods may have experienced the opposite affect, having their orbits pumped with energy, perhaps explaining the origin of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP-113, with their relative major-axis alignment as a fossil Sun-Companion alignment.
The angular-momentum vector precession associated with SSB-mediated aphelia precession is suggested to have initiated the spiral-in merger of binary classical Kuiper belt objects during the Hadean and Early Archean Eons, whereas binary SDOs had presumably merged prior to 4,567 Ma due to perturbative torque during the orbit clearing of Uranus and Neptune. The spiral-in merger of KBOs formed ‘contact binaries’, which initiated aqueous differentiation in KBO cores. ‘Aqueous differentiation’ melts saltwater oceans in KBO cores which precipitate authigenic mineral grains, forming sedimentary cores which lithify into rock and often metamorphose into gneiss domes when the ocean freezes solid, due to the pressure caused by the expansion of freezing water ice.
In addition to causing binary spiral-in mergers, many TNOs undergoing flip-flop perturbation were perturbed into the Oort cloud or into the inner solar system, particularly during the late heavy bombardment (LHB) when the SSB crossed through the Plutinos at 4.22 Ga in the first pulse of a bimodal LHB, and slightly later through the cubewanos from 4.1 to 3.8 Ga in the second, broader main pulse of the bimodal LHB.
The SSB is suggested to have begun reaching the semimajor axes of SDOs at about 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Proterozoic Eon with the aqueous differentiation of SDOs which is suggested to form localized granite plutons within internal voids of SDOs, which collectively form larger batholiths over time. By comparison, catastrophic gneiss dome formation is suggested to occur during the binary spiral-in mergers of binary KBOs.
So the largest terrestrial impacts, which are suggested to have contributed the TNO core rock which constitute the continental tectonic plates on Earth, largely ended with the loss of the Companion at 542 Ma.
Exponential rate of increase in the wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation:
Note: The actual mass of our former binary Companion is unknown and relatively insignificant in the suggested perturbation of KBOs and SDOs by the solar system barycenter between the Sun and the Companion, so the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB, and our former FFF-product binary-Companion corresponding to the relative mass of the FFF-product Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri would complete the symmetry: suggesting a former .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) binary-Companion.
Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separate the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting an the first of a bimodal pulse LHB. (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in Far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
In addition to earlier lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
Evidence suggesting an an early pulse of a bimodal LHB with the sharply-defined early pulse around 4.22 Ga when the SSB crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune where the Plutino population resides. The second main pulse of the LHB occurred as the SSB traveled through the KBO ‘cubewanos’ which reside between the 2:3 resonance with Neptune and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.
Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation of the form,
y = mx + b
y is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
x is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
m is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
b is the y-intercept, corresponding to 0.0 Ma (the present)
Calculate ‘m’ and ‘b’:
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune:
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b
1.5955 = log( 39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
1.6335 = log( 43 AU)
1.2370 = log( 1 + 16.26 ) This scales the SSB distance from the Sun to the Companion. With the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is ‘16.26’, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26 (added logarithms are multiplied distances).
Solving for ‘m’ and ‘b’, yields:
y = -x/8421 + 3.334
x = 4,567 Ma, y = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
x = 4,220 Ma, y = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutino orbit)
x = 3,900 Ma, y = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike)
x = 2,500 Ma, y = 1088 AU, SSB = 63 AU (Archean to Proterozoic, TTG to granite transition)
x = 542 Ma, y = 1859 AU, SSB = 108 AU
The SSB crossed the 1:3 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2530 Ma at the Archean to Proterozoic boundary, when when Tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) gneiss domes transition to granite in continental basement rock (The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, 2006).
So the timing of the LHB may be calculable and falsifiable rather than fortuitous and ad hoc as in Grand Tack:
1) The Sun-Companion solar-system barycenter (SSB) crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The SSB reaches 43 AU in the classical Kuiper belt Cubewanos at 3.9 Ga, causing the second and extended pulse of the LHB, ending around 3.8 Ga and ushering in the Archean Eon.
3) The SSB reaches the 3:1 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2.5 Ga, entering the scattered disc to where the bulk of protoplanetary planetesimals are suggested to have been scattered by Neptune
SSB perturbation makes an additional falsifiable suggestion that (SSB) perturbation initiated aqueous differentiation in planetesimals, forming gneiss-dome cores in Plutinos and KBOs (TNOs = Plutinos + KBOs) and supracrustal rock on the surface of SDOs. (See section,
AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF TNOs, DWARF PLANETS AND COMETS)
Asymmetry of the Companion merger at 542 Ma:
While the contact-binary and common-envelope phases of spiral-in stellar mergers are known to bleed gas from the larger stellar component to the smaller stellar component, tending to balance the component masses prior to merger, the process may be less efficient in cooler stars and particularly so in compact brown dwarf binary pairs, permitting sufficient asymmetry in the brown-dwarf merger of our former Companion to have resulted in escape velocity.
Kuiper belt, scattered disc and Oort cloud:
So the well behaved Kuiper belt condensed in situ, explaining its typically low inclination and low eccentricity of KBOs compared to SDOs, where SDOs are suggested to have been scattered outward by Uranus and Neptune. Then the ‘Kuiper cliff’ can be explained as a combination of in situ condensation of first and second debris-disk planetesimals and orbit clearing by the Companion to the inner edge of the IOC at about 3800 AU (with the 1:3 resonance beyond the Companion about twice the apapsis distance of the 1859 AU Companion from the Sun by 542 Ma).
Former quadruple-star with binary-Companion conclusions:
– Timing and mechanism for a bimodal LHB
– Archean to Proterozoic and Proterozoic to Phanerozoic transitions
– Kuiper cliff
– Composition and location of Plutinos and classical (in situ) KBOs
– Composition and dynamics of SDOs
– Composition and location of the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud
– Cambrian Explosion of life on Earth
– Archean to Phanerozoic transition in Earth’s rock record
Jupiter, Saturn and Mars, flip-flop planets:
Flip-flop fragmentation of our former binary proto-Sun is suggested to have created satellite cores which evolved into Jupiter and Saturn through a complex series of processes. Excess angular momentum caused proto-Jupiter to undergo an additional two fragmentations, the first with FFF with bifurcation, forming binary-Jupiter, presumably with Mars as its displaced core, followed by twin FFFs without bifurcations to form Ganymede and Callisto around the larger and smaller binary components respectively. It’s unknown when binary-Jupiter spiraled in to merge to form solitary Jupiter and whether the binary merger occurred before or after Jupiter made the hop into circumbinary orbit as binary-Sun spiraled in. In any case Jupiter is suggested to have lost its former largest moon, Mars, into a heliocentric orbit during the close encounter with the smaller binary-Sun component when Jupiter made the circumbinary hop. IO and Europe are assumed to be ‘merger moons’, hurled off in the binary-Jupiter merger.
Saturn, which fragmented from the smaller binary proto-Sun component with higher angular momentum apparently went through one additional FFF generation to rid itself of excess angular momentum, with two successive FFF generations apparently bifurcating, creating a quadruple-Saturn composed of two close-binary pairs in a wider-binary configuration. The first fragmentation with bifurcation displaced the former core, Titan. The next generation twin FFFs with bifurcation likely displaced the next two biggest moons, Rhea and Iapetus, followed by the next-next generation FFF without bifurcation which likely displaced the next 4 largest moons, Mimas, Enchiladas, Tethys and Dionne. To combine quadruple Saturn in a hierarchical fashion required three mergers, with each generation presumably creating twin merger moons, for a total of 6 merger moons, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Hyperion and Phoebe, with a 300% fall off in mass below the smallest suggested merger moon, Pandora, and the next largest moon, Tarqeq, while the next smallest merger moon, Prometheus, is only 16% larger.
The planets did not undergo planet migration, except, perhaps, for a small amount of resonant energy gain or loss from other nearby binaries, and the transfer of binary orbital angular momentum to heliocentric orbits.
Following the suggested loss of the Companion at 542 Ma, Jupiter became the solar system object with the highest angular momentum, and there may have been a period of reorientation which lowered Jupiter’s axial tilt to 3.13°, at the expense of all the other objects in the solar system. Additionally, all heliocentric orbits spiraled in slightly due to the loss of the Sun’s angular momentum around the former solar system barycenter, but this effect was global, affecting all heliocentric objects equally.
The elevated ∆17O of Martian meteorites compared to the terrestrial fractionation line suggest a presolar origin which fits with its origin as a FFF displaced core (moon) of Jupiter.
Earth and Venus, merger planets:
Twin merger planets Proto-Venus and proto-Earth are suggested to have been hurled off from the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma, which underwent merger fragmentation, facilitating core merger. Proto-Venus and proto-Earth may have experienced severe volatile depletion in the suggested red giant phase of the Sun following the 4,568 Ma solar merger luminous red nova (LRN), when the twin merger planets were in their vulnerable proto-planet phase, which is presumably when proto-Earth received solar-merger nucleosynthesis enrichment of the helium-burning stable isotopes, carbon-12 and oxygen-16.
The red giant phase of (presumed solar-merger) LRN M85OT2006-1 would have reached the Kuiper Belt and perhaps well into it with a size estimated as R = 2.0 +.6-.4 x 10^4 solar radii with a peak luminosity of about 5 x 10^6 solar mass. (Rau et. al. 2007) “Previously published line indices suggest that M85 has a mean stellar age of 1.6+/-0.3 Gyr. If this mean age is representative of the progenitor of M85 OT 2006-1, then we can further constrain its mass to be less than 2 Msolar.” (Ofek et al. 2007) So the red-giant phase of the solar LRN of half the mass likely have enveloped at least the terrestrial planets along with Jupiter and Saturn, and would have contributed to the volatilization of proto-Venus and proto-Earth across the enormous surface area of their Roche spheres, but the red-giant phase of the LRN only lasts for a few months.
Earth, at least, apparently subsequently underwent one generation of flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation, displacing the former core (Moon) into a circumbinary orbit around a similar-sized binary pair. Then core collapse of the system apparently caused the spiral-in merger of the binary pair around 50 million years later, causing Moon to spiral out. Binary mergers of terrestrial objects do not form twin merger moons, but enstatite chondrites lie on the terrestrial fractionation line of a 3 oxygen-isotope plot and have a chemically-reduced siderophile-enriched composition to have been been ejected in bimodal polar jets from the cores of merging binary-Earth, some 50 million years after the merger fragmentation of proto-Earth at 4,568 Ma – enstatite chondrite dated 4.516 ± 0.029 Ga (Minster et al. 1979). The asteroid 16 Psyche may have condensed in situ in Jupiter’s inner resonances from terrestrial polar jet material.
If Venus had formerly been in a synchronous orbit around the Sun – in which a Venusian day equaled a Venusian year – prior to the loss of our former binary-Companion, the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the solar system barycenter would slightly reduce the semimajor axes of all heliocentric objects, slightly increasing the period and thus accounting for Venus slight retrograde rotation. The planet Mercury is in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance in which it undergoes 3 rotations for every 2 orbits around the Sun, so if Mercury had a former 1:1 synchronous orbit like Venus, then its prograde rotation rate increased, unlike Venus. However, perhaps this configuration was the lowest-energy state which conserved total energy and angular momentum.
If proto-Earth underwent flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation, then by the general rule that flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation is followed by flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation, Earth should have 3 moons rather than just one. Dynamic perturbation by Luna, however, would tend to evaporate smaller, next-generation moons into higher orbits, very likely giving them into escape velocity from Earth in the form of heliocentric orbits. The only object in the inner solar system that seems at all likely to have been a former diminutive Earth moon, is Ceres, which doesn’t have a cousin in the asteroid belt, suggesting that Ceres former Earth cousin either fell into the Sun or was hurled into the Oort cloud or out of the solar system altogether. If Ceres is indeed a former Earth moon that lies on the terrestrial fractionation line like Luna meteorites (and Apollo Moon rocks), then Ceres meteorites might very well be confused with Luna meteorites or with ordinary Earth rocks.
Uranus and Neptune, Super-Earth planets:
Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be a two-planet ‘hybrid accretion’ cascade of super-Earths formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals condensed by GI at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk around former binary-Sun. The leftover planetesimals were scattered to the scattered disc by Uranus and Neptune.
Uranus is suggested to have spiraled in as a result of the lift required to clear its orbit of leftover planetesimals, resulting in its 98° axial tilt. (See section: CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS)
Asteroids, chondrites and Mercury:
CAIs are suggested to have condensed from polar jets blasting from the core of the spiral-in solar-component merger, explaining their canonical enrichment of stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis aluminum-26. If the flare-star phase of the Sun following the LRN melted dust accretions to form chondrules, then the flare-star phase must have lasted the 3 million-year duration of chondrule formation. The 1 slope of chondrules and CAIs of the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line indicates complete mixing, whereas the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line indicates complete fractionation (not mass-independent fractionation as is commonly supposed). Ordinary chondrites, however, have a greatly-elevated ∆17O bulk-matrix lying above presolar Mars 3-oxygen-isotope fractionation line which may indeed be due to photochemical-induced mass-independent fractionation due to extended solar radiation exposure of small dust grains with high surface-to-volume ratios over some 5 million years prior to their condensation by GI into ordinary chondrites, where mass-independent fractionation may be “occurring mainly in photochemical and spin-forbidden reactions” (Wikipedia–Mass-independent fractionation).
Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI at the inner edge of the solar-merger ‘primary debris disk’, sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun. And Mercury may be a hybrid accretion planet (super-Earth) composed of asteroids. Leftover asteroids were injected into Jupiter’s inner resonances by the orbit clearing of the terrestrial planets. Rocky-iron asteroids may have ‘thermally differentiated’ by radioactive decay of LRN f-process radionuclides, whereas chondrites may have condensed after the relative extinction of the short-lived radionuclides. So the planet Mercury may have isotopic enrichments similar to the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) meteorites from 4 Vesta.
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos:
“We have searched 101 Classical trans-Neptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space
Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical trans-Neptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)
“The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits (Stevenson et al. 1986).”
“The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI.”
“We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical
composition (and colors) of the binary components
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)
The high frequency of binary KBOs in the cold population with similar-size and similar-color components argue for (in situ) condensation of cold classical KBOs by gravitational instability following the LHB, and thus are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance from a ‘secondary debris disk’ created by the suggested binary spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma. The geologically active surface of Pluto and its moon Charon, with Charon in a (nontidal) synchronous orbit around Pluto, is telegraphing their young age.
Young, gold classical KBOs:
– Low inclination
– Low eccentricity
– Reddish coloration
– Typically binary configuration, of similar size and color binary components
The hot classical KBOs also condensed in situ from the 4,568 Ma ‘primary debris disk’, but the old KBOs were somewhat scattered into hotter orbits by 4 billion years of flip-flop perturbation by the former solar system barycenter.
Old, hot classical KBOs:
– Higher inclination
– Higher eccentricity
– Bluish coloration
– Typically solitary configuration
The Pluto system:
The Pluto system may be a good analog to the Earth system, with flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation displacing the former core, Charon, into a circumbinary orbit around binary-Pluto, followed by an obligatory next-generation flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation, displacing the twin cores, Nix and Hydra, into circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits respectively.
The genealogy of the smallest moons, Styx and Kerberos, is more difficult to assess, since a flip-flop fragmentation of Charon with bifurcation would nominally form 3 moons, assuming the obligatory next-generation flip-flop fragmentation of the binary components. In a binary-Charon scenario, perhaps the largest former circumprimary moon or the smallest circumsecondary moon was evaporated out of the system, or perhaps the largest binary-Charon component (with the lowest angular momentum of the two binary components) failed to undergo a next-generation fragmentation. Alternatively, Charon could have undergone flip-flop fragmentation without bifurcation, displacing the core, Kerberos, in which case Styx would be unrelated to Charon, perhaps being a flip-flop product of Nix or Hydra, or perhaps a captured moon.
In any case, binary-Pluto apparently spiraled in to merge, first forcing Nix and Hydra into circumbinary orbits from their formational circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits, respectively prior to the merger. This raises yet another possibility, that of Styx being a merger moon hurled off from the binary spiral-in merger of binary-Pluto; however, merger objects are suggested to form in pairs, and there’s no confirming evidence from the Earth system that binary spiral-in mergers of terrestrial objects form merger moons.
The Pluto system Earth system analogy suggests that Earth should have at least two additional moons smaller than Luna, assumedly lost by evaporation into heliocentric orbits. Ceres is the most likely contender in the inner solar system, provided it lies on the terrestrial fractionation line, in which case its twin was either evaporated out of the inner solar system or fell into the Sun.
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THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs):
Our suggested former quadruple-star solar system was composed of two close binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, in a wide-binary separation. Resonant perturbation caused binary-Sun to spiral in to merge at 4,568 Ma, creating a debris disk that condensed asteroids, chondrites and hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). Binary-Companion spiraled in over the next 4 billion years to merge at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger that gave Companion escape velocity from the Sun.
The 4 billion year spiral-in of binary-Companion components transferred the close-binary potential energy to the wide-binary Sun-Companion system, increasing its eccentricity over time, causing the Sun-Companion apoapsis (maximum eccentric Sun-Companion separation) to spiral out at an exponential rate from the solar system barycenter (SSB).
By Galilean relativity from the perspective of the Sun, the SSB could be said have spiraled out into the Kuiper belt during the Late Hadean and Early Archean, perturbing KBOs when it nominally reached their semimajor axes, causing the late heavy bombardment. By 2,500 Ma, the SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune, the suggested beginning of the scattered disc, which is comprised of scattered protoplanetary planetesimals left over from the suggested ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005) of Uranus and Neptune.
Scattered disc objects (SDOs) are suggested have condensed from highly-volatile ices, which sublimed in response to tidal torquing by the SSB, predominantly during the Proterozoic Eon when the SSB reached the scattered disc. Tidal torquing causes internal sublimation of SDOs creating internal voids which lower the density, weaken the structure, and promote ‘SDO quake’ subsidence events. Subsidence events that flatten internal voids superheat sublimed gases trapped in the flattened voids, focusing the potential energy release of subsidence events, melting water ice which initiates precipitation of authigenic sediments.
If pockets of melted saltwater reach the boiling point, the authigenic sedimentation is suggested to take the form of S-type granite. Simple felsic quartz and feldspar minerals are more likely to crystallize on existing mineral grains in aqueous suspension, while more complex mafic minerals like biotite are more likely to precipitate new mineral grains, resulting in fewer, larger felsic mineral grains and more-numerous but smaller mafic mineral grains. Felsic mineral grains grow in size until they fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, whereas most smaller mafic mineral grains remain in suspension, forming felsic S-type sediments which subsequently lithify into granite. So perturbation of SDOs during the Proterozoic promoted the formation of S-type granite, and perturbed SDOs into the inner solar system, where terrestrial impacts contributed to the continental tectonic plates on Earth.
“Hornblende is common in the more mafic I-types and is generally present in the felsic varieties, whereas hornblende is absent, but muscovite is common, in the more felsic S-types;”
“Apatite inclusions are common in biotite and hornblende of I-types, but occur in larger individual crystals in S-types. Thus, I-types characteristically contain biotite+hornblende plus/minus sphene plus/minus monazite. S-types contain biotite plus/minus muscovite plus/minus cordierite plus/minus garnet plus/minus ilmenite plus/minus monazite.”
“One important compositional difference between the two types, not noted in 1974,
is that as a group, the S-type granites are more reduced with respect to oxygen fugacity”: lower Fe3/Fe2 in S-type granites.
Compositionally distinct with respect to Na2O vs. K2O, CaO vs. Total FeO, and Aluminium Saturation Index (for the most mafic 10% of I-type and S-type).
I-type granites lack enclaves of supracrustal origin, whereas more mafic rocks of S-type granites invariably contain a rich assemblage of supracrustal enclaves (White et al. 1999).
“The K-feldspar in S-type granites is always white in colour, never pink, provided the rock is not weathered or hydrothermally altered. However, in I-type granites the K-feldspar crystals are frequently pale pink in colour, but sometimes white.”
“However, the amount of zircon showing such inheritance is vastly different between
the I- and S-types. Williams et al. (1992 p. 503) noted that ‘Zircons with inherited cores are rare in I-type granites, but virtually every zircon in the S-types contains an older core’. Chappell et al. (1999 p. 829) pointed out that this implies that ‘the sediment component in the I-type granites, at least as indicated by the amount of inherited zircon, is trivial, a conclusion sustained by the observation that zircon was saturated in all of the low-temperature I-type magmas’.”
“The statement by Chappell and White (1974) that S-type granites are generally older than I-type granites occurring in the same batholith, is substantiated by later investigations. It is also the case that the earlier S-type granites may have a strong secondary foliation, truncated by I-type
granites that are either unfoliated or have a primary foliation.”
Above quotes from:
Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001.
Every new generation re-resolves ‘the granite problem’ with new eyes and new insights, but the only permanence of secondary ad hoc insights is change.
Solar system dynamics origin of SDO granite plutons:
Our collapsing proto-Sun apparently had considerable angular momentum which it sloughed off in sequential ‘flip-flop fragmentation’ events, wherein a smaller core would be displaced to a satellite status when its much more massive accretion disk underwent disk instability to form a new core. Flip-flop fragmentation can occur with or without bifurcation of the fragmenting disk, either forming a solitary object or a binary pair, depending the the angular momentum content, but if a flip-flop fragmentation forms a binary pair, the general rule is that the binary components undergo exactly one additional flip-flop fragmentation to form satellites around the binary components. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS).
The first generation flip-flop fragmentation (FFF) occurred with bifurcation, offsetting a brown-dwarf-sized core into a circumbinary orbit around binary-Sun. The second-generation FFF occurred with bifurcation in the Companion system, forming binary-Companion with a circumbinary proto gas-giant planet, and the second-generation FFF occurred without bifurcation in the Sun system, spinning off proto-Jupiter and proto-Saturn around the larger and smaller solar components respectively.
Perturbation by binary resonances caused the two close-binary components, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, to spiral in and transfer their potential energy and angular momentum to the wide-binary Sun-Companion pair, causing binary-Sun and binary-Companion to spiral out from the solar system barycenter (SSB). Binary-Sun is suggested to have spiraled in to merge at 4,568 Ma, creating a primary debris disk which condensed asteroids and chondrites in the inner solar system and hot-classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. The primary debris disk become significantly volatilely depleted during the luminous red nova phase of the binary-Sun merger, and thus KBOs are significantly volatilely depleted compared to protoplanetary planetesimals like comets and scattered disc objects (SDOs).
Uranus and Neptune are suggested to have formed by a different mechanism, that of ‘hybrid accretion’, proposed by Thayne Curie in 2005. Planetesimals are suggested to have condensed by gravitational instability in the pressure damn at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, sculpted by binary-Sun. These circumbinary planetesimals accreted to form Uranus, followed by orbit clearing to form Neptune, with Uranus’ severe axial tilt telegraphing its heavy lift in clearing its orbit of more than its own weight in planetesimals. Uranus and Neptune scattered the leftover planetesimals into the scattered disc, hence the name, scattered disc objects (SDOs).
Primary debris disk KBOs are presumed to be more volatilely depleted than protoplanetary SDOs, with KBOs are suggested to be predominantly ‘water worlds’, whereas SDOs are suggested to have been dominated by more volatile ices. The comparatively small size of SDOs (compared to KBOs) and the sacrificial protection of water ice by the endothermic sublimation of more highly volatile ices is suggested to have protected SDOs from internally reaching the melting point of water ice during early (< 4,568 Ma) binary spiral-in mergers, mutual collisions and perturbation into the scattered disc by Uranus and Neptune.
Subsequent perturbation by the Sun-Companion solar system barycenter (SSB) over 10s or 100s of millions of years, however, is suggested to have riddled SDOs with internal voids created by sublimation of highly-volatile ices. Volatile loss riddled interiors lowered the density and weakened the structure to the point where ‘SDO quake’ subsidence events became commonplace. Subsidence collapsed internal voids, compressing and superheating the trapped gas, melting water ice, initiating local ‘aqueous differentiation’.
Aqueous differentiation dissolves nebular mineral species and precipitates mineral grains which continue to grow by crystallization until reaching a sufficient size to fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy in the microgravity of an SDO water pocket (pluton). If the saltwater pluton temperature reaches the boiling point of water, boiling percolation will increase the size at which mineral grains fall out of suspension, as well as percolating the floor sediments, creating an unlayered massive sedimentary pluton, which masks its sedimentary origin.
Supersaturated mineral species tend to crystallize on existing felsic mineral grains while tending to precipitate new mafic mineral grains, due to the relative simplicity of (quartz and feldspar) felsic minerals vs. mafic minerals, forming fewer larger felsic mineral grains and more-numerous smaller mafic mineral grains. Thus mineral grains falling out of suspension have a decided felsic composition, which ultimately lithifies into S-type granitoid rock. As the temperature drops below the boiling point, the mafic mineral grains fall out of suspension as well, forming a mafic ceiling over a felsic plutonic pluton.
The Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is suggested to have became increasingly eccentric over time as the potential energy from binary-Companion components spiraling in was transferred to the Sun-Companion wide binary system spiraling out. This energy transfer assumedly increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis (maximum Sun-Companion orbital separation) at an exponential rate over time, while the Sun-Companion periapsis (closest Sun-Companion approach) remained relatively unchanged. (The periapsis of an orbit reflects its angular momentum while the apoapsis reflects the orbital energy, so a relatively-small angular momentum transfer and a relatively large potential energy transfer essentially increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis but not its periapsis.) As the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB became increasingly eccentric (by Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun), the SSB spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc at an exponential rate over time. The SSB passed through the Kuiper belt during the Late Hadean and Early Archean, causing the late heavy bombardment. By 2,500 Ma, at the Archean to Phanerozoic transition, the SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune which is suggested to be the nominal inner boundary of the scattered disc, causing the SSB to perturb SDOs into the inner solar system during the Phanerozoic Eon as the SSB caught up their semimajor axes.
Flip-flop perturbation aphelia precession (not to be confused with flip-flop fragmentation) is suggested to occur when the SSB nominally crossed the semimajor axes of planetesimals. When a planetesimal was further from the Sun than the SSB, the Companion’s tidal gravity attracted the planetesimal aphelion, like a lunar tide on Earth attracted toward the Moon. But when the SSB nominally crossed the semimajor axis of a planetesimal, the centrifugal force away from the Companion exceeded the gravitational attraction toward the Companion, causing flip-flop perturbation aphelia precession of the planetesimal aphelion 180° away from the Companion, like the lunar tide on the opposite side of Earth 180° away from the Moon.
Planetesimals only began flip-flop perturbation when the exponentially-increasing SSB apoapsis nominally caught up with their semimajor axis for the first time, but once initiated, the aphelia-precession flip-flop would occur from then on, resetting with each Sun-Companion period when the SSB periapsis descended below the perihelion of Neptune, and thus below the perihelia of all TNOs.
So nominally, granite plutons on Earth should begin to appear around the close of the Archean, and indeed there’s some evidence this transition from Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrain to granodiorite-granite (GG) (Frost et al. 2006), with TTG suggested to have formed in binary spiral-in mergers of binary KBOs from the Kuiper belt (see section, AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs)).
Flip-flop perturbation of TNOs, causing both internal melting and orbital perturbation into the inner solar system or outward towards the Oort cloud, abruptly ceased with the suggested 542 Ma spiral-in merger of the Companion’s binary components in an asymmetrical explosion that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. Ashes from the merger explosion condensed against Neptune’s 2:3 resonance to form cold-classical KBOs (including binary Pluto), with their low eccentricity, low inclination orbits and typically binary configurations telegraphing their in situ formation in quiescent conditions, following the 4 billion year flip-flop perturbation of TNOs by the SSB. ………………..
S-type vs. I-type granites:
Within mixed S-type and I-type batholiths, S-types tend to be older, more chemically reduced, formed at lower temperature, surrounded by metasomatic skarns and pegmatites, with muscovite rather than hornblende mafic minerals, and often containing inherited zircons and supracrustal enclaves. I-types, by comparison, tend to be younger, lower temperature, surrounded by contact-metamorphic hornfels and aureoles, and sometimes associated economic mineralization, with hornblende common. (Chappell and White 2001)
These differences are suggested to point to an authigenic aqueous origin for S-type granites and a molten (plutonic) origin for I-type granites, with S-type granites, typically of SDO origin, and with I-type granites, perhaps, typically of terrestrial tectonic origin.
Suggested energy concentration mechanism in SDOs for forming granite plutons:
Boiling saltwater in the void-ridden interiors of SDOs is suggested to be the distinctive setting for the formation of authigenic S-type granite, by way of intermittent SDO-quake subsidence events, which release potential energy catastrophically. Boiling greatly increases circulation, percolating sedimentary grains that would otherwise fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, so boiling increases the average authigenic mineral grain size, given the ambient micro-gravity acceleration, and percolation tends to disrupt sedimentary layering, often creating a massive appearance which masks its suggested authigenic sedimentary origin.
In their early hybrid-accretion environment before 4,568 Ma, SDOs underwent binary spiral-in mergers, mutual collisions with other planetesimals and finally perturbation into the scattered disc – all apparently without undergoing aqueous differentiation, which would have formed authigenic zircons older that the apparent age of the solar system. But SDOs were protected from internal temperature rise by the ‘enthalpy (heat) of sublimation’ of their highly-volatile ices, which apparently clamped the internal temperature below the melting point of saltwater ice. Tens or hundreds of millions of years of flip-flop perturbation tidal torquing, however, apparently depleted SDOs of their sacrificial low-temperature ices, most of which vented to outer space, riddling the interiors to create a low-density latticework of water ice arches supporting the overhead structure from collapse. Continued tidal torquing finally reached the melting point of water-ice gradually disintegrating the latticework support system, promoting ‘SDO-quake’ subsidence events in which internal voids were flattened by ceiling collapse. Trapped sublimed gas compressed by ceiling collapse was flash heated to thousands of Kelvins, melting pockets of water ice, forming localized saltwater plutons.
Charles law heating:
W = f * ds and W = dP * dV (where W is work, dP is change in pressure and dV is change in volume). Since gas is vastly more compressible than liquids or solids, gasses compressed in flattened voids would absorb the lion’s share of the potential energy catastrophically converted to heat in SDO-quake subsidence events. So roof-collapse subsidence is suggested to flash heat compressed gasses, initiating localized aqueous differentiation. If the water fails to boil, it may precipitate authigenic sedimentary sediments, but if it reaches the boiling point, it’s suggested to form authigenic S-type granitic sediments. Then by this curious mechanism of catastrophically-concentrating energy, SDOs are suggested to have occasionally reached higher localized internal temperatures than water-world KBOs, which are suggested to have formed at significantly higher temperatures.
By this alternative mechanism there is no granite space problem if authigenic S-type granite forms in situ in SDO cores in the scattered disc, rather than at depth on Earth. ………………..
Felsic segregation in authigenic granite:
The relative molecular simplicity of felsic quartz and the feldspars is suggested to promote crystallization on existing mineral grains, whereas the relative complexity of mafic mineral grains promotes precipitation of new mineral grains, resulting in authigenic felsic mineral grains in S-type granite being larger than their mafic counterparts.
Increasing mineral complexity may decrease the probability of crystallizing on existing mineral grains, due the greater probability of local depletion of one or more of the necessary reagents. Mafic biotite, containing K, (Mg, Fe), Al, Si and F + hydrogen & oxygen, need only be locally depleted in one of 5 components (with an allowable either/or substitution in the iron/magnesium mafic component) to retard mineral-grain growth by crystallization in an aqueous setting, whereas feldspar only requires 3 components, (Na, K, Ca), Al, Si + oxygen, with an allowable 3-way substitution in the alkali/alkaline metal component, making felsic feldspar crystallization more flexible than mafic biotite. So mafic species may be more likely to precipitate new mineral grains, whereas felsic species may be more likely to crystallize onto existing mineral grains, resulting in larger, felsic mineral grains and more-numerous, smaller, mafic mineral grains.
In the rapid percolation of boiling saltwater, in which only the largest (felsic) mineral grains fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, smaller, more-numerous, mafic mineral grains may remain largely suspended except for the mafic grains that become wedged between larger felsic grains or diffuse into interstitial spaces before getting trapped by continuing sedimentation.
So over time, suggested aqueously-differentiated S-type plutons should tend to skew toward a more mafic composition as the aqueous reservoir becomes increasingly depleted of felsic mineral grains, and mineral grain size should fine upward as the aqueous reservoir cools down, or at least boils less violently over time. So S-type granite plutons should exhibit upward fining and ‘upward maficing’.
Finally, the percolation accompanying boiling will tend to jostle sediments that have fallen out of suspension on the pluton floor, tending to create a massive structure, which helps to obscure their suggested authigenic sedimentary origin. Percolation jostling also creates a tighter structure by ‘evaporating’ voids between mineral grains, promoting the interlocking puzzle structure for which granite is well known.
Mafic xenoliths in S-type granite:
S-type granite frequently contains apparent ‘magma mixing’ or ‘country-rock enclaves’, with magma mixing composed of the same type of felsic and mafic mineral-grains as the granite matrix, but skewed toward the mafic end of the spectrum. Smaller mafic mineral grains may preferentially ‘plate out’ on pluton walls and ceilings and then catastrophically slough off to become mafic country-rock enclaves (xenoliths) or apparent instances of magma mixing within S-type plutons.
Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001.
Currie, Thayne, 2005, HYBRID MECHANISMS FOR GAS/ ICE GIANT PLANET FORMATION, The Astrophysical Journal, 629:549–555, 2005 August 10.
Frost, Carol D.; Frost, B Ronald; Kirkwood, Robert; Chamberlain, Kevin R., (2006), The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, October 1, 2006.
CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS:
Thayne Currie suggests a compelling hybrid mechanism for forming (giant) planets by accretion from a population of 1 km planetesimals, in which the planetesimals have been formed by gravitational instability (GI). (Currie, 2005)
Suggested alterations to Thayne Currie’s hybrid accretion model:
1) Planet types formed by hybrid accretion:
This hybrid mechanism may be limited to forming terrestrial super-Earth–type planets like Mars and ice giants like Uranus and Neptune, but not gas-giant planets which are posited to form by GI from outer stellar layers isolated by their excess angular momentum.
2) Hybrid-accretion planetesimal size:
Presolar planetesimals forming super-Earths may be vastly larger than the 1 km planetesimal size envisioned if circa 100 km trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were formed by GI as the evidence of similar size and color of TNO binaries suggests. Secondary debris disks, however, may ‘condense’ smaller planetesimals, perhaps down to 1 km, due to elevated dust-to-gas ratios, forming Mercury as a hybrid accretion planet from asteroids ‘condensed’ from the spiral-in binary solar merger (4,567 Ma) debris disk.
3) Location, location, location:
The formation of planetesimals by GI may require,
1) elevated dust-to-gas ratios, and
both of which may most typically occur in the pressure dam at the inside edge of accretion disks. The inner edge of accretion disks around solitary stars may be governed by the magnetic corotation radius of the star, whereas the inner edge of circumbinary accretion disks may be governed by binary stellar resonances. Finally, a limited degree of planetesimal formation by GI may occur in giant planet resonances, such as chondrite formation which may have occurred in situ in Jupiter’s inner resonances at highly-elevated dust-to-gas ratios.
Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune may be ‘super-Earth’ type planets formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals in 3 separate planet-formation episodes.
Uranus and Neptune:
The super-Earth cascade of Uranus and Neptune first super-Earth formation episode at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond our former binary Sun, where the binary solar-component separation at the time may have been on the order of the combined semi-major axes of Jupiter and Saturn. When Uranus reached its current size by hybrid accretion of TNOs, it was able to clear its orbit by ‘evaporating’ most of the planetesimals outward. But the effort of clearing its orbit of more than its own mass of TNOs and larger dwarf-planet–sized hybrid accretions lowered Uranus’ orbit, perhaps resulting in its 98° axial tilt due to closed-system conservation of orbital and rotational angular momentum. Neptune formed after Uranus and then similarly cleared its orbit of the remaining TNOs and dwarf planets, most of which were evaporated into the Kuiper belt beyond.
If Jupiter and Saturn are spin-off planets (see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS) that spiraled out from the binary solar components as the solar components spiraled during stellar core collapse, Jupiter and Saturn may have disrupted the circumbinary protoplanetary disk from condensing protoplanets until the binary separation of our former binary Sun was considerably less than 1 AU. So the hybrid accretion of Mars occurred prior to the ultimate binary solar merger at 4,567 Ma. Orbit clearing by Mars of remaining planetesimals and larger dwarf-planet hybrid accretions may have wound up in Jupiter’s inner resonances, with 1 Ceres as the largest surviving hybrid-accretion dwarf-planet.
Mercury’s high density and proportionately-large iron core size suggests a hybrid accretion of highly volatilely-depleted asteroids ‘condensed’ by GI from the solar-merger debris disk with its inner edge at the (super-intense) magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the solar merger, but we won’t know for certain until we get samples from Mercury to see if it corresponds to the stellar-merger–nucleosynthesis stable-isotope enrichment of ∆17O with rocky-iron asteroids like 4 Vesta. The terrestrial planets in turn cleared their orbits of the left-over asteroids, evaporating them into Jupiter’s inner resonances.
The size of super-Earth planets may be governed by the separation distance from the star or from the stellar barycenter in the case of circumbinary disks around binary stars, with larger super-Earths potentially forming further out in circumbinary accretion disks. The term ‘super-Earth’ implies a planet size larger than Earth, and indeed, super-Earths are more abundant in the exoplanet surveys than smaller terrestrial planets. Super-Earth size may also be constrained by lack of sufficient planetesimals, as may be the case in the diminutive size of Mars and Mercury. In cascades of Super-Earths, all but the outermost planet should have reached its target mass for dynamic orbit clearing, so only Uranus should be typical in size for its formation conditions.
In super-Earth cascades of 3 or more planets, the separation between the outermost two planets will typically be wider than inner separations since only the outermost planet has not sunk in orbit by clearing its orbit of one or more planet’s worth of planetesimals. Cascades of super-Earths tend to exhibit adjacent orbital-period ratios of 1:3 to 2:3 except for the outermost separation. This of course assumes no subsequent planetary dynamics which frequently may be a poor assumption.
The inner edge of circumbinary disks may be governed by corotation resonances and outer Lindblad resonances in the range of 1.8a to 2.6a, where ‘a’ designates the binary-stellar semi-major axis. (Artymowicz and Lubow 1994)
In cascades of super-Earths, do all the planetesimals form first? Can super-Earths push out the inner edge of circumbinary disks, creating renewed spates of planetesimal formation further out? A close examination of planet size and planetesimals separations may provide the answer.
In binary systems, spin-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn may interrupt the formation of super-Earths as our solar system seems to indicate. Around solitary stars, spin-off planets would presumably form before super Earths and may push out the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, causing super-Earths to form further out at more temperate separations. Merger planets hurled to circa 1 AU separations from their merged stars like Venus and Earth may merely jostle a super-Earth cascade where it can squeeze in, confusing the sequence and thus confusing planetary origins. Indeed Earth may have edged Mars into a slightly higher orbit in Earth’s earliest protoplanet phase when it may have originally had the mass of Saturn or greater before becoming severely volatilely depleted.
Tau Ceti and HD 40307 are apparently five and six super-Earth exoplanet star systems, respectively, without the complication of spin-off planets or merger planets.
Finally, aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores may be visible on Mars in a number of chasmas and impact basins (Melas Chasma, Hellas Planitia, the central uplift in Becquerel Crater and etc.) where prevailing winds have removed sand dunes, revealing Mars’ internal composition.
LUMINOUS RED NOVA (LRN) ISOTOPES:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating the r-process radionuclides of the early solar system (aluminum-26, iron-60 et al.) and its helium-burning stable-isotope enrichment (carbon-12 and oxygen-16 et al.).
Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope toward the lower left corner of the graph 3-isotope oxygen graph (δ17O vs. δ18O), with a 1 slope representing complete mixing due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase. (The anhydrous modifier is significant since any subsequent aqueous alteration, forming hydrous minerals, would occur slowly, allowing mass fractionation which would move the altered material off the 1 slope line.) By comparison, complete fractionation of oxygen isotopes plot as a 1/2 slope, since 17O – 16O = 1 unit of atomic weight and 18O – 16O = 2 units of atomic weight. The terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) plots with a slope of .52, nominally 1/2. The low cooling rate from a molten magma state on Earth and the similarly slow rate of authigenic precipitation from an aqueous state provides a significant opportunity for chemical reactions to occur within the temperature window in which mass fractionation is significant. So the 1 slope of CCAM merely represents complete mixing while the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) merely represents complete fractionation.
When comparing completely fractionated materials such as terrestrial basalt and Mars meteorite basalt, it can be convenient to force force the nominal 1/2 slope (.52 slope for the TFL) to zero, making it a horizontal line, with the conversion:
∆17O = δ17O – .52 δ18O
∆17O vs. δ18O plots the TFL horizontally with igneous Mars rock on a horizontal rock above.
The degree of 16O enrichment can be be obscured by isotope fractionation when only δ17O (17O/16O) or δ18O (18O/16O) are measured isolation, but the measurement of all three oxygen isotopes and their graphing on a 3-isotope oxygen plot will cause mass-dependent fractionation to wash out, by aligning along a ‘fractionation line’ which is 16O-enrichment dependent. Comparing δ17O or ∆17O to δ18O on a 3-isotope oxygen plot, however, is generally reserved for meteorites, since continental Earth rock is assumedly terrestrial, but if the continental tectonic plates are aqueously and thermally differentiated planetesimal cores from two separate reservoirs (presolar protoplanetary and variably-enriched secondary debris disk) then comparison of all three isotopes becomes significant.
Plotting sufficient terrestrial basalt samples along side Mars meteorite basalt samples shows the two materials lie near fractionation lines, regardless of the extent of mass-dependent fractionation of individual samples. If only that were the end of the story, but ordinary chondrites plot above suggested presolar Mars which makes no sense if they condensed from the secondary debris-disk created by the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma and thus were enriched in 16O. Without subsequent aqueous alteration, ordinary chondrites would plot below the TFL due to their suggested greater 16O contamination than Earth rock.
Secondary aqueous alteration may be responsible for forming secondary magnetite with high ∆17O, which raise ordinary chondrites above assumedly presolar Mars on the 3-isotope oxygen plot. “The maximum fractionation between magnetite and liquid H2O is -13.6‰ at 390 K . In the UOC parent asteroid, H2O probably existed as a gaseous phase when magnetite formed. The maximum fractionation between magnetite and gaseous H2O is -10.5‰ at 500 K .” (Choi et al., 1997, Magnetite in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: evidence for an 17O-rich reservoir in the solar nebula) But rather than a “17O-rich reservoir”, if the mechanism had been a matter of mass-dependent fractionation of gaseous H2O in the crust followed by the escape of the 17O-depleted remainder into interplanetary space, would not the result be the same?
During thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites, if the temperature had reached the boiling point of water, the lightest-weight H2O molecules containing 16O would be the first to sublime or boil, and the least likely to condense or deposit (the opposite of sublimation), and the fastest to diffuse outward in a vapor phase. And outward mass-dependent fractionation may have been the result of repeated episodes of sublimation and deposition during the warming phase of thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites which progressively expelled water ice from the core, then the mantle and finally the crust, increasing the degree of fractionation with each cycle. Then oxidation into magnetite selected the most mobile of the remaining oxygen isotopes, preferentially incorporating 17O into magnetite.
The flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in stellar merger may be recorded in the 3 million year period of chondrule formation by super-intense solar-flare melting of debris-disk dust accretions, spiraling in toward the Sun by Poynting–Robertson drag.
If stellar-merger nucleosynthesis enriched the Sun in the stable isotopes 12C, 16O, and 20Ne by helium burning, then the stellar-merger core temperatures may have been in the neighborhood of 100-200 million Kelvins, with r-process nucleosynthesis forming the neutron-rich short-lived radionuclides (SRs) of our early solar system:
7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 44Ti, 53Mn, 54Mn, 60Fe, 63Ni, 91Nb, 92Nb, 107Pd, 129I, 146Sm, 182Hf and 244Pu.
The high velocities necessary to create spallation nuclides in LRNe may have been observed in LRN PTF10fqs from a spiral arm of Messier 99. The breadth of the Ca II emission line may indicate two divergent flows, a high-velocity polar flow (~ 10,000 km/s) and a high-volume, but slower equatorial flow. (Kasliwal, Kulkarni et al. 2011) Some of the SRs may have been created by spallation in the high-velocity polar outflow of the LRNe, particularly 7Be and 10Be, since beryllium is known to be consumed rather than produced within stars.
The solar wind is ~40% poorer in 15N than earth’s atmosphere, as discovered by the Genesis mission. (Marty, Chaussidon, Wiens et al. 2011) The same mission discovered that the Sun is depleted in deuterium, 17O and 18O by ~7% compared to all rocky materials in the inner solar system. (McKeegan, Kallio, Heber et al. 2011) “[T]he 13C/12C ratio of the Earth and meteorites may be considerably enriched in 13C compared to the ratio observed in the solar wind.” (Nuth, J. A. et al., 2011)
The most apparent deficit in the Sun and in debris-disk material, however, may be the δ15N differences between presolar protoplanetary comets and CAIs condensed from solar-merger polar jets from the core, with canonical 26Al.
Most oxygen isotopes variations are only a few per mill (‰), but δ15N departures from terrestrial values are often measured in hundreds of per mille (tens of percent), with a solar difference of δ15N = -386 ‰ and cometary difference of δ15N ≈+800 ‰ for CN and HCN (Chaussidon et al. 2003). So 15N destruction must have been particularly efficient by way of two mechanisms, 15N(p,α)12C and 15N(p,γ)16O, known as the CN and the NO cycles respectively (Caciolli et al. 2011).
Deuterium will also have been destroyed in the solar merger, dramatically lowering the D/H ratio in the Sun and in debris-disk condensates, but the 2:1 difference in mass between H and D often makes fractionation more significant than the degree of depletion, making the D/H ratio a poor measure of the reservoir depletion.
AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs):
The problem of planetesimal formation is a major unsolved problem in astronomy since meter-sized “boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a ‘head wind’ from the slower rotating gas” (Johansen et al., 2007).
This approach rejects pebble accretion in favor of gravitational instability (GI) for the formation of planetesimals. In protoplanetary disks or debris disks (generically ‘accretion disks’), GI is suggested to occur in the pressure dam at the inner edge of accretion disks around solitary or binary stars. Around solitary stars, the inner edge of the accretion disk is assumed to be sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius, while the inner edge of accretion disks around binary stars is sculpted by the binary resonances. Heliocentric resonances associated with giant planets may also serve as pressure dams against which planetesimals can condense, such as chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances.
Our former protostar is hypothesized to have fragmented 3 times in succession, due to excess angular momentum, to form a quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, composed of a close-binary Sun and a close-binary Companion in a wide-binary separation which orbited the solar-system barycenter (SSB).
Protoplanetary reservoir comets and SDOs:
Solar system planetesimals are suggested to have condensed from 2 accretionary reservoirs at slightly-different times, with Oort cloud comets having condensed first from the circum-quaternary protoplanetary disk, most likely while still ensconced in our Bok globule stellar nursery. As stellar core collapse opened up an ever-increasing Sun-Companion wide-binary separation two things occurred. Comets were shepherded by the outer Sun-Companion resonances into ever-higher SSB-centric orbits by the ever-increasing period of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB, and the increasing wide-binary separation opened up a sufficient Sun-Companion gap for a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun, causing a second round of planetesimal condensations that would ‘hybrid accrete’ to form ‘super-Earth’ Uranus and Neptune. (Core accretion of planetesimals formed by gravitational instability, hence ‘hybrid accretion’. [Thane Currie 2005]) Orbit clearing by Uranus and Neptune is assumed to have scattered the leftover planetesimals into the scattered disc, as scattered disc objects (SDOs), presumably prior to 4,567 Ma.
Protoplanetary SDOs are suggested to have condensed with a significant percentage of highly-volatile ices, such as CO, N2, CH4, NH3, CO2 and etc., whereas more volatilely-depleted KBOs apparently condensed primarily from water ice, making KBOs the water worlds of the solar system.
If highly-volatile SDOs had undergone similar aqueous differentiation in orbit-clearing scattering prior to 4,567 Ma and found their way to Earth like suggested KBO gneiss-domes, then there should be rock on Earth older than 4,567 Ma, which is not the case, so highly-volatile ices must have sacrificially clamped comet and SDO temperatures below the melting point of water ice during pre-4567 Ma binary spiral-in mergers and hybrid accretion events. As a result, SDOs are suggested to contain numerous internal voids created by the sublimation of volatile ices, with internal compositions like pithy Styrofoam balls used in holliday craft projects. Suggested subsequent SDO differentiation into supracrustal rock and granite batholiths is covered in other sections.
Secondary debris-disk reservoir KBOs:
Our former binary-Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating a secondary debris disk from which asteroids, chondrites and
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed. The low-inclination, low-eccentricity typical binarity of classical Kuiper belt objects (cubewanos) speaks to their having condensed in situ, not having been scattered there by a mythical planetary migration of Neptune during the late heavy bombardment. Plutinos are suggested secondary debris-disk condensates as well.
Binary spiral-in mergers of KBO water worlds are suggested to cause ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting salt-water oceans in their cores which precipitate dissolved mineral species of mineral grains, forming sedimentary cores which can undergo lithification and even diagenesis and metamorphism to form rocky gneiss-dome cores with hydrothermal-rock mantles. So ‘geochonology’ of gneiss domes gives the age of their spiral-in mergers.
Perturbation of trans-Neptunian objects:
Our Sun-Companion system is suggested to have undergone 4 billion years of core collapse, feeding off the potential energy of the Companion’s close-binary components to increase the wide-binary Sun-Companion period around the SSB (assumedly at an exponential rate) until the Companion’s binary components asymmetrically merged at 543 Ma, giving the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. After 4 billion years of core collapse, the Companion’s apoapsis from the Sun may have reached the (circa 2000 AU) distance of the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud, explaining the ‘Kuiper cliff’ fall off of planetesimals beyond about 50 AU as orbit clearing by the Companion and explaining the shepherding of Oort cloud comets into the Inner Oort cloud in a circum(wide)binary SSB-centric (not heliocentric) orbit beyond the Companion at apoapsis.
As the Sun and Companion spiraled out from the SSB, by Galilean invariance with respect to the Sun, the SSB spiraled out through the Kuiper Belt and scattered disc, passing through the cubewanos from 3.8 – 4.1 Ga (causing the late heavy bombardment) and perturbing binary KBOs to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation. The perturbation mechanisms since the loss of the Companion and the SSB are less mechanistic and may be related to the loss of the angular momentum of the Companion which may have previously stabilized the solar system against external perturbation from passing stars and ‘globule clusters’ (see section DARK MATTER). Additionally, the solar system may have a large reservoir of ‘detached objects’ in highly eccentric orbits of which Sedna and 2012 VP-113 are two members, with the vast majority beyond detection near perihelia where detached objects spend the lion’s share of their orbit. (Assumedly detached objects have been pumped into high-eccentricity long-period orbits by former Sun-Companion resonances, but with the loss of the Companion’s gyroscopic stability, they may be induced to suffer angular momentum loss by by external perturbations, causing their perihelia to spiral down into the planetary realm where the giant planets eventually perturb them in to the Sun or out of the inner solar system. External perturbation tending to torque objects forward in long-period orbits tends to increase the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, raising their perihelia, but perturbations retarding objects in their orbits decrease the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, lowering perihelia.)
Ignoring Oort cloud comets, detached objects may be the TNO reservoir responsible for the largest Earth impacts in the Phanerozoic Eon since the loss of the Companion, assumedly perturbed by passing stars and dark-matter globule-clusters/giant-molecular-clouds (see section DARK MATTER). And the vast majority of the detached object reservoir are beyond the present limits of detection, so we can only calculate the extent of the reservoir by observing the aphelia tip of the iceberg.
Aqueous differentiation into sedimentary cores:
Aqueous differentiation is initiated when planetesimals collide or when binary planetesimals spiral in and merge to melt water ice and form salt-water oceans in their cores, creating a solution of mineral species from the dissolution of nebular dust. Microbes may catalyze chemical reactions, greatly increasing the number and complexity of precipitated minerals.
Precipitated (authigenic) mineral grains continue to grow through crystallization until they fall out of suspension due to negative buoyancy in microgravity. The gravitational acceleration, and thus buoyancy, is also dependent on location within the planetesimal, ranging from zero at the gravitational center and rising to a peak value some 2/3 of the way to the surface, so aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores should have the largest authigenic mineral-grain size in the center, barring metasomatic pegmatites.
pH spike during pressure venting:
The partial pressure of CO2 in trapped gas pockets between the core ocean and the overlying ice-water boundary of the icy mantle forces carbon dioxide into solution where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, lowering the pH. Following binary spiral-in mergers when internal temperatures are still rising and expanding the core ocean by melting, subsidence faults in the icy mantle would periodically vent the trapped gas to the surface.
A sudden drop in pressure on the core ocean would cause dissolved carbonic acid to convert to gaseous CO2 by nucleating on suspended mineral grains which the bubbles would float to the surface creating a froth of CO2 foam at the ice-water boundary, like the effect of sugar added to a carbonated drink. And the repetition of gradually rising CO2 partial pressure followed by its sudden venting would cause ‘sawtooth’ pH fluctuations over time.
The solubility of aluminum salts is particularly pH sensitive, so pressure overlying planetesimal oceans could indirectly control the reservoir of dissolved aluminous species in solution. Aluminous species solubility is U-shaped with respect to pH with an inflection point at about 6-1/2 pH (Driscoll and Schecher, 1990). A rise in pH from 3.5 to 6.5 would decrease the aluminous species solubility by a factor of more than 100,000, effectively dumping the entire reservoir of dissolved aluminous species, presumably in a precipitation of felsic feldspar minerals.
Silica solubility, by comparison, is particularly temperature sensitive, so quartz grains will precipitate at the cold ice-water boundary where silica solubility is at a minimum, and a sudden venting of pressure to the surface may cause the surface of the ocean to flash boil, further concentrating solutes and lowering its temperature. So with quartz precipitation at the ice-water boundary and catastrophically precipitated feldspar mineral grains floated to the surface by nucleating CO2 bubbles, the floating mass buoyed up by CO2 foam is suggested to have a felsic composition. And mineral grains would continue to grow by crystallization as long as they remain buoyantly trapped at the surface.
A frothy mass, perhaps cemented with slime bacteria, is suggested to have a degree of mechanical competency, forming a cohesive floating mat. When the mat became ‘waterlogged’ by negative buoyancy, it would begin to sag until finally sinking as a two-dimensional membrane onto the more mafic sedimentary core, and the larger surface area (circumference) at the ice-water boundary would be forced to crumple when mapping onto the smaller surface area of the sedimentary core, bunching into disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds as it fell onto the core below. Some ptygmatic folds in migmatite double back on themselves like alpine hairpin turns or ribbon candy.
Folding in metamorphic rock:
Planetesimal circumferential folding:
Lithification of gneiss-dome sedimentary cores is a process of porosity destruction, forcing out the (aqueous) connate fluids, shrinking the volume of the authigenic sedimentary core and crumpling in the process. This lithification compaction of the circumference at which sedimentary layers were laid down causes ‘circumferential folding’ at all scales by the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids, like grapes dehydrating to form raisins. Lithification of sedimentary rock on Earth similarly results in volume reduction as well, but because of Earth’s enormous diameter, no perceptible reduction in circumference occurs, hence the absence of circumferential folding on Earth. And if circumferential folding of gneiss dome cores typically undergo subsequent metamorphism during the progressive pressure increase caused by the expansion of the overlying ocean freezing solid, then circumferential folding of sedimentary rock may have the misleading appearance having occurred during metamorphism.
Terrestrial tectonic folding:
Large-scale folding due to plate tectonics on Earth, typically forming orogenic synclines and anticlines, is easily explained and demonstrated by folding up into the void of the atmosphere; however, suggested metamorphic folding on Earth at depths necessary for attaining (high-pressure) metamorphic pressures can shear, but has no voids to fold into at depth. So, tectonic folding is readily demonstrable, whereas metamorphic folding at depth is problematic.
Planetesimal or possibly terrestrial crenellations:
Personalization of mica perpendicular to the principal stress field can occur during metamorphism, and if this recrystallization occurs in succession in different overlapping planes, the intersection can create a characteristic texture called crenellation in phyllite. Crenellation is a secondary process, sometimes called overprinting, which occurs during metamorphism, probably primarily during primary planetesimal metamorphism; however, crenellation during subsequent terrestrial metamorphism is not ruled out. If lithification and metamorphic recrystallization occur concurrently, then the distinction between circumferential folding and crenellation may become somewhat blurred.
Planetesimal Ptygmatic folding:
Disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds (described in the previous section) is suggested to occur during sedimentation prior to lithification.
In aqueous differentiation of icy planetesimals, when primary sedimentation runs to completion in forming gneissic sedimentary cores, hydrothermal fluids expelled during diagenesis of the core precipitate hydrothermal mineral-grain sediments with different chemistry over top of the gneissic core, namely, sandstone/quartzite, schist and carbonate rock (limestone and dolostone) sediments, which form hydrothermal-rock mantles over gneissic cores. Then as the planetesimal cools and the internal ocean freezes solid, the volume increase of the saltwater ocean expanding to form ice may be largely responsible for pressure increase during gneiss-dome metamorphism, converting sedimentary gneissic sediments to migmatite and gneiss, and hydrothermal sandstone to quartzite, and limestone to marble by ‘freeze-out metamorphism’.
Authigenic Mineral-grain size:
A major difference between authigenic terrestrial sediments and authigenic planetesimal sediments would be mineral grain size. On the surface of our high-gravity planet, precipitated authigenic mineral grains fall out of aqueous suspension at clay size to become sequestered in sedimentary layers which lithify into mudstone, but in the microgravity deep inside planetesimal oceans, microgravity dispersion apparently allow mineral grains to grow by crystallization to the size typically found in migmatite and gneiss before falling out of aqueous suspension (although in the case of granulite metamorphism, the mineral grains have typically personalized at that size). Felsic leucosome mineral grains can be significantly larger than the typical mafic mineral grain size, which may indicate entrapment in buoyant flotsam at the ice-water ceiling where felsic grains can grow out of proportion to their negative buoyancy. Gravitational acceleration increases from zero at the gravitational center to a maximum value part way between the core and the surface, so mineral grain sizes would tend to decrease over time from the inside out in sedimentary planetesimal cores, except for leucosomes and metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to prodigious size on surfaces exposed to hydrothermal fluids but protected from sedimentation.
Summary and discussion:
In conventional geology, the supposed segregation of felsic and mafic minerals into leucosome, melanosome and mesosome layers by metamorphism of protolith rock to form migmatite gneiss is explained by the partial melting (anatexis) of lower-melting-point (primarily felsic) minerals and the extrusion of this melt down a “potential force gradient.” “The consensus today is that both in situ melt and externally derived melt are present in most migmatites (Kriegsman, 2001).” (Urtson, 2005) This means that adjacent layers alone can not explain the local enrichments and depletions of felsic and mafic layering, and so non-local externally-derived melt is needed for mass balance. In an aqueous planetesimal setting, adjacent felsic and mafic leucosomes and melanosomes have the entire planetesimal ocean to draw from. “Comingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas” is also suggested as an explanation for alternating felsic/mafic layers. (Sandeman et al., 2000)
Conventionally, gneiss domes are divided into two classes: fault related and fault unrelated. Larger gneiss-dome systems are divided into evenly spaced and unevenly spaced. Evenly spaced dome systems are considered to be instabilities caused by vertical-density or -viscosity contrast and horizontal loads, leading to buckling. Unevenly spaced dome systems are associated with fault development or “superposition of multiple deformational phases.” “In nature, gneiss domes are often produced by superposition of several dome-forming mechanisms. This has made determination of the dynamic cause of individual domes and dome systems exceedingly challenging.” (Yin, 2004)
Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability is a favored explanation for the formation of evenly-spaced gneiss domes which is sometimes called a fingering instability where a finger is theorized to spread into a mushroom cap to explain concentric layering in ellipsoid gneiss domes. RT instabilities, however, fail to explain the typical sedimentary basements: “In some, the lowest horizon of the mantle consists of basal conglomerate with boulders of the same gneiss that forms the dome; in others, the basement stratum is a layer of quartzite, above which follow dolomite and mica schist; and in still others, dolomite forms the basement.” (Eskola, 1948)
The basement horizon of quartzite, carbonate rock and conglomerate in gneiss-dome mantles can only be explained in conventional geology with secondary ad hoc mechanisms, but in aqueous differentiation, the concentric layering of gneiss domes are merely sedimentary growth rings transitioning to hydrothermal sedimentation, followed by diagenesis, lithification and metamorphism. So sedimentary migmatite, gneiss and schist are on an equal footing with the mantle layers of quartzite and carbonate rock. And conglomerate or graywacke outer layer on gneiss domes is merely grinding of the rocky core against the ice ceiling as the freezing ocean finally closes in on the core, creating a clastic frosting on authigenic sedimentary core. Often the conglomerate pebbles, cobbles and boulders in the frosting conglomerate are highly polished with an indurated (case-hardened) surface as freezing tends to reject dissolved minerals, creating a final spike in dissolved mineral species that deposit (plate out) on cobbles and pebbles.
The mantled domes apparently represent earlier granite intrusions related to a orogenic period. The plutonic mass was later eroded and levelled, and thereafter followed a period of sedimentation. During a subsequent orogenic cycle the pluton was mobilized anew and new granite magma was injected into the plutonic rock at the same time as it was deformed into gneiss, causing its migmatization and granitization, or palingenesis.
Our former binary Companion may have somewhat stabilized the solar system prior to its hypothesized loss at 542 Ma. “Culler et al.  studied 179 spherules from 1 g of soil collected by the Apollo 14 astronauts, and found evidence for a decline in the meteoroid flux to the Moon from 3000 million years ago (Ma) to 500 Ma, followed by a fourfold increase in the cratering rate over the last 400 Ma.” (Levine et al., 2005) But the 400 Ma comes from the 400 million-year bin size used in the study.
HYDROTHERMAL QUARTZITE, CARBONATE ROCK, AND SCHIST:
When external perturbation causes binary Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) to spiral in and merge, they undergo ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting saltwater oceans in their cores which is suggested to precipitate authigenic gneiss dome sediments. Subsequent destruction of voids during lithification expels hydrothermal fluids that precipitate gneiss-dome mantling rock in the form of quartzite, carbonate rock and schist, in that order.
Our protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times, forming a quadruple star system composed of two close-binary pairs, ‘binary-Sun’ and ‘binary-Companion’, in a wide-binary separation. Resonant perturbation caused the close binary pairs to spiral in, increasing the wide-binary Sun-Companion orbital period around the solar system barycenter (SSB). Binary-Sun spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova at 4,568 Ma, forming a ‘primary debris disk’ from which asteroids, chondrites and hot classical KBOs condensed by gravitational instability (GI). Binary-Companion spiraled in and merged 4 billion years later at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger that gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun and formed a ‘secondary debris disk’, from which cold classical KBOs condensed in situ by GI, including binary Pluto.
Solar system barycenter (SSB) dynamics:
Over the the 4 billion years following the binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma, the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB increased at an exponential rate, fueled by the orbital decay of binary-Companion’s binary components. By Galilean relativity, the SSB effectively spiraled out through the Kuiper belt (between the 2:3 and 1:2 resonance with Neptune) during the Hadean and early Archean Eons, from 4.1-3.8 Ga, and spiraled out between the 1:2 and the 1:3 resonance with Neptune during the Archean Eon, and finally into the scattered disc beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune during the Proterozoic Eon.
– Hadean-Archean Eon: SSB passes through the Kuiper belt, < 2:3 to 1:2 resonance with Neptune
– Archean Eon: SSB passes between the 1:2 and the 1:3 orbit with Neptune
– Proterozoic Eon: SSB passes through the scattered disc, beyond the 1:3 orbit with Neptune
(Ideally, from a holistic solar system perspective, the entire late heavy bombardment [LHB] from 4.1-3.8 Ga would be placed in the Hadean Eon, with the Hadean ending at 3.8 Ga rather than 4.0 Ga, but since the Eons are terrestrially inspired, the appearance of the first rocks on Earth at 4.0 Ga marks the beginning of the Archean in the midst of the LHB.)
Flip-flop perturbation by the SSB:
In a triple-star wide binary system, heliocentric (circumprimary) orbits have their major axes aligned with the wide-binary axis, either with their aphelia attracted toward the Companion, or centrifugally slung away from it, with their aphelia pointing 180° away from the Companion. Planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with heliocentric semimajor axes less than the SSB distance from the Sun, had their aphelia attracted towards the Companion, whereas planetesimals (TNOs) with semimajor axes greater than the SSB distance from the Sun were centrifugally slung away from the Companion. So planet and planetesimal aphelia either point towards or 180° away from the Companion, depending on their orbital relationship to the solar system barycenter. In the context of a dynamic triple-star system in which the SSB (by Galilean relativity) is effectively spiraling out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc for 4 billion years, fueled by the core collapse of the binary components of binary-Companion, the SSB causes 180° apsidal precession (flip-flop perturbation) of TNOs as the SSB nominally crosses their semi-major axes. And in the context of an eccentric wide-binary Sun-Companion system in which the SSB retreats below the orbit of Neptune at the closest Sun-Companion approach, the SSB strokes TNOs causing flip-flop perturbation at the frequency of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB, so once the SSB caught up with the semimajor axis of a TNO for the first time, its orbit continued to flip-flop until 542 Ma when the Companion escaped the solar system. Flip-flop perturbation caused binary planetesimals to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation, but SSB perturbation is also suggested to have caused the late heavy bombardment (LHB) from 4.1-3.8 Ga, by perturbing KBOs into the inner solar system. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs):
SDOs presumably condensed from the protoplanetary disk at the bitterly-cold temperatures of our nursery Bok globule with a significant component of highly-volatile ices, such as CO, CH4, N2 and CO2 (with an elevated CO/CO2 ratio) that have substantially-lower freezing points than water ice. Sacrificial sublimation of these highly-volatile ices is suggested to have clamped the internal temperature of SDOs above the melting point of water ice in early binary spiral-in mergers and collisional mergers which occurred during the hybrid accretion formation of Uranus and Neptune and orbit clearing of leftover SDOs into the scattered disc beyond. And temperature clamping below the melting point of water ice prevented the formation of aqueously precipitated mineral grains older than 4,568 Ma. But subsequent perturbation of SDOs by the SSB (predominantly during the Proterozoic Eon) apparently sublimed most of the remaining highly-volatile ices, allowing subsidence events (SDO quakes) to catastrophically melt water ice in internal voids and precipitate granite plutons in boiling saltwater cauldrons of internal voids. (See section, THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs))
Cold vs. hot classical KBOs:
1) ‘Hot classical KBOs’ are suggested to have condensed from an old ‘primary debris disk’ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from the ashes of the binary spiral-in merger of our former binary Sun at 4,568 Ma, creating an old KBO reservoir. The present high-inclination, high-eccentricity ‘hot’ orbits of hot classical KBOs are a result of subsequent perturbation by the migration of the SSB through the Kuiper belt.
2) ‘Cold classical KBOs’ are suggested to have condensed from a young ‘secondary debris disk’ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from the ashes of the binary spiral-in merger of our form binary Companion at 542 Ma, creating a young KBO reservoir. Since cold classical KBOs haven’t been externally perturbed by the SSB, they still largely reside in or near their in situ formational orbits, although mutual perturbation has likely puffed up their orbits to some extent. The cold stable orbits of the young cold classical KBOs are suggested to largely protect them from perturbation by Neptune into the inner solar system, and apparently none have collided with Earth, so all KBO impacts on Earth are presumed to be from the old, hot classical KBO reservoir.
Aqueous differentiation of hot classical KBOs presumably occurred catastrophically during binary spiral-in mergers, whereas aqueous differentiation of SDOs was more sustained, forming granite plutons during catastrophic subsidence events and forming ‘marine’ sedimentary rock in quiescent periods between catastrophic subsidence events. KBOs are typically much larger than SDOs, which the ‘Kuiper Cliff’ falloff of objects larger than 100 km beyond 50 AU indicates; however, some of the largest TNOs may be hybrid-accretion SDOs formed from the collisions of many many smaller SDOs prior to being scattered to the scattered disc.
Hydrothermal mantling rock over gneiss dome cores:
The suggested mechanisms for the formation of gneiss-dome mantling rock are merely placeholders for the actual unknown mechanisms, particularly in this section, but with the hope that the suggested mechanisms may have some of the properties of the actual mechanisms.
Binary spiral-in merger is a catastrophic event whose effects presumably diminish at an exponential rate over time; however, the overall process entails multiple sequential events that ramp up and ramp down. Thus as primary gneissic sedimentation is tapering off, destruction of voids in the sedimentary core is accelerating, increasing the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids until authigenic precipitation of mineral grains in the saltwater ocean surrounding the sedimentary core is dominated by the differential temperature and chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids compared to the surrounding ocean.
Pressure solution/dissolution, leaching and metasomatism across the vast surface area of sedimentary mineral grains in KBO cores during lithification and diagenesis expels hot aqueous fluids, partially or completely saturated with salts, minerals, (cat)ions and other species that may flash to (super)saturation in the cooler ocean above, precipitating mineral grains and crystallizing on preexisting suspended sediments, particularly in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents. Mineral grains grow by crystallization to a characteristic size for the buoyancy of the planetesimal ocean with its local circulation rate before falling out of suspension to be buried and mostly sequestered from further growth by crystallization.
Convection is essentially absent within sedimentary cores, slowing heat loss and causing cores to heat up due to the various thermal inputs:
– conversion of potential energy to heat caused by densification,
– concentration of radioactive elements during densification, but mostly from
– exothermal chemical reactions.
In the early stages the temperature rises in the core, altering the relative solubility of mineral species which may change the pH and Eh, which further alters solubilities in a feedback loop. Increasing temperature increases silica solubility while reducing carbonate solubility, tending to dissolve quartz while precipitating and crystallizing carbonates from the saltwater in the sedimentary voids. Later as the core begins to cool off, the process is reversed. In mantled gneiss domes, the gneiss core is typically surrounded by a concentrically-layered mantle composed of an outward progression from gneiss to sandstone/quartzite to carbonate-rock (limestone, dolostone or marble) to schist.
Quartzite mantling rock:
The growing weight of sedimentation in differentiating KBO cores gradually squeezes out the lower-density aqueous fluids (destruction of voids), forcing aqueous fluids into the overlying ocean through hydrothermal vents. Hot hydrothermal fluids laden with dissolved mineral species gush into the cold saltwater ocean, lowering the solubility of most mineral species. Dissolved silica does not require the local convergence of multiple mineral species to precipitate or crystallize quartz, so its very simplicity is suggested to aid in crystallizing on preexisting quartz mineral grains in aqueous suspension, whereas more complex silicates may tend to precipitate new mineral grains rather than crystallizing on suspended mineral grains, with the result that quartz grains tend to be fewer in number and larger in size, while complex-silicate mineral grains tend to be more numerous but smaller. In a low-gravity setting where mineral grains have to reach ‘sand-grain size’ to fall out of suspension, sand tends to rain out while smaller complex-silicate mineral grains remain in aqueous suspension. Eventually more-complex silicate mineral grains would grow (albeit more slowly) to sufficient size by crystallization (or by mineral-grain mergers) to rain out on the sedimentary core as well, unless there’s a sequestering mechanism. Feldspars are the next least complex silicates compared to quartzite, with their flexible 3-way substitution (of potassium, sodium and calcium in orthoclase, albite and anorthite), but if the feldspar precipitation/crystallization rate is sufficiently slow, precipitated feldspar mineral grains may tend to undergo chemical alteration by hydration into clay minerals before they can grow to sufficient size by crystallization to fall out of suspension. And perhaps adsorbed hydrogen gas molecules liberated by hydration reactions give hydrated (clay) mineral grains positive buoyancy, floating them to the icy roof where they become frozen into ceiling ice, thereby being sequestered from falling onto the sedimentary core. So quartzite is suggested to be the first mantling rock type, directly overlying gneiss dome cores.
Carbonate mantling rock:
Over time, as the gneissic sedimentary core cools down, carbonate solubility increases, dissolving increasing concentrations of carbonates from the lithifying gneiss dome cores, which gush into the overlying ocean through ‘white smoker’ hydrothermal vents. But since the carbonate solubility of the cooler overlying ocean is greater than the solubility of the hydrothermal fluids (due to the negative solubility of carbonates with respect to temperature), carbonates are not the first minerals to rain out, quartz is. But as the ocean ‘freeze out’ progresses, freezing water ice tends to exclude incompatible dissolved mineral species, gradually raising carbonate solutes to the saturation point, whereupon carbonates begin to rain out faster than quartz sand, forming carbonate mantling sediments, overlying the mantling sand which metamorphoses into limestone and dolostone over quartzite.
Schist mantling rock:
Schistose mantling sediments may form during periods of perturbative warming when sediments frozen into the icy mantle (during the earlier quartzite and carbonate mantling rock phases) are liberated by melting of water ice, particularly, during periods of flip-flop perturbation (apsidal precession) caused by the SSB.
Cap conglomerate mantling rock:
Then as the ice ceiling finally closes in on the sedimentary core, the ceiling may drag on the core, grinding the high points and tumbling the breccia into pebbles, cobbles and boulders smooth to form a cap of conglomerate rock, and orbital perturbation causing differential rotation of the sedimentary core and icy mantle would accentuate the formation and thickness of a ‘cap conglomerate’ layer.
And as the saltwater ocean freezes solid during ‘freeze out’, expansion of water ice builds pressure on the core, and this gradual pressure increase may be responsible for the typical high-pressure metamorphism of gneiss domes, and to a lesser extent to metamorphism of the overlying mantling rock.
Archean TTG to GG transition:
Archean TTG gneiss:
“Gray gneisses of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) affinity make up much of the basement in Archean provinces worldwide; consequently, an understanding of their petrogenesis provides important insights into early crust-forming processes. These rocks, estimated by Martin et al. (2005) to make up around 90% of Archean-age juvenile continental crust,” (Frost et al. 2006)
“Archean terrains are commonly described as being composed of two quite distinct groups of granitoids: an older, sodic, TTG-affinity group, and a late Archean potassium-rich group (e.g., Taylor and McLennan 1985). The change, which some authors place at around 2.75 Ga (Taylor and McLennan 1985) and others at 2.50 Ga (Martin 1994),” (Frost et al. 2006)
If Uranus and Neptune scattered leftover protoplanetary planetesimals (SDOs) to the scattered disk, with semi-major axes largely beyond the 3:1 resonance with Neptune, then assuming SDOs precipitate granite plutons within internal voids during catastrophic subsidence events, the transition from TTG gneiss domes to GG granitoid plutons may represent the gradual transition from KBO to SDO incursions into the inner solar system perturbed by the SSB.
Authigenic mineral-grain size in KBOs:
Authigenic mineral grain size is a function of circulation rates and local gravitational acceleration (buoyancy), which is determined by planetesimal size and the relative distance from the center of mass. (On Earth, zero gravitational acceleration at the center of mass climbs to a maximum value a little more than half way to the surface.) Assuming a sedimentary core lies below the point of maximum gravitational acceleration, authigenic mineral grain size should tend to decrease from the center outward, excepting for metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to fantastic size in sheltered areas. The characteristic, authigenic sand-grain size in Wissahickon schist is about 450 microns (.45 mm).
Highly indurated quartzite cobbles, some with Skolithos trace fossils:
Some gneiss domes are capped with conglomerate, composed of polished cobbles, often in quartzite, with highly-indurated surfaces which take a higher polish than the coarseness of the underlying matrix would take. Cracking open an indurated quartzite cobble reveals a tough, hard, indurated (case-hardened) surface, with little or no porosity, that takes a high polish. Sometimes the indurated surface is stained a much darker color than the interior, but other times it’s nearly the same hue as the underlying matrix. On quartzite cobbles exhibiting Skolithos trace fossils, the trace fossils are often dimpled inward, indicating that organic contamination in the traces reduces the strength of the matrix. In internal KBO oceans in the process of freezing solid, as the ice ceiling closes in on the rocky core the two surfaces may grind on one anther, creating breccia that’s tumbled smooth by sloshing or differential rotation between the rocky core and the icy mantle. As the ocean freezes solid and ice crystals exclude incompatible mineral species, the shrinking saltwater ocean becomes saturated with ever increasing varieties of mineral species which are available to crystallize on exposed cobbles to create indurated rinds. The ocean finally freezes solid, trapping indurated, polished cobbles in a clastic matrix, sometimes forming the outer layer of mantled gneiss-dome cores.
Euhedral garnets in schist:
The round dodecahedron shape of euhedral almandine garnets in schist suggest authigenic crystallization while trapped by the Bernoulli effect in hydrothermal fluid plumes in the low gravity saltwater oceans of KBOs, like a balloon trapped in a vertical air column over a fan blowing straight up. Most other euhedral mineral crystals are flat, needle like, blade like or elongated–all shapes which could not remain trapped for long by the Bernoulli effect due to their spherical asymmetries, so the round euhedral shape of almandine garnets is suggested to be the primary reason for their relative gigantism, in the absence of other pegmatites.
Pegmatites in schist:
Pegmatites in schist often contain large sheets of common mica growing from a bed of quartz crystals, and often accompanied by still-larger masses of euhedral feldspar crystals. Perhaps a local depletion of silica by nearby quartz crystallization symbiotically promotes muscovite crystallization. Quartz pegmatite formations suggests crystallization on the cold-junction ice ceiling where silica solubility is lowest and where pegmatites would be protected from burial by mineral-grain sedimentation, but not from burial by the negative buoyancy of water-ice crystals floating to the ceiling. In the Wissahickon schist of Philadelphia (near where Rising Sun Ave. crosses Tacony Creek), kilogram-scale blocks of feldspar crystals are commonly found near sheets of muscovite up to 10’s of square centimeters in area, embedded in large masses of quartz crystals.
Quartz stalactites in schist terrain:
Suggested quartz stalactites are suggested to have formed on ice ceilings overhanging hydrothermal vents where they were continuously bathed in hydrothermal fluids. Perhaps the best exposure of suggested quartz stalactites is in the creek bed that runs along W. Bells Mill Rd. in Philadelphia (40.078 -75.227). Perhaps the heat conducting ability of quartz stalactites hanging from an icy ceiling lowers silica solubility to the saturation point, promoting quartz crystallization on ceiling stalactites. Curiously, suspected quartz stalactites within (Wissahickon) schist terrain are not found eroding out of schist bedrock but loose in the creek bed as if they were formed on and were preserved in ceiling ice rather than in schistose floor sediments. The occasional appearance of euhedral garnets imbedded in suspected quartz stalactites ties in with hydrothermal vents, in which euhedral almandine garnets are suggested to crystallize. Quartz stalactites associated with schist have sinewy longitudinal furrows like American hornbeam trunks and branches, giving them the appearance of petrified wood of a particularly gnarly species. Stalactite cross sections range from 1 cm Dia to 1 meter Dia or more, with variable lengths which are generally fractured at both ends. Cross-sectional aspect ratios vary widely, some are thin almost like ribbon like, similar to calcium carbonate flows in terrestrial caves, but more commonly they have oval or nearly-circular cross sections.
ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL:
This section suggests an icy-body impact origin for long-chain hydrocarbon reservoirs on Earth, formed in endothermic chemical reactions of carbon ices in impact shock waves.
Energy absorption of compressible ices in icy-body impacts:
Work = force times change in distance, and similarly, Work = pressure times change in volume (W = PdV), so ices that are significantly more compressible than silicates will absorb the vast majority of icy-body impact energy which may (largely) clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target rock and largely below pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, masking icy-body impact structures from identification as such. Thus the relative compressibility of ices is suggested to clamp the impact power of icy-body impacts by extending its duration through the rebound period of the compressed ices.
Super-high shock-wave pressures are suggested to endothermically convert short-chain hydrocarbons (ethane, methane ices and perhaps carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as well) into long-chain hydrocarbons. The high mobility of hydrogen ions may largely scavenge liberated chalcogens and halogens, helping to protect endothermic hydrocarbons from burning during shock-wave rebound. Experimentally, methane converts to long alkane chains and free hydrogen at 60 GPa and 4509 K (Li, Zhang et al., 2011).
Impact induced super-tsunami debris flows are suggested to bulldoze forests before it, forming debris mounds littered with floral debris that internally differentiates into a multiplicity of coal-seam cyclothems in which clastic sediments sink to form basement ‘ganister’ or ‘seatearth’. The lower-density hydrocarbons rise to form hydrocarbon deposits which may terrestrially metamorphose into coal seams. Subsequent slumping (reworking) of debris mounds may form coal seams of apparent younger age, blurring bright line nature of catastrophic impact events.
Rocky-iron impact craters vs. icy-body impact basins:
The clamped shock-wave pressure of icy body impacts, lowers the power by extending its duration during the subsequent rebound of the compressed ices, which may provide time for the deformation of the Earth’s crust into a basin, suggesting an impact origin for many round basins on Earth, such as the 450 km Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay. Additionally, an extended shock wave pressure may tend to clamp fractured target rock in place, largely preventing its (overturn) excavation into bowl-shaped craters, along with mixing to form polymict breccia. Icy-body impact basins may resemble the muted blow of a dead-blow hammer compared to rocky-iron impact craters which may resemble the sharp blow of a ball-peen hammer.
Li, Dafang, Zhang, Ping & Yan, Jun, (2011), Quantum molecular dynamics simulations for the nonmetal-metal transition in shocked methane, Condensed Matter Materials Science, 24 March 2011, arXiv:1012.4888v2
‘PLUTO-METEORWRONGS’ FROM A YOUNG (542 MA) COLD-CLASSICAL-KUIPER-BELT RESERVOIR DEBRIS DISK:
This section discusses a common class of low-nickel meteorwrongs, frequently containing metallic-iron inclusions, sometimes having the appearance of fusion crust. This class of objects will be designated, ‘Pluto-meteorwrongs’ or alternatively, ‘secondary-debris-disk material’, due to their suggested 542 Ma secondary debris disk origin from which the cold classical Kuiper population condensed by gravitational instability (GI), along with some or many of the Plutinos, including binary Pluto with its geologically-young surface. The terms, ‘Pluto-meteorwrong’ and ‘secondary-debris-disk material’ may be used interchangeably, with the former being more memorable and the latter more explicit. The secondary debris disk is suggested to have arisen from the ashes of the spiral-in merger of our former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun at 542 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon. And the asymmetrical nature of the merger explosion gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. (For evolution of our suggested former quadruple star system, see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS).
Secondary debris disk:
The suggested 542 Ma spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion formed a ‘secondary debris disk’ from which the cold classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed, to distinguish it from the suggested 4,568 Ma spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun which formed a ‘primary debris disk’ from which rocky-iron asteroids, carbonaceous chondrites and hot classical KBOs condensed. For the first hours and days (and perhaps longer), the brown-dwarf-merger-nucleosynthesis radioactive decay may have heated the earliest accretionary masses to the melting point of silicates and iron, forming millimeter to meter scale pebbles, cobbles and boulders. As the radioactivity decreased and the temperature declined, basaltic masses froze solid such that subsequent collisions tended to fracture the masses rather than stick them together. A further decline in temperature allowed volatiles to condense to form various types of snow which clumped more effectively than basaltic rock, cobbling together fractured chunks of basaltic rock in a snowy matrix, perhaps 10s or even 100 meters or more in diameter. Over time the brown-dwarf-merger material settled down into a well-behaved low inclination, low eccentricity secondary debris disk from which cold classical KBOs condensed by GI. Additionally, secondary debris disk material accreted onto preexisting hot classical KBOs and scattered disk objects (SDOs), forming a thin veneer on the surface. A number of preexisting minor planets (hot classical KBOs and SDOs) which acquired a veneer of secondary debris disk material are suggested to have been perturbed into the inner solar system in the Phanerozoic Eon, and a few are suggested to have collided with Earth, in extinction-level impacts. So Pluto-meteorwrongs are suggested to have been ferried to Earth as a veneer on trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) (which include both KBOs and SDOs), although the cold classical KBO population which condensed from the secondary debris disk are in stable low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits that haven’t been perturbed into the inner solar system, so only a veneer of brown-dwarf material has found its way to Earth, not entire minor planets condensed from the material.
Incorporation of Pluto-meteorwrongs into carbonate rock:
Aqueous differentiation (melting of water ice) is suggested to have occurred on minor planets of the Kuiper belt and scattered disc from orbital perturbation caused by the loss of the Sun’s Companion (actually the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter). And this orbital perturbation strained the minor planets themselves, causing the melting. Substantial accretion of 2nd-debris-disk material may have contributed to melting as well. Then these saltwater oceans precipitated authigenic carbonate sediments, which in places apparently incorporated 2nd debris disk basaltic rock and metallic iron. The suggested Appalachian KBO, with its Adirondack and Baltimore gneiss domes and the carbonate rock of the Great Limestone Valley, is suggested to have impacted Earth around 443 Ma, causing the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. Local super concentrations of 2nd-debris-disk material are suggested to have been excavated from two round quarries, from the Ledger Formation (Cl) in Conshohocken, PA and from St. Paul group (Osp) in Harrisburg, PA. Doe Run, Pa has considerable 2nd-debris-disk material with up to 1 meter basaltic boulders, which presumably eroded out of Cockeysville Marble (Xc). So presumably, Pluto-meteorwrongs in the Appalachian region may be found in Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rock formations throughout the Great Limestone Valley region of the Appalachians.
Core accretion vs. gravitational instability:
Comets and minor planets are suggested here to have formed by gravitational instability (GI), not by pebble accretion, although super-Earths are suggested to form by ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005) of planetesimals formed by gravitational instability (hence hybrid). In the inner solar system, chondrules are suggested to be the scale of pebble accretion; however, pebble accretion may reach a considerably larger scale in the outer solar system, but still falling far short of the 1 km hurtle necessary for gravitational core accretion to come into play. The 45 m “Cheops” boulder on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko discovered by the Rosetta mission may be an indication of the scale of accretionary masses in the outer solar system which formed local super concentrations swept up by preexisting TNOs, forming veneer on their surfaces. So Ivy Rock quarry and the Harrisburg/Swatara-Township quarry are suggested to be the locations of accretionary super concentrations which were swept up by the 443 Ma Appalachian KBO in the Kuiper belt and then aqueously differentiated into authigenic (extraterrestrial) carbonate rock.
Cohesion in molten masses of Pluto-meteorwrongs:
The heat energy necessary to melt meter-scale basaltic masses of Pluto-meteorwrongs and smaller in zero gravity is suggested to have been the radioactive decay of very-short-lived brown-dwarf-merger-nucleosynthesis radionuclides. These formerly-molten accretionary masses cooled in a wide range of sizes, from centimeter to meter scale and quite possibly larger. With only surface tension holding the molten masses together in zero gravity, small (hand-sample-sized) masses had a vastly-higher surface area to volume ratio than larger meter-scale masses; however, internal bubbles may have effectively increased the surface area, causing internal voids to contribute to the overall cohesive force, particularly benefiting large meter-sized boulders. (Think of a frothy mass of bubbles where every bubble surface is held taught by its entire perimeter, where internal bubbles also contribute to the overall cohesive force.)
Pillow-lava-like masses in Phoenixville, PA:
The 2nd-debris-disk basaltic material discarded along the banks of French Creek in Phoenixville, PA is highly distinctive compared to 2nd-debris-disk material found elsewhere, suggesting a single source. Additionally, a high degree of variability on the ground suggests a high degree of variability (heterogeneity) in the 2nd debris disk of the outer solar system as well. In the Phoenixville material, many decimeter-scale chunks of basaltic material have one distinctly-rounded ‘outer’ surface, like fractured sections of pillow lava. After cooling to the solid state, subsequent collisions have apparently typically fractured the ‘pillows’ into pie-shaped sections, with one relatively-smooth rounded outer surface. The nearest large quarries to Phoenixville are several miles to the south-southwest along Rt. 29 just south of Rt. 76, with two quarries possibly in the Cambrian Ledger Formation, which is the same rock formation that hosts the round crater in Conshohocken from which 2nd-debris-disk material is suggested to have been mined.
Primary-debris-disk vs. 2nd-debris-disk:
The suggested spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma formed a primary debris disk from which asteroids and chondrites condensed in the inner solar system, along with hot classical KBOs in Neptune’s outer resonances. Four billion years later, the suggested spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma formed a secondary debris disk from which (cold classical) KBOs condensed, including binary Pluto. The primary debris disk in the outer solar system is apparently devoid of basaltic rocks with metallic-ion inclusions like that of the secondary debris disk, and the differences between the two spiral-in mergers separated by 4 billion years must explain the disparity. First, the months long duration of the luminous red nova following the primary merger may have largely postponed accretion of solids until after the radionuclides with the shortest half lives had decayed away. Next, while binary-Companion had significant angular momentum around the former solar system barycenter, giving the secondary debris disk significant angular momentum, by comparison, the material of the primary debris disk formed from the binary-Sun merger had comparatively-little angular momentum, so the formation of the primary debris disk may have been much slower process, again postponing the accretion of solids until after the the radionuclides with the shortest half lives had decayed away. Gravitational instability came to the rescue in the inner solar system, condensing kilometer-scale asteroids while iron-60 and aluminum-26 was sufficiently hot to thermally differentiate (melt) asteroids, but vastly smaller meter-scale accretionary masses formed in the outer solar system would have required vastly higher rates of radioactivity that likely died away in the initial hours to days following the binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma. So only the secondary debris disk accreted quickly enough to form meter-scale molten masses, but gravity was nonexistent in meter-scale masses, so the metallic iron is often distributed throughout as various-sized metallic iron inclusions.
Siderophile depletion in the secondary debris disk:
While the primary debris disk disbursed chondritic concentrations of elements (including siderophile elements) the brown-dwarf/super-Jupiter components of binary-Companion had presumably sequestered siderophile elements into an iron core which apparently failed to escape the Companion’s Roche sphere. Some siderophile core material was likely squirted out in polar jets from the merging cores; however, only the more energetic equatorial material apparently escaped the Companion’s Roche sphere to be captured by the Sun, resulting in a siderophile-depleted secondary debris disk, particularly depleted in nickel, sulfur and platinum group elements (PGEs) such as iridium. The brown-dwarf mantles presumably contained a significant iron concentration to pass on to a secondary debris disk, perhaps in the form of silicate perovskite, so while other siderophile elements were significantly depleted, the secondary debris disk was presumably only moderately depleted in iron itself.
Centrifugal differentiation in Pluto-meteorwrongs:
While the gravity of meter-scale masses was nonexistent, the centrifugal force of rotation could create buoyancy in rotating masses of molten basalt and molten metallic iron, which may have been responsible for the largest masses of metallic iron in Pluto-meteorwrongs. And if dense metallic-iron concentrations were centrifugally hurled to the outside of rotating masses cohesively held together by surface tension, bubble voids would similarly tend to be drawn to the center. Thus massive iron would have been buoyed to the perimeter of rotating masses while the metallic iron was completely molten, while nodular masses of iron were apparently buoyed to the perimeter after metallic iron had already frozen solid, but was still warm enough to sinter into a nodular mass.
Natural secondary-debris-disk origin vs. Industrial iron-furnace origin:
Many properties of suggested secondary-debris-disk material are at odds with the well-understood properties of rocky-iron asteroids and carbonaceous chondrites from the asteroid belt, and these differences and its method of transport to Earth conspire against an extraterrestrial interpretation, despite basaltic material with suspended metallic-iron inclusions that couldn’t have cooled from a molten state on the surface of a high-gravity planet, either naturally or in the form of industrial slag.
Low nickel, low PGE:
Low nickel content is the death knoll of suspected meteorites, so the low nickel content of Pluto-meteorwrongs halts any further analysis, such as date testing, that might preclude an industrial origin. A mass spec analysis of nickel in a Pluto-meteorwrong metallic-iron inclusion measured only .2%, with no iridium down to 2 ppb in the basaltic component.
Apparent fusion crust:
Small hand sample sized basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs sometimes appear to have a vanishingly-thin, generally-glassy fusion crust, often jet black. True fusion crust forms by ablation on exposed surfaces of meteorites traveling through Earth’s atmosphere at interplanetary speeds. Pluto-meteorwrongs, however, would have had a low probability of direct exposure to Earth’s atmosphere in vastly-larger TNO impacts, so the vanishingly-thin fusion crust frequently found on basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs may have a different origin, perhaps caused by slow cooling from a molten state in the vacuum of space at zero gravity. By comparison, Iron furnace slag sometimes forms a thick layer of glass which rises to the surface. On Pluto-meteorwrongs, the vanishingly-thin jet black layer most typical of true fusion crust appears to form on fractured surfaces, whereas completely-smooth outer surfaces appear to have been formerly molten, which is not a characteristic of fusion crust. So jet-black pseudo fusion crust may form on Pluto-meteorwrong basaltic masses that collide and fracture while still thermally hot enough to create a jet-black exterior surface by means unknown.
Relationship to the early iron industry:
The discovery of large deposits of (2nd-debris-disk) material containing metallic iron inclusions in carbonate rock may have been dismissed as inefficiently-processed colonial iron-furnace slag dumped into sink holes which eventually filled a large undergound chamber. The material was likely mined for its associated magnetite for iron smelting, whereas the metallic iron and basaltic material contained too many embrittling contaminants and thus were discarded as mining gangue. A small amount of 2nd-debris-disk native iron may have been melted in secondary furnaces for undemanding applications where embrittling contaminants are not a drawback, such as window sash counterweights, since melting native iron directly requires considerably less energy than chemically reducing iron ore to its metallic form. The the slag from these secondary furnaces was apparently discarded along with the excess 2nd-debris-disk basaltic and metallic-iron material, and the mixture of iron-furnace slag with 2nd-debris-disk material is enough to cower even the most inquisitive geologist. Indeed broken pieces of window sash counterweights and broken chunks of cast iron plates are strewn along the West bank of the Schuylkill River in West Conshohocken, PA. Ruins of several secondary furnaces can be found along the East shore of the Schuylkill River in Conshohocken (proper). In one small failed iron furnace, several cubic feet of iron froze solid before it could be extracted (40.0747, -75.2845), and a small 4 foot diameter Bessemer-style iron furnace is moldering nearby (40.0746, -75.283). Ruins of a third, somewhat-larger furnace have been pushed into Plymouth Creek (40.077, -75.3125), about a mile due west of the other two furnaces. Discarded 2nd-debris-disk gangue material is used in several places along paths in parks was even used to a small extent in Conshohocken as railroad ‘track ballast’. Finally, the high calcium oxide percentage in the basaltic in Pluto-meteorwrongs (assayed at 20%) is similar to the calcium oxide percentage in limestone/dolomite-fluxed iron-furnace slag, which certainly doesn’t help the case for a natural origin.
Granular/nodular 2nd-debris-disk material:
A large percentage, perhaps even a majority, of basaltic 2nd-debris-disk material is granular on a millimeter to centimeter scale, which includes similar-sized nodules of metallic iron. Some of the contaminants in the metallic iron must create a impervious stainless-steel-like oxide on the surface in order for the metallic iron to have survived for many decades or perhaps more than a century of exposure to the elements following its abandonment by the iron industry. The metallic-iron component is often nodular in appearance even in larger masses, where it often appears to be composed of sintered iron nodules, only partially melted together. Some masses of nodular iron have chips and larger masses of carbonate rock embedded deep crevices which fizz when subjected to vinegar, pointing to their having eroded out of a carbonate rock formation.
Cement-like coating on 2nd-debris-disk material:
Whitish cement-like coating is common on basaltic and magnetite components of 2nd-debris-disk material. The coating which resembles Portland cement residue is concentrated in crevices and voids where it’s partially sheltered from the effects of weathering. In deep voids and crevices, the grain size is typically larger than in more exposed areas, indicating that the entire surface may have been coated with course granular material prior to weathering following mining excavation. The cement-like coating fizzes when exposed to vinegar, indicating a limestone or dolostone component. By comparison industrial iron-furnace slag (free of metallic-iron inclusions) does not have a cement-like coating. So a rough cement-like coating is suggested to be a good indicator of Pluto-meteorwrongs, but its absence may merely be attributable to weathering.
Economic argument against an industrial origin:
Apart from the impossibility of suspending centimeter-scale globules of metallic iron in molten basalt on high-gravity Earth, the significant percentage of metallic iron in Pluto-meteorwrong basaltic material also argues against an industrial origin. In the years before charcoal was replaced by coke as a fuel for iron smelting, iron furnace fuel was particularly dear, heightening the rewards for efficiency prior to the introduction of lower priced coke derived from coal. A batch of iron-furnace charcoal required twenty-five to fifty cords of split hardwood (quickly denuding woods adjacent to iron furnaces), and these roasting hardwood batches had to be tended around the clock for 10 to 14 days by ‘colliers’ in large charcoal pits, making charcoal production for iron furnaces an industry unto itself. When coke arrived, it was as close as the nearest railroad; however, earlier charcoal production was largely local to each furnace, and had to be hauled in by horse cart at increasingly greater distances as the lowlands became denuded of lumber.
A significant amount of Pluto-meteorwrong native iron curiously contains remarkably little associated basaltic component which may indicate centrifugal differentiation in early rotating accretionary masses prior to cooling. Metallic iron inclusions in basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs tend to be nodular, unlike liquid iron on a high-gravity planet which pools to take the shape of its containing vessel. Larger masses of Pluto-meteorwrong metallic iron often assume three dimensional shapes that couldn’t form in an industrial setting in an open vessel. Additionally, since manufacturing efficiency is enhanced through process and product uniformity, the wide variety of sizes and shapes of metallic iron and basaltic material in Pluto-meteorwrongs argue against an industrial origin. A much stronger argument can be made against the suspension of macroscopic metallic-iron blebs in molten basalt in light of the high differential density between slag and metallic iron and their high differential melting points. Basalt liquidus: 1200 °C, iron: 1538 °C. Basalt density: 3.0 g/ml, iron density: 7.87 g/ml. But, this argument needs to be quantified before it might have even a small chance of being taken seriously.
Massive fractured chunks of magnetite (iron ore) appear to be a common component of 2nd-debris-disk material, and this magnetite is suggested to have been the economic incentive for commercially mining super concentrations of 2nd-debris-disk material, such as from the round Ivy Rock quarry in Conshohocken, PA and the round quarry on Paxton St. in Harrisburg, PA. The cement-like coating common on the basaltic components is also present on massive chunks of magnetite, but it’s absent on high-density bloomery slag and industrial iron-furnace slag (which is likewise free of metallic-iron inclusions). So a cement-like coating comprised of carbonate mineral grains is suggested to be a positive indicator of 2nd-debris-disk material.
A 542 Ma age finding would set 2nd-debris-disk material apart from both the iron industry and asteroidal meteorites, but unfortunately, date testing is largely confined to academic labs and generally unavailable to laymen.
Southeast Pennsylvania locations of 2nd-debris-disk material:
Ivy Rock quarry, Conshohocken, PA, in Cambrian dolostone of the Ledger Formation (Cl):
Ivy Rock quarry, just north of Conshohocken, PA, along Conshohocken Road on the east bank of the Schuylkill River (40.095, -75.315) is suggested to have been the location of a super concentration of 2nd-debris-disk material. Much of the mined 2nd-debris-disk basaltic and metallic-iron gangue material, assumedly mined from the Ivy Rock quarry, was used to level a small triangle of land between Plymouth Creek and I-476, just 1.6 km south of the quarry (40.08, -75.313, with access from Light Street, Conshohocken), and the material has also been used on walkways in nearby parks. Ivy Rock quarry was assumedly mined for its economic magnetite, with the metallic iron and basaltic material discarded in the waste stream due to excessive embrittling contaminants.
Phoenixville, PA, from Ledger dolostone(?):
In Phoenixville, PA, a significant quantity of pillow-lava-like fragments are mixed with industrial iron furnace slag from the nearby Phoenixville iron works. The material has been tumbled into French Creek ravine from the south bank, between N. Main St. and Ashland St. (40.135, -75.513), just east of Phoenixville Foundry (although recent building construction has fenced off access to a majority of the material). The rock formation from which the material was presumably mined is unknown, but may have been from the quarries in the Ledger Formation where the formation is crossed by Rt. 29, just below Rt. 76.
Doe Run, PA in Cockeysville Marble:
Doe Run, PA area has a particularly-diverse range of native iron specimens, many apparently pitched to fence posts of farmer’s fields (39.915, -75.816). The associated basaltic components are generally fractured fragments from larger boulders.
Harrisburg, PA quarry, in Ordovician limestone/dolostone of the St. Paul group (Osp):
Much of the 2nd-debris-disk material used as clean fill in the Harrisburg, PA area is suggested to have been excavated from the former quarry in the 2200 block of Paxton St. Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 (40.256, -76.847). Because transportation is a large portion of the cost of clean fill, material is generally sourced and used locally, making the former quarry on Paxton St. the most-likely origin of the 2nd-debris-disk material in the Harrisburg Area. The similar size and shape of the two quarries in Conshohocken and Harrisburg, historical iron furnaces in both locations along with an abundance of 2nd-debris-disk gangue material used as clean fill in both areas are suggested to be too many coincidences. 2nd-debris-disk material has been used in an abandoned road spur off Paxton Ave. at Paxton Ministries (40.2545, -76.8505), barely a stone’s throw from the quarry itself. Basaltic chunks and magnetite can be found scattered along the southwest bank of City Island in the Susquehanna River (with island access from Market Street Bridge). Pluto-meteorwrongs have been used as clean fill on the East Shore of the Susquehanna River to extend residential parking on the river side of Front St. in Enola, PA. Pluto-meteorwrongs have been found as far west as Wesley Dr. in Mechanicsburg, PA.
Natural limonite and man-made meteorwrongs:
Ferric and ferrous cations leached from local 2nd-debris-disk super concentrations may form secondary limonite concretions on surrounding swampy land. Limonite likely contains even fewer fewer embrittling contaminants than 2nd-debris-disk magnetite, making limonite with a high percentage of iron desirable for iron smelting.
“Bloomery smelting” is the earliest known form of iron smelting which ushered in the iron age. It creates distinctive high-density ‘bloomery slag’ or ‘tap slag’ with flow lines evident on the surface that can’t easily be confused with anything else. Bloomery slag can be found throughout the Roman Empire and in Medieval settlements, and bloomery smelting was apparently even practiced in colonial America based based on bloomery slag found in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Bloomery smelting requires a careful control of the temperature to keep it below the melting point of metallic iron but above the melting point of the iron ore, creating a small amount of spongy metallic iron after the high-density slag flows out near the bottom of the furnace. The ropy flow lines on the surface of bloomery slag are evidence of its having trickled out of small ovens, typically on the order of a cubic meter in size. Larger and vastly more efficient blast furnaces would have quickly displaced bloomery smelting in colonial America in the early 19th century. Finally, as expected, bloomery slag does not exhibit cement-like coating on its outer surfaces, characteristic of 2nd-debris-disk material.
Microscopic examination of iron-furnace slag from historic Cornwall and Johanna furnaces reveals micron-scale metallic-iron spherule (requiring magnification) and nothing larger. The microscopic spherules are most apparent in thin chips of translucent, glassy slag with strong back lighting at 100X magnification. The spherules come into focus and disappear as one varies the depth of focus, revealing hundreds of spherules per cubic centimeter, with a distinctive upper size limit dictated by the high negative buoyancy of metallic iron in molten glassy slag on the surface of our high-gravity planet. By comparison, massive TNO-crust frequently contains millimeter to centimeter-scale metallic-iron blebs which are many orders of magnitude larger than the microscopic spherules in iron-furnace slag.
Silicides, Fe3Si, Cr3Si, Mn3Si, and particularly CaSi, may be components of highly-reduced 2nd-debris-disk basaltic material; however, chunks of high-purity silicides with chrome-like brilliance on fractured surfaces are almost certainly manufactured products for the steel and alloy industry. Calcium silicide is used as a deoxidizer and for removing removing phosphorus in steel manufacturing, and specialty silicides and ferroalloys are used to introduce carefully-controlled additives to make alloy steel and non-ferrous alloys.
Examples from elsewhere:
– “Strange Rock Reports”
(with cement-like coating)
– MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMENS OF A METEORWRONG “FALL” FROM NW IRAN
(with cement-like coating)
This section discusses a characteristic class of isolated boulder fields with uniformly weathered surfaces that often exhibit deep pits and striations not found in boulders outside their narrow confines. This section makes an argument for their catastrophic origin in seconds to minutes from secondary strikes of ice sloughed off from icy-body objects like comets or larger trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), rather than the relative gradualism of an exaggerated freeze and thaw cycle toward the end of the last glacial period as suggested by most academic sources.
Boulder fields of impact origin would tend to be randomly located within a possibly-vast strewn field and therefore generally unassociated with scree and talus slopes below steep cliff faces where boulder fields are well known to form. The suggested randomness of impact fields, however, appear to be highly skewed to the rugged terrain of mountains, hills and slopes which would seem to obviate the random argument. True, mountains may provide significant obstacles for objects in exceedingly-oblique approach angles to Earth that may be nearly parallel to the limb of the planet, but other reasons are hypothesized to predominate. Slopes, relatively unprotected from impacts by thin soils, provide potential energy to concentrate boulders into downhill boulder fields by catastrophic debris flows in the seconds and minutes following impact. Additionally, we may be largely unaware of the effect of secondary impact sites on level ground, partly due to the original protection afforded to the bedrock by thicker lowland soil, but mostly due to their lack of concentration on level ground and due to their subsequent burial by thick lowland sediments. Finally, small boulder fields on low ground may have been largely scavenged for use as building stone, particularly for stone fences, in the early colonial years.
So secondary-impact breccia may form rapid downhill debris flows from a strike higher up on sloped terrain, and a debris flow into a shallow v-shaped gully may serve to concentrate boulders many stories deep. And deeply stacked boulder fields on sloping terrain will make effective French drains to clear the original debris flow sediments and keep it clear of future sedimentation: the relative absence of plant life is a notable characteristic of hypothesized impact boulder fields. Eastern Pennsylvania alone boasts two Ringing Rocks boulder fields, two Blue Rocks boulder fields (near Hawk Mountain, Berks County Park) and Hickory Run boulder field (Hickory Run State Park), as well as numerous smaller boulder unnamed boulder fields scattered throughout the ridge-and-valley terrain of the Appalachians.
Boulder fracturing mechanisms:
In addition to ‘impulse fracturing’, deep surface striations scoured into bedrock by entrained masses of super-high velocity slurries may provide leverage for super-high-pressure shock wave to split rock by tension. And high-pressure high-temperature phyllosilicate slurries are hypothesized to have rock-fracturing properties which may also contribute to bedrock fragmentation. (See section: PHYLLOSILICATE PROPERTIES).
Boulder cup marks from cairn of Great Britain:
Pitting and striations common in boulder fields of Southeastern Pennsylvania are also known on boulders in burial Clava cairns and other stone monument structures in Great Britain. In more-highly populated regions of the Old World, impact boulder fields may have been heavily scavenged for use as building stone, except where sacred monuments preserved them in part. Coincidentally, cairns are often found in uplands, moorland or moors (a type of habitat found in upland areas) and on mountaintops where impact boulder fields tend to form. In Great Britain, pitting associated with cairn boulders are known as ‘cup marks’, with concentric ‘ring marks’, likely added by hand for emphasis. Imagine the prehistoric world of 12,900 years ago with a dwarf planet bearing down on the planet. Intermittent meteoric flashes brighter than the Sun accompanied by a thunderous roar that broke eardrums and collapsed lungs were accompanied by a rain of icy material at interplanetary speed in sufficient density to reduce northern populations to a remnant of their former numbers. All this was visited on primitive people before the advent of agriculture in Great Britain by angry gods apparently intent on world destruction. The sudden appearance of boulder fields were accompanied by special boulders containing sacred writing from angry gods. And so the creation of boulder monuments marking upland boulder fields from the gods, with their sacred texts prominently displayed, is just what one might expect from primitive peoples with modern language development.
The academic geology explanation of boulder fields formed by exaggerated freezing and thawing cycles during the end of the last glacial period does not explain their segregation into narrow boulder fields. Take another example from nature which actually happened to me: imagine you’re driving through the countryside and notice that lots of trees have been knocked down in the woods on both sides of the highway, which have been ground into mounds of wood chips. You might justifiably think that a tornado had recently passed through, but as you continue to drive, you slowly become aware that the damage has gone on for 10s of miles uninterrupted, and you’d do well to alter your opinion to that of an ice storm, which tends to affect vastly-larger areas than tornadoes. In a reverse analogy, when you think of freezing and thawing cycles during the end the ice age you imagine vast swaths of the North American continent beyond the ice sheet, not very-few highly-defined boulder fields with astonishing local concentrations of boulders.
Finally, several characteristic boulder fields exhibit the unusual property that some individual boulders ring like a bell when sharply struck with a hard object such as another rock or a hammer. Two diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania independently go by the name ‘Ringing Rocks’.
Perhaps all of the relatively-recent impact boulder fields were caused by a single event which ended the Pleistocene, some 11,700 + 1,400 – 0.0 years ago, causing the local extinction of 33 megafaunal genera on the North American continent as well as ending the Clovis culture. But rather a than moderate-sized comet airburst over the Laurentide ice sheet, as suggested by proponents of the YD impact hypothesis, a vastly-larger TNO impact may have formed the 430 km Nastapoka Arc basin of lower Hudson Bay. Icy-body impacts are hypothesized to form basins rather than craters when relatively compressible ices clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target-rock silicates and the formation of shatter cones, masking their impact origins. (See section: ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL)
This hypothesized, end-Pleistocene impact event was apparently accompanied by
legions of secondary impacts suggested to be composed of sloughed off icy crust, apparently from an exceedingly oblique approach through the Earth’s atmosphere that almost missed the Earth altogether. The apparently astronomical quantity of secondary strikes should be suggestive of a non-fortuitous causal mechanism, rather than mere secondary ad hoc mechanisms, such as a collision with another planetesimal or a fortuitous close encounter with one of the giant planets.
Impact boulder-field characteristics:
Pockmarks and striations on boulders in several isolated boulder fields across Pennsylvania are suggestive of high energy processes. Two discrete diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania, separated by more than 50 kilometers, have several distinctive properties in common that they do not share with loose diabase boulders in between. Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Black Eddy, PA and Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Pottsgrove Township, PA share several distinctive properties:
1) a deep field of boulders, many stories high which make a French drain and prevent soil accumulation, precluding most plant life,
2) relatively-recently fractured boulders with a similar degree of weathering on all surfaces indicative of a simultaneous catastrophic origin,
3) similar surface features on some boulders, such as pockmarks, pot holes and striations indicative of a catastrophic origin since the limited degree of surface weathering precludes their formation by erosion,
4) some boulders ring like bells when sharply struck with a hard object as if the rocks had acquired a surface tension rind during the hypothesized, catastrophic, super-high pressure shock wave,
5) Subconchoidal fracturing of monolithic diabase also points to the tremendous force and energy of a catastrophic origin.
Other Southeastern Pennsylvania boulder fields in sandstone and quartzite, such as Hickory Run State Park boulder field and Blue Rocks campground boulder field on Hawk Mountain exhibit the first 3 of the 5 (above) properties exhibited by diabase boulder fields, but lack the ringing quality of diabase rocks. Sedimentary rocks tend to be more brittle and perhaps less erosion resistant than diabase and thus can not be as finely sculpted to begin with, and the features tend to erode faster afterward. Sedimentary rocks also tends to split along bedding planes, which eliminate the subconchoidal fracturing property of diabase boulder fields which point to catastrophic origins. And in particular, Blue Rocks quartzite boulders appear to be particularly susceptible to bioerosion by lichen.
Extinction events separating geologic periods and shorter intervals are often correlated with unconformities and bright-line sedimentary layers, both of which may be attributable to impact events. The YD extinction event has its own bright-line layer known as the ‘black mat’.
“The layer contains unusual materials (nanodiamonds, metallic microspherules, carbon spherules, magnetic spherules, iridium, charcoal, soot, and fullerenes enriched in helium-3) interpreted as evidence of an impact event, at the very bottom of the ‘black mat’ of organic material that marks the beginning of the Younger Dryas.”
(Wikipedia: Younger Dryas impact hypothesis)
SPECIFIC KINETIC ENERGY OF LONG-PERIOD IMPACTS:
The orbital velocity of the earth makes a dramatic difference in the kinetic energy of comet impacts. For a comet falling from infinity toward the sun at earth’s orbit, the ratio of kinetic energy between comets hitting earth head-on in its orbit around the sun and those catching up with earth is a factor of 19, but most fall somewhere in between. (This calculation factors in earth’s gravity.)
Earth escape velocity: 11.2 km/s
Earth, orbital velocity: 29.8 km/s
Body falling from infinity towards the sun to a distance of 1 AU: 42.2 km/s (calculated from gravitational potential energy and checked by comparing velocity falling from infinity to the diameter of the sun with the escape velocity of the sun)
Running into the earth head on in its orbit:
42.2 km/s + 29.78 km/s = 71.98 km/s
71.98 * 71.98 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 5181.12 + 125.21 = 5306.33 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Catching up with earth in its orbit:
42.2 km/s – 29.78 km/s = 12.42 km/s
12.42 * 12.42 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 154.26 + 125.21 = 279.47 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Specific kinetic energy ratio between hitting the earth head-on and catching up with earth in its orbit:
5306.33 / 279.47 = 18.99
Dwarf comets having fallen through Proxima’s 3:1 ‘resonant nursery’ resonance will orbit CCW in the Oort cloud like the planets. If the solar-system barycenter (SS-barycenter) acts as an aphelia attractor that pins Oort cloud orbits in its vicinity to the SS-barycenter, then the 73.6 Myr orbit of the Sun around the SS-barycenter will align these pinned orbits with the Galactic core twice per orbit, causing the tidal effect of the Galactic core to gradually reduce their perihelia by extracting angular momentum from the orbits until they dip into the planetary realm of the inner solar system. And the dwarf planets most likely to collide with Earth will have perihelia on the order of 1 AU. These objects would catch up with Earth in its CCW orbit and impact at almost the lowest possible speed.
Finally, comet ice may undergo endothermic chemical reactions (ECRs) in comet impacts, mostly clamping the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of rock.
SPIRAL GALAXY FORMATION BY CONDENSATION:
This section suggests that spiral galaxies ‘condensed’ during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by endothermic temperature clamping in early baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO).
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated ‘proto-galaxies’.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies; however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs. Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound. Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being. And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent ‘BBN-rebound’ of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.
Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle. Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole. (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.) Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes. Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.
And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum. So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse. Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase. So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum. The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.
And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies. Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found. Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.
DARK MATTER AND GALAXY FORMATION:
Two states of giant molecular clouds (GMCs):
A. Dark matter GMCs in ‘normal state’:
Gravitationally-bound giant molecular clouds (GMCs), generally composed of smaller gravitationally-bound entities (Bok globules), orbit the galactic core on disk-crossing halo orbits. GMCs are dark if their acquired stellar metallicity has ‘snowed out’ into the solid phase of icy chondrules, sequestering it from detection, since the remaining primordial molecular hydrogen and helium effectively don’t emit or absorb below (Lyman-alpha) UV frequencies. To avoid confusion, giant molecular clouds in their invisible dark matter state will be designated, ‘globule clusters’.
B. Opaque GMCs in ‘excited state’:
Giant molecular clouds on shallow orbits to the disk plane are exposed to significantly-more stellar radiation than their steep-orbit ‘halo’ counterparts, with stellar radiation subliming icy chondrules, creating opaque gaseous metallicity. And gaseous stellar metallicity lowers the ‘speed of sound’, increasing the ‘sound crossing time’ through dark clouds which promotes Jeans instability, causing excited Bok globules to tend to gravitationally collapse and condense stars.
Epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Endothermic condensation of proto-spiral-galaxies cored with direct-collapse supermassive black holds (SMBHs):
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by merger to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the cores of galaxies. Alternatively, perhaps SMBHs formed much earlier during the epoch of BBN in gravitational collapse mediated by endothermic photodisintegration of helium to form direct collapse SMBHs with gravitationally-bound halos of hydrogen and helium, constituting proto-spiral-galaxies.
While unassisted gravitational collapse can only occur after the universe becomes matter (vs. radiation) dominated around z = 2740 (and then only at the horizon size), this ideology suggests assisted (nearly-isothermal) collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission in the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), with supermassive black hole formation as a latching mechanism, preventing thermal rebound.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today still bears the imprint of BAO compressions and rarefactions from the epoch when electrons first combined with protons to form neutral hydrogen, removing the plasma fog from the universe about 378,000 years after the Big Bang. The epoch of recombination only marks the end of the era of baryon acoustic oscillations, so the process was in full swing 378,000 years earlier during Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). During the epoch of BBN (10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang), while hydrogen fusion was in thermal equilibrium with helium photodissociation (helium fission), BAO compressions of the plasma continuum are suggested to have initiated nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission which prevented thermal rebound. And the ambient temperature and pressure dictated the size of the the Bonnor–Ebert mass of fragmentation in BBN collapse, which is suggested to be the size range of spiral galaxies today, including their dark matter halos, designated ‘proto-spiral-galaxies’ prior to the formation of Population II stars. So runaway gravitational collapse during the epoch of BBN is suggested fragmented Bonnor–Ebert masses which drove BBN backwards, photodissociating helium into its constituent protons and neutrons and ending with direct-collapse supermassive black holes in the cores of gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxy ‘island universes’. And the Tully–Fisher relation, which relates the mass or intrinsic luminosity of (condensed) spiral galaxies with their rotation velocity–essentially their specific angular momentum–is suggested to be the result of asymmetrical fragmentation of spherically-symmetrical BAO compressions, perhaps with differential compression prior to fragmentation imparting a differential spin.
Intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, and sequestered, secondary, proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound’:
So the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum is suggested to have been condensed (sequestered) into warmer proto-spiral-galaxies during the BBN era, causing unsequestered intergalactic baryons to establish the effective baryon density of the universe in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, as measured by the survival ratio of fragile BBN isotopes, namely deuterium, helium-3 and lithium. Gravitational collapse fragmentation into proto-galaxies effectively reversed proto-galactic BBN, with endothermic photodisintegration of helium back into protons and neutrons. Thermal rebound from photodisintegration amounted to ‘BBN rebound’, reburning protons and neutrons to form helium-4, but if the nuclear reaction in the context of exponential cosmic expansion govern all the parameters (temperature, pressure, baryon density and photon-to-baryon ratio), then there are no variables in the process so the outcome of intergalactic primary BBN and secondary, proto-galactic BBN rebound should be identical to within boundary conditions, including the survival ratio of low binding energy isotopes, thus creating identical D/H and lithium to hydrogen ratios. Fine tuning of parameters by nuclear reactions can be seen in the cores of brown dwarfs and protostars in their deuterium burning phase, when the core temperature is clamped at 1 million Kelvins, regardless of size, causing .05 M⊙ brown dwarfs to 100+ M⊙ protostars burn deuterium at exactly 1 million Kelvins until it’s depleted. Boundary conditions during BBN rebound in proto-spiral-galaxy BBN rebound, however, might tweak conditions ever so slightly, showing up most prominently in the most fragile BBN isotope, lithium-6, perhaps accounting for the ‘strong lithium anomaly’ of lithium-6. The observed lithium isotope ratio, 7Li/6Li, is low by a factor of about 50 from the calculated value, which is known as the strong lithium anomaly (P. Bruskiewich 2007). If so, then the strong lithium anomaly may be more pronounced in spiral galaxies than in dwarf galaxies and intergalactic clouds.
Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies is similar to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then the baryon density calculated from BBN isotopes would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent coincidence of sequestered proto-galaxies at the epoch of BBN to the sequestered dark matter today may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM in today’s universe, wherein as much as half of the supposed baryons of the universe (based on baryon density) can not be found. The scale of the missing baryons in today’s universe suggests that the actual percent of dark matter to luminous matter may be closer to a ratio of 10:1 than the stated ratio of about 5:1.
So, assisted (nearly-isothermal) gravitational collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority (~ 4/5) of baryons into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, perhaps in the range of 10E9 M⊙ and larger, with each cored with a direct-collapse supermassive black hole. The proto-spiral-galaxies would have been hydrostatically supported between their outward-directed differential radiation pressure, compared to the intergalactic ambient pressure, and their inward-directed differential gravitational attraction, apparently causing proto-spiral-galaxies to expand and cool over time along with the universe as a whole.
Epoch of recombination:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, cored with Population III stars:
At the epoch of recombination, 378,000 years after the Big Bang at z = 1100, the proton and electron plasma reacted to form neutral hydrogen, decoupling photons from the Big Bang continuum. Decoupling photons eliminated a the most significant component of hydrostatic pressure in the universe, allowing local gravitational collapse. And once initiated, gravitational collapse was sustained by nearly-isothermal conditions mediated by endothermic ionization. The fragmentation scale at z = 1100 is suggested to have been on the order of 105 – 106 M⊙, condensing the universe into gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, first condensing the intergalactic medium and later moving into the warmer proto-spiral-galaxies. The scale of collapse, with 105 – 106 M⊙ piling on, easily bridged the transition from ionization to deuterium burning, which stabilized the collapsing core at 1 million Kelvins.
Additionally, a very few of the largest fragmenting nebulae may have continued collapsing to form direct-collapse black holes in their cores rather than Population III stars during gravitational-collapse formation, perhaps forming temporary quasi-stars.
Population III stars formed at recombination:
As suggested, when a circa 105 – 106 M⊙ collapsing nebulae fragmentation reached the 1 million Kelvin temperature of deuterium ignition, the core stabilized, even as overlying material continued to pile on. Deuterium burning is well known to clamp the core temperature in protostars and to cause circulation, refreshing the deuterium in the core. The limits of circulation in a 105 – 106 M⊙ object, however, likely caused the very center became deuterium depleted in time, allowing further contraction to ignite the proton-proton (pp) chain reaction to form a Population III star. Proton-proton hydrogen fusion caused the Population III star to exceed its Eddington luminosity, throwing off the vast majority of the overlying mass, which for the most part apparently remained gravitationally bound within the nebulae’s Roche sphere. If the final demise of Population III stars was predominantly pair-instability supernovae in the range of 130 to 250 solar masses, then most Population III stars would not have left stellar remnants, i.e., no white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes, only Population III star and pair-instability supernova nucleosynthesis product contamination in gravitationally-bound nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
So the universe is suggested to have undergone gravitational collapse induced by recombination which fragmented into 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound nebulae, cored with Population III stars. The intergalactic continuum presumably condensed first, before condensing warmer proto-spiral-galaxies as they reached recombination temperature. And the Population III stars formed by nebulae collapse contributed Population III star nucleosynthesis isotopes to their nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
Epoch of reionization:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into 100+ M⊙ ‘globules’:
The epoch of reionization is suggested to have occurred when sufficient intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae atomic hydrogen atoms had combined to form molecular hydrogen, allowing radiative cooling to the 200 K range, promoting nebulae to collapse and fragment into 100+ M⊙ globules. So the characteristic fragmentation size at the epoch of reionization is suggested to be that of circa 100 M⊙ (Bok) globules. And the largest globules continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which partially reionized the universe, beginning about 150 million years after the Big Bang. Because of the relative isolation of nebulae, even within densified proto-spiral-galaxies and accretionary dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies, intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae may have condensed nearly simultaneously. Instead of location, nebula size may have dictated the timing of condensation into globules, with small nebulae condensing first, while the largest globular-cluster-sized nebulae may have held out until around 2 billion years after the Big Bang, about a billion years after the official end of the epoch. Additionally, larger nebulae were more likely to create the Population II supergiant stars that induced smaller globules to collapse into stars as well.
Nebula condensation into globules (‘globule cluster’):
The state change of nebulae which underwent collapse into globules at reionization merits name change, so gravitationally-bound nebulae which have condensed into gravitationally-bound hydrostatic globules will be designated, ‘globule clusters’. Parenthetical (Bok) globules, will be defined as invisible dark matter globules with their stellar metallicity frozen into the solid state of icy chondrules, whereas the absence of parentheses will indicate the familiar opaque Bok globules of giant molecular clouds, which have a significant component of sublimed (gaseous) stellar metallicity.
Cosmic inflation and gravitational concentration of nebulae formed at recombination is suggested to have created a cosmic (sponge-like) web of baryonic nebulae, with accretionary concentrations along filaments, nodes and around proto-spiral-galaxies and galaxy clusters, with significant nodal concentrations forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, in the prescribed ΛCDM fashion, albeit with baryonic (globule-cluster) dark matter. So this alternative punctuated equilibrium ideology superimposes top-down proto-spiral-galaxy condensation onto bottom up ΛCDM accretionary formation of (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies.
Condensation of nebulae into globule clusters at reionization didn’t effect on the accretionary process into the cosmic web in the process of forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies at densified nodes, but condensation of nebulae into globules at reionization primed the globule clusters to induce Jeans instability gas collide, possibly causing globules to ‘go nuclear’ and condense stars. Suggested globule cluster accretion at nodes and in large-galaxy halos in the last 13 billion years resulted/results in wildly varying dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with some concentrations being almost-entirely dark (low-surface-brightness galaxies) while others have undergone episodes of intense star burst activity.
Gravitational accretions of nebulae at cosmic-web nodes are suggested to have formed (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, with widely-varying baryonic dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with the first Population II stars suggested to have formed in the epoch of reionization.
“The fraction of ionising radiation escaping into the intergalactic medium is inversely dependent on halo mass, decreasing from 50 to 5 per cent in the mass range log M/M⊙ = 7.0 – 8.5.” (Wise et al. 2014) So the vast majority of the ionizing radiation in the universe during reionization was apparently leaked from more numerous and vastly more-transparent dwarf galaxies, presumably by large, early Population II stars which ionized the loose intergalactic gas which gave the epoch its name. Later Population II stars presumably had a smaller initial mass function than early Population II stars, since the first Population II stars presumably collapsed the oversized globules, many into supergiant stars, during the globule condensation process.
If early Population II stars reionized the universe, as suggested here, then Population II stars in this ideology may be confused with Population III stars in ΛCDM cosmology, where ΛCDM cosmology suggests that Population III stars formed during reionization.
Following recombination, as the cosmic ambient temperature continued to decrease, an ever increasing ratio of the atomic hydrogen in gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’ reacted to form molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen allowed radiative cooling down to the 200 K, allowing nebulae to undergo gravitational collapse and fragmentation in the epoch of reionization to form circa 100 solar mass gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules within gravitationally-bound nebulae, thereafter designated ‘globule clusters’. And and the largest globules presumably continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which reionized the universe from 150 million years (z = 20) after the Big Bang to 1 billion years after the Big Bang (z = 6).
The ΛCDM tenets of non-baryonic dark matter:
1) “The primordial D/H ratio [from BBN] constrains the baryon density to Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002, assuming standard BBN.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
2) “Recently, CMB anisotropies have provided an entirely independent way to constrain the baryon density, yielding Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
1) Epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Canonical BBN isotope ratios:
The baryon density of the universe (Ωbh2) is adjusted for cosmic expansion by the Hubble constant, which makes the baryon density a universal constant for all time. A related parameter from the epoch BBN is the baryon-to-photon ratio, eta (η), which controlled the survival of the fragile nucleosynthesis isotopes deuterium, helium-3 and lithium following BBN. The baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratios are derived quantities, however, based on the observed deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio, and the D/H ratio is more reliable than the the lithium assessment because stars can only consume deuterium, whereas stars can both consume and create lithium. The apparent low degree of baryon density uncertainty (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002) from the epoch of BBN, however, should tempered by the ‘missing baryon problem’ today, since something like half the assumed baryon density in the universe can’t be accounted for, and ΛCDM ignores the possibility that baryon sequestration could artificially lower the effective (measured) baryon density.
Accounting for Ωbh2 and η with sequestered baryonic dark matter:
Endothermic assisted gravitational collapse with fragmentation during the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum from participation in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, by condensing these baryons into warmer gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, which is suggested to have split Big Bang nucleosynthesis into two subperiods, the intergalactic ‘primary BBN superiod’ and late proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, where late proto-galactic BBN rebound effectively extended the epoch of BBN, when cosmic expansion had cooled warmer proto-galaxies to the same temperature, pressure, local baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratio as in primary BBN, forming the same canonical BBN isotope ratios (D/H et al.) in proto-galaxies as in the intergalactic realm.
So nucleosynthesis with strong thermal equilibrium feedback (where hydrogen fusion is in thermal equilibrium with photodissociation helium fission) is suggested to control, conditions, removing BBN variables other than modest boundary effects, causing late BBN rebound in sequestered proto-spiral-galaxies to mirror primary BBN, allowing sequestered baryonic matter to pass for uncoupled (WIMP et al.) dark matter.
2) Epoch of recombination:
Cosmic microwave background CMB anisotropies:
The intergalactic baryon density at the epoch of ‘recombination’ is recorded in CMB anisotropies as a relic of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) of the epoch, and this number (Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001) is in close agreement with the intergalactic baryon density derived from BBN (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002); however, the missing baryon problem in today’s universe casts a shadow over the high degree of correlation in the two earlier epochs. So with something on the order of half the supposed baryons missing today, all we know with confidence is the the high degree of correlation of the effective baryon density at BBN and recombination, and the correlation is suggested to be consistent (~ 4/5) proto-galaxy baryon sequestration in the two epochs.
So in the same way that BBN may have splintered into two subperiods, the early, intergalactic ‘primary BBN subperiod’, and the late, secondary, proto-galaxy ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, recombination may have splintered into two subperiods as well,
1) the early, intergalactic ‘primary recombination subperiod’, and
2) the late, proto-galaxy ‘secondary recombination subperiod’,
with proto-galaxy sequestration effectively extending the epoch of recombination into warmer proto-galaxies.
The suggested ‘secondary recombination subperiod’ CMB photons would have diluted the primary BAO intergalactic signal and may have superimposed a low multipole proto-spiral-galaxy signal—perhaps the axis of evil—over the higher multipole signal from the epoch of recombination.
Finally, because there’s no correlation between the baryon-to-photon ratio at BBN and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon density in today’s universe, sequestered baryonic matter can not be ruled out based on the CMB photon density.
So if proto-galaxy condensation during the epoch of BBN could mask roughly 4/5 of the baryons in the universe from participating in primary intergalactic primary BBN and in intergalactic primary BAO, then the two tenets supporting non-baryonic dark matter might be greatly compromised.
“H2 may go unseen because its standard tracer, CO, is under-abundant (or frozen out) or because the gas is too cold for excitation to occur. Cold H2 is a candidate for hidden mass or ’dark matter’ in the universe, not at a level to change the global cosmological distribution of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, but as contribution to the galactic baryonic dark matter (Combes & Pfenninger 1997; Kalberla et al. 2001 p. 297ff).”
(Kroetz et al., 2009)
“Molecular hydrogen is very difficult to detect. None of its transitions lie in the visible part of the spectrum. It has no radio lines. The molecular hydrogen is a homo nuclear molecule and has no permanent dipole moment. Because of this it does not have rotation vibration spectrum.” (Detection Of Molecular Hydrogen In Interstellar Medium, 2013)
But with early sequestration into proto-spiral-galaxies, and with intermediate sequestration into globule clusters, and with late metallicity sequestration into icy chondrules, baryonic dark matter is indeed suggested to be the illusive dark matter of the universe.
Jeans instability in Bok globules:
Stellar radiation sublimation of icy chondrules in Bok globules creates gaseous stellar metallicity which raises the average molecular weight of the gas phase of Bok globules, decreasing the speed of sound which reduces their ability to rebound from positive pressure spikes. But if increasing stellar metallicity causes the sound crossing time to exceed the free-fall time, the region may undergo gravitational collapse to form a star. Radiative evaporation of volatile hydrogen by giant stars may supercharge the metallicity of dark clouds, promoting Jeans instability in sub-stellar-sized masses, enabling brown dwarfs and rogue (gas-giant) planets to condense directly.
The initial gravitational collapse in protostars is nearly isothermal as long as the contracting cloud remains transparent to infrared radiation. When the central density in protostars reaches about 10^-13 g/cm-3, a small region starts to become opaque, “and the compression become approximately adiabatic”. “The central temperature and pressure then begin to rise rapidly, soon becoming sufficient to decelerate and stop the collapse at the centre. There then arises a small central ‘core’ in which the material has stopped collapsing and is approaching hydrostatic equilibrium” [formation of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC)]. “The initial mass and radius of the core are about 10^31 g and 6×10^13 cm, respectively, and the central density and temperature at this time are about 2 x 10^-10 g/cm-3 and 170° K.”
Larson suggests the second hydrostatic core begins forming at about 2000 K when hydrogen molecules begin to dissociate. “This reduces the ratio of specific heats, gamma, below the critical value 4/3, with the result that the material at the center of the core becomes unstable and begins to collapse dynamically.” (Larson 1969) However, experimental testing suggests that molecular hydrogen dissociation occurs over a temperature range of around 6,000 K – 8,000 K (Magro et al. 1996) which may grade directly into hydrogen ionization, forming a mixture of molecular-hydrogen + atomic-hydrogen + plasma. Figure 3 in Magro shows the nearly-isothermal decrease in kinetic energy occurring in the dissociation/ionization temperature range, indicating an endothermic event which promotes run-away gravitational collapse to form the ‘second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC).
Dearth of dark matter in elliptical galaxy problem:
“Current thinking is that most if not all elliptical galaxies may be the result of a long process where two or more galaxies of comparable mass, of any type, collide and merge.” (Elliptical galaxy, Wikipedia)
“The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. The galaxies’ velocity dispersion profiles are found to decline with radius; dynamical modeling of the data indicates the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This surprising result conflicts with findings in other
galaxy types, and poses a challenge to current galaxy formation theories.”
(Romanowsky et al. 2003)
“Whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor, this is at odds with predictions from current ΛCDM cosmological simulations.”
(Lane et al. 2014)
Non-baryonic elementary-particle dark-matter hypotheses (WIMPs, axions, sterile neutrinos et al.) have trouble explaining the low dark matter to luminous matter ratios observed in elliptical galaxies, whereas the alternative dark-matter globule-cluster ideology predicts that galactic collisions will tend to convert dark-matter globule clusters to star clusters, reducing the dark matter to luminous matter ratio.
The cuspy halo problem:
Non-baryonic cold dark matter simulations predict cuspy distributions in galactic cores, that is a steep power-law mass-density distribution (like a y=1/x inverse function), predicting ever increasing dark matter concentrations down to the SMBH of the core. Instead, “The rotation velocity associated with dark matter in the inner parts of disk galaxies is found to rise approximately linearly with radius” (de Blok 2009), which is termed a ‘cored distribution.
Secondary solutions have been proposed to remedy the cuspy halo problem, such as its disbursal by supernovae, along fine tuning solutions, such as tuning the degree of self-interaction of dark matter, whereas baryonic dark matter globule clusters that convert to star clusters in regions of high stellar concentrations, such as in globular clusters and in galactic bulges, predict low to absent dark matter in galactic cores, making globular baryonic dark matter predictive rather than problematic.
– Endothermic collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have condensed a majority (~ 4/5) of the baryons of the universe into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies cored with supermassive black holes during the epoch of recombination.
– Toward the end of the epoch of recombination, radiative cooling is suggested to have condensed both the intergalactic continuum and proto-spiral galaxies into gravitationally-bound 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae, cored by Population III stars which infused the universe with Population III star nucleosynthesis. Intergalactic nebulae began clumping into a cosmic web, with densified nodes forming into proto-dwarf-galaxies.
– By the epoch of reionization, a sufficient quantity of hydrogen had reacted into its molecular form to allow radiative cooling to condense 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules, with the largest globules spontaneously collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars which partially reionized the universe, where nebulae composed of (Bok) globules are designated, ‘globule clusters’ or alternatively, ‘giant molecular clouds’.
– Continued cooling, caused stellar metallicity to ‘snow out’ into the solid state, forming nearly-invisible (Bok) globules composed of gaseous helium and molecular hydrogen with stellar metallicity sequestered into the solid state of icy chondrules, with globule clusters as the dark matter reservoirs of the universe.
– Spiral-galaxy globule clusters on steeply-inclined halo orbits pass through the disk plane relatively unaffected, but globule clusters on shallow inclination orbits to the disk plane receive vastly-higher doses of stellar radiation, which may sublime icy chondrules, increasing the gaseous molecular weight which promotes Jeans instability, converting formerly dark-matter globule clusters (giant molecular clouds) to gravitationally-bound star clusters.
– Finally, baryonic dark matter that converts to stars and luminous gas in shocked regions, such elliptical galaxies formed by galaxy mergers, and regions of high stellar concentrations, such as galactic bulges and globular clusters makes baryonic dark matter a primary predictive ideology.
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