Snowball Solar System

This work in progress addresses unresolved and ‘problem’ areas in geology and astrophysics:

  • Galaxy, star, planet, and planetesimal formation;
  • The nature and formation of cold dark matter in galactic halos and its effect on the solar system;
  • Aqueous differentiation of comets and dwarf planets due to planetesimal collisions or binary spiral-in mergers;
  • Plate tectonics, the granite problem, the mantled gneiss-dome problem, and the dolomite problem; and
  • Icy-body impacts vs. rocky-iron impacts, endothermic chemical reactions in impacts,

STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS:

Suggested exponential-rate of stellar core collapse between the Sun and our former binary-Companion, causing the solar system barycenter (SSB) to sweep through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, perturbing planetesimals into the inner solar system and causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB): - 35.8 AU at 4,456 Ma - 39.4 AU at 4,220 Ma, 1st pulse of LHB by Plutinos - 43 AU at 3,900 Ma, 2nd pulse of LHB by Cubewanos - 63 AU at 2,500 Ma, entering the scattered disc and ushering in the Proterozoic Eon - Binary-Companion merges in an asymmetrical binary spiral-in merger, 1,849 AU at 542 Ma, giving the Companion escape velocity from the Sun

Suggested exponential-rate of stellar core collapse between the Sun and our former binary-Companion, causing the solar system barycenter (SSB) to sweep through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, perturbing planetesimals into the inner solar system and causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB):
– 35.8 AU at 4,456 Ma
– 39.4 AU at 4,220 Ma, 1st pulse of LHB by Plutinos
– 43 AU at 3,900 Ma, 2nd pulse of LHB by Cubewanos
– 63 AU at 2,500 Ma, entering the scattered disc and ushering in the Proterozoic Eon
– Binary-Companion merges in an asymmetrical binary spiral-in merger, 1,849 AU at 542 Ma, giving the Companion escape velocity from the Sun

Special Definitions:

– Aqueous Differentiation:
Melting of water ice, forming salt water oceans. Melting may be catastrophic as in the spiral-in merger of binary planetesimals or gradual, as orbital perturbation, torquing the planet sufficiently to melt water ice. And salt-water oceans are suggested to precipitate authigenic mineral grains which may form sedimentary cores with lithify and even undergo metamorphism when the ocean freezes solid, expanding and building pressure on the core. Spiral-in mergers typically melt oceans in the core, whereas, perturbative torquing may melt water near the surface may precipitate surficial supracrustal rock.

– Rocky-iron S-type and M-type asteroids:
High-density volatile-depleted planetesmials ‘condensed’ by gravitational instability (GI) from the primary debris disk formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Rocky-iron asteroids may have condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the stellar merger, near the orbit of Mercury, and indeed Mercury is assumed to be a ‘hybrid accretion’ planet (Thayne Curie 2005). Asteroids may have internally differentiated to form iron-nickel cores by radioactive decay of stellar-merger f-process radionuclides. Orbit clearing by the inner terrestrial planets injected asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances.

– C-type chondrites:
Chondrites condensed from the stellar-merger primary debris disk by GI against Jupiter’s inner resonances over a period of 5 million years. Chondrites typically contain chondrules which may be dust accretions melted in solar flares during the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger. CI chondrites without chondrules may be captured Oort cloud comets, condensed from the protoplanetary disk rather than from the primary debris disk like other chondrites with chondrules.

– Close Binary:
‘Hard’ close-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) tend to spiral in due to external perturbation, becoming progressively harder orbits over time, and sometimes merging to form ‘contact binaries’.

– Comets:
Circa 1–20 km planetesimals condensed by GI prior to 4,567 Ma from the protoplanetary disk, condensing a high percentage of highly-volatile ices which readily sublime to create internal voids, reducing the density of the nuclei. A suggested former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun spiraled outward for 4 billion years, shepherding the main body of inner Oort cloud comets outward beyond itself into the inner Oort cloud (IOC).

– Former Companion to the Sun:
Our protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times to form two close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion. Secular stellar core collapse is suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion to spiral in, causing their wide-binary separation to increase over time. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,568 Ma and binary Companion spiraled in to merge at 542 Ma. The asymmetrical binary-Companion merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun and ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon.

FHSC-fragmentation:
The initial gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud in the process of forming a first hydrostatic core (FHSC), during which the high angular momentum outer portion becomes isolated, gravitationally collects within its own Roche sphere and subsequently undergoes its own gravitational instability. This FHSC-fragmentation may form a binary stellar component, a brown dwarf or gas-giant planet, typically at 1/2 to 10s of AU from its progenitor protostar. Gas-giant proto-planets undergoing gravitational collapse may similarly form FHSC-fragmentation moons. (Also see FHSC-fragmentation.)

– Gravitational instability (GI):
The mechanism whereby gas, dust and ice gravitationally collapse to form planetesimals, planets, moons and stars. GI appears to require assistance, generally in the form of the gas-drag pressurization of dust and ice grains against a stellar or planetary resonance. So around a solitary star with no gas-giant planets, planetesimals may only ‘condense’ at the protoplanetary pressure dam which exists at the magnetic corotation zone (where ‘condense’ is shorthand for gravitational instability).

– Hybrid Accretion (Thayne Currie 2005):
Planetesimals condensed by GI may accrete to form planets (hence hybrid), typically in low orbits from planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of solitary stars; however, binary stars may also condense planetesimals at inner edge of their circumbinary protoplanetary disk which may accrete to form more distant hybrid planets. Super-Earth are suggested to form by hybrid accretion, so the terms are used interchangeably, regardless of planet size, so in our own solar system Mars, Uranus and Neptune are all suggested to be super-Earths, formed beyond our former binary Sun. Hybrid accretion super-Earths tend to form in cascades from the inside out, with the innermost planet forming first followed by orbit clearing which paves the way for the next in the cascade.

– IOC:
(Inner Oort cloud), also known as the ‘Hills Cloud': the doughnut-shaped comet cloud with its inner edge in the range of 2,000 – 5,000 AU and outer edge at perhaps 20,000 AU, suggested to have been shepherded outward by stellar evolution of our former quadruple star system beyond our former binary-Companion star.

– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘hot classical':
Planetesimals condensed in situ by GI from the 4,568 Ma primary debris disk against Neptune’s outer resonances. These included Plutinos, with semimajor axes similar to Neptune’s 2:3 resonance, and cubewanos between Neptune’s 2:3 and 1:2 resonance; however, solar system barycenter perturbation has greatly depleted the reservoir and turned a formerly ‘cold’ population into the present ‘hot’ population with high eccentricity and high inclination orbits. The spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma created a primary debris which was somewhat volatile depleted compared to the protoplanetary disc from which comets and scattered disc objects (SDOs) condensed. KBOs will be defined as a subset of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) (see TNO).

– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘cold classical':
Minor planets condensed by GI in situ from the 542 Ma secondary debris disk against Neptune’s outer resonances, principally the outer 2:3 resonance. These include typically binary Plutinos and ‘cold’ classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity oribts. The spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma created the ‘secondary debris disk’ from which binary Pluto and the cold classical KBOs condensed.

Merger-fragmentation:
Binary spiral-in stellar mergers are suggested to undergo magnetic-reconnection merger-fragmentation which rids merging binary cores of excess angular momentum. Magnetic-reconnection pinch off of bar-mode instability tails gives the cores something to push backward against by inducing an opposing magnetic field in the twin pinched off tails, hurling the tails to circa 1 AU orbits. Our suggested former binary-Sun spiraled in and merged at 4,568 Ma, hurling off two symmetrical masses, that proto-Earth and proto-Venus. Binary spiral-in mergers of binary proto-gas-giant planets may also form merger-fragmentation moons, like Io and Europa at Jupiter.

– OOC:
(Outer Oort cloud), the spherical (isotropic) comet cloud, from perhaps 20,000 – 50,000 AU, assumedly perturbed from the IOC by various internal solar-system and external forms of perturbation.

– LRN (LRNe plural):
(Luminous red nova), a stellar explosion with a luminosity between that of a nova and a supernova, thought to be caused by the spiral-in merger of main-sequence binary stars. Stellar-merger LRNe may be the typical origin of debris disks which typically condense asteroids and less typically condense more-distant icy planetesimals in exoplanet systems. ‘Red transients’ are also thought to be caused by stellar mergers, and mergers of pre-main-sequence stars may cause significantly-less violent explosions.

– Planetesimals:
A generic term for anything smaller than a planet, not specifically a moon (often minor planets). The term may apply to protoplanetary scattered disc objects (SDOs) and comets and to debris-disk asteroids, chondrites, and KBOs. The term also applies to larger dwarf planets formed by hybrid accretion of smaller planetesimals.

SDO (scattered disc object):
Objects condensed by GI at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun at about the orbit of Uranus slightly prior to 4,568 Ma. Subsequent hybrid accretion of Uranus and Neptune scattered the leftover SDOs to the scattered disc, which is suggested to officially begin at the 1:3 resonance with Neptune. SDOs and comets may be part of the same original population or from closely-related populations. SDOs originally condensed with highly-volatile ices, most of which have since sublimed due to internal torquing caused by orbital perturbation, creating an internal latticework of voids.

SHSC-fragmentation:
The freefall collapse of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC) in protostars creates a second hydrostatic core (SHSC), mediated by endothermic hydrogen dissociation at around 2000 K, during which the high angular momentum outer portion becomes isolated, gravitationally collects within its own Roche sphere and subsequently undergoes its own gravitational instability. This SHSC-fragmentation may form a hot Jupiter, typically at hundredths of AU from its progenitor protostar. Gas-giant proto-planets undergoing gravitational collapse may similarly form SHSC-fragmentation moons. (Also see FHSC-fragmentation.)

– SSB:
(Solar-system barycenter) The suggested gravitational balance point between the Sun and a former binary-Companion brown dwarf prior to its asymmetrical spiral-in merger at 542 Ma which gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. As the binary-Companion’s binary components spiraled in, the Companion spiraled out from the Sun for 4 billion years. The SSB perturbed TNOs by causing eccentric planetesimal orbits to flip flop from being gravitationally attracted toward the Companion to centrifugally slung away from it when the SSB crossed planetesimals’ semi-major axes. SSB perturbation caused the late heavy bombardment of KBOs during the Hadean Eon and perturbed SDOs during the Phanerozoic Eon.

– Stellar Core Collapse:
Orbit clearing may be viewed as a form of core collapse whereby high-mass planets clear their orbits of lower-mass planetesimals by tending to ‘evaporate’ them outward into higher orbits. Similarly, resonant coupling may cause close-binary stars to spiral in and evaporate smaller companion stars outward into higher wide-binary orbits, transferring energy and angular momentum from more-massive hard close-binary orbits to increasing the soft wide-binary separation.

– Super-Earth: (See Hybrid Accretion)

– TNO (trans-Neptunian object):
TNOs encompass multiple reservoirs, the primary-debris-disk hot classical KBOs, the secondary-debris-disk cold classical KBOs and the protoplanetary SDOs. Oort cloud comets comprise a third reservoir which may or may not be included as TNOs.

– Wide Binary:
‘Soft’ wide-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) are defined as binary pairs that tend to spiral out due to external perturbation, becoming progressively softer over time. Wide-binary components may themselves be comprised of close-binary pairs, such as our former (close)-binary-Sun and (close)-binary-Companion in a wide-binary separation.
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Solar system evolution:

Our protostar is suggested to have undergone Jeans instability inside a Bok globule within a giant molecular cloud followed by 3 successive generations of stellar FHSC-fragmentations to form a quadruple star system.

Secular resonant stellar perturbation is suggested to have evolved two ‘hard’ close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, with the two hard binaries in a ‘soft’ wide-binary separation. ‘Hard’ binary orbits tend to spiral-in (harden) over time due to perturbations, while ‘soft’ binary orbits tend to spiral out (soften). Hereafter, ‘close binaries’ are defined to be hard orbits that tend to spiral in, while ‘wide binaries’ are defined to be soft orbits that tend to spiral out, regardless of the separation distance. Stellar resonances are suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion spiraled out from the solar system barycenter (SSB), opening up a wide-binary gap that allowed a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun.

Excess angular momentum of the binary-Sun components of the quadruple system caused SHSC-fragmentation of a hot Jupiter from each solar component, fragmenting proto-Jupiter around the larger binary solar component and ‘proto-Saturn’ around the smaller binary solar component. Continued core collapse caused binary-Sun to spiral in, leaving Jupiter and Saturn behind. From the evidence of Jupiter’s moons we see that proto-Jupiter apparently underwent FHSC-fragmentation to bifurcate into a binary pair, afterwhich each component underwent SHSC-fragmentation to form two hot proto-moons, Ganymede and Callisto. Then similar to the stellar core collapse, binary-Jupiter spiraled in to merge, leaving Ganymede and Callisto behind. Saturn apparently underwent two generations of FHSC-fragmentation to form binary proto-Saturn and a tertiary component, proto-Titan.

Stellar-evolution core collapse gradually opened up a wide-binary gap between binary-Sun and binary-Companion, allowing the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around binary-Sun. Binary-Sun resonances sculpted the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, creating a pressure dam against which dust and ice grains (slowed by ‘gas drag’) backed up until reaching sufficient mass and density to undergo gravitational instability (GI) and ‘condense’ planetesimals. And the bitterly-cold conditions within our birth Bok globule condensed highly-volatile ices, giving these protoplanetary planetesimals highly-volatile compositions.

The trillions of planetesimals condensed at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond binary-Sun collided to form larger accretionary masses by the process designated ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005). Thus hybrid accretion formed the planet Uranus followed by Neptune beyond binary Sun. We suggest expanding the term ‘super-Earth’ to designate any planet formed by hybrid accretion regardless its size or orbital distance in the star system. In our solar system, Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be super-Earths, with only Mercury formed from the primary debris disk. (See section, CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS) Uranus’ 98° axial tilt is assumed to be the result of having cleared its orbit of more than its own weight in planetesimals, lowering its orbit and creating the severe axial tilt. Once Uranus reached a critical size, planetesimals may have begun condensing against its outer resonances which were eventually cleared due to the growing strength of Neptune’s overlapping inner resonances. Leftover planetesimals from forming Uranus and Neptune became scattered disc objects (SDOs), with the 3:1 resonance with Neptune suggested to form the fuzzy edge of the scattered disc.

Oort cloud comets may have condensed in circum-quaternary obits beyond binary-Companion, or they may be circumbinary planetesimals that were scattered outward beyond former binary-Companion, perhaps largely through by perturbation by the former solar system barycenter (SSB). Either way, hypothesized inner Oort cloud (IOC) comets are suggested to have been progressovely shepherded out into barycentric orbits in the IOC by our former binary-Companion, essentially by the evaporative orbit clearing by our former binary-Companion as it spiraled out from the Sun for 4 billion years.

Resonant stellar ‘core-collapse’ is suggested to have progressively transferred energy and angular momentum from the two largest stellar components, comprising binary-Sun, to progressively increasing the wide-binary Sun-Companion separation. The resulting energy and angular-momentum transfer caused binary-Sun to spiral in and merge in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma. The resulting stellar-merger nucleosynthesis created the f-process short-lived radionuclides of our early solar system, namely 26Al and 60Fe, and also enriched the Sun and the primary debris disk with the helium-burning stable isotopes 12C and 16O. Canonical concentrations of 26Al in the form of Calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are suggested to have condensed from polar jets which emanated from the merging stellar cores. And chondrules may have condensed from dust accretions in the ‘primary debris disk’ which were periodically melted by solar flares from the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger. (Note the 4,568 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun is suggested to have formed a ‘primary debris disk’, with the 542 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion forming a ‘secondary debris disk’.)

The primary debris disk created from the aftermath of the 4,568 Ma stellar merger condensed asteroids near the Sun and Kuiper belt objects in Neptune’s outer resonances. Highly volatile-depleted asteroids are suggested to have condensed at the recently-merged-super-energetic magnetic corotation radius of the Sun near the orbit of Mercury. And indeed, Mercury is suggested to be a hybrid-accretion super-Earth accreted from pimary-debris-disk asteroids. Then ‘evaporative’ orbit clearing by the terrestrial planets are suggested to have injected the asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Chondrites, by comparison, may have condensed in situ by GI against Jupiter’s inner resonances as late as 5 million years after the LRN, largely after the short-lived radionuclide radioactivity had greatly diminished, forming largely-undifferentiated chondrites. Finally, Kuiper (hot classical) belt objects (KBOs) are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptune’s outer resonances in warmer conditions than the condensation of the protoplanetary SDOs and thus with fewer volatile ices, so hot-classical KBOs may be largely water worlds.

After another 4 billion years of stellar core collapse, the binary components of binary-Companion similarly spiraled in to merge in an asymmetrical merger at 542 Ma which ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon, and the asymmetrical nature of the merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. The sudden appearance of most known phyla in the Cambrian Explosion is one of the major reasons for suggesting that one component of our former binary Companion was a cool Y dwarf, or still-smaller super Jupiter, which contaminated the solar system with free-swimming gas-giant lifeforms.

The 542 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion created a young ‘secondary debris disk’ which is suggested to have condensed a second round of (cold-classical) KBOs in situ against Neptun’s outer resonaces, principally against the 2:3 resonance. Most of the cold classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits fragmented to form binary pairs. Binary Pluto with its geologically-young surface is also suggested to have condensed from the young secondary debris disk.

In the 4 billion year interim between the two spiral-in mergers, the wide-binary period increased at a presumably exponential rate, with the wide-binary Sun-Companion orbits becoming increasingly eccentric around the solar system barycenter (SSB). The angular momentum contributed by the spiral-in of the Companion’s binary pair would have made a negligible contribution to the wide-binary orbits around the SSB; however the potential energy contribution, by comparison, would have been considerable. An increase in orbital energy predominantly increases orbital periapsis while an increase in potential energy predominantly increases orbital apapsis, so the potential energy progressively increased the wide-binary apapsis approximately exponentially over time (which had the effect of making the Sun-Companion wide-binary orbits around the SSB more eccentric over time).

As the Sun’s apapsis spiraled out from the the SSB over time, by Galilean relativity the apapsis of the SSB could be said to have spiraled out into the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time. The SSB is suggested to have perturbed planetesimals as it crossed their semi-major axes, causing eccentric planetesimal orbits to flip-flop from having their aphelia pointing toward the Companion to being centrifugally slung away from it. And as the SSB caught up to the semi-major axes of KBOs in the Hadean and SDOs in the Proterozoic, it caused rhythmic flip-flopping of planetesimals with the Sun-Companion period around the SSB. The SSB is suggested to have crossed through the Kuiper belt from about 4.1 Ga to about 3.8 Ga, perturbing primary-debris-disk KBOs into the inner solar system, causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB). The SSB exited the Kuiper belt at 3,800 Ma, ushering in the relatively quiescent Archean Eon and reached the 3:1 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, entering the scattered disc which ushered in the Proterozoic Eon by perturbing protoplanetary SDOs into the inner solar system.

Finally, Apollo spherule counts suggest that the Moon (and by extension the Earth) has received significantly-more impacts in the Phanerozoic Eon than in the proceeding Eons since the LHB, suggesting that the Companion may have also had a protective effect more pronounced than the perturbative effect of the SSB.
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First-hydrostatic-core fragmentation (FHSC-fragmentation) in collapsing molecular clouds:

‘Fragmentation’ is the term for forming binary stars in a collapsing cloud, but since two types of fragmentation are recognized here (along with fragmentation of sub-stellar-sized masses), the term is appended with a modifier more closely defined as to whether the free-fall condition is in the process of forming a first hydrostatic core (FHSC) or a second hydrostatic core (SHSC).

FHSC-fragmentation is suggested to occur during Jeans instability in the process of forming a first hydrostatic core (FHSC) in collapsing molecular clouds within Bok globules. The cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the central part of the cloud become optically thick ~ 10-13 g/cm3. (Larson 1969).

Jeans instability free-fall in the center of a collapsing cloud may isolate a gravitationally-bound, outer cloud component which to collapse due to excess angular momentum. If the outer cloud component collects within its own gravitationally-bound Roche sphere and subsequently undergoes Jeans instability then FHSC-fragmentation is defined to have occurred, but if the outer cloud component instead merely dissipates into an accretion disk, fragmentation has not occurred.

A FHSC-fragmentation forms a binary object, such as a star and a gas-giant planet, or a star and a brown dwarf or a binary pair of stars, and the two objects ‘condense’ sequentially, not simultaneously. Thus a FHSC-fragmentation that forms a binary stellar pair will begin collapsing in the center which isolates outer cloud components which have excess angular momentum. These outer cloud components will then tend to offset to one side like an unbalanced washing machine in the spin cycle, similar to the theorized process of ‘disk instability’ (however disk instability as such is not recognized as such by this alternative ideology). Thus the initial (primary) collapse will proceed smoothly to form a FHSC while the outer cloud (secondary) material is still collecting within its own Roche sphere. The secondary Roche sphere may outgas volatile hydrogen and helium, dependent on ambient temperature, thus progressively raising its metallicity over time. The speed of sound decreases within the secondary cloud as the metallicity increases, and if the ‘sound crossing time’ ever exceeds the ‘free-fall time’, the secondary mass may undergo Jeans instability. A Jeans instability free-fall collapse in the center of the secondary mass, may in turn isolate outer material that has excess angular momentum, potentially forming a second-generation FHSC-fragmentation. Thus an initial collapsing mass may spawn a cascade of higher-generation FHSC-fragmentations dependent on the specific angular momentum of the initial cloud. Our own protostar is suggested to have undergone a triple cascade of fragmentations to form our former quadruple star system which evolved by secular perturbation into two close-binary pairs in a wide-binary separation.

A FHSC-fragmentation gas-giant planet may be as small as tenths of a solar mass up to a 50/50 split, potentially forming equal-mass binary stellar pairs like the two largest components of Alpha Centauri. The more balanced the FHSC-fragmentation mass ratio, typically the larger the orbital separation, thus equal mass binary pairs like Alpha Centauri will be typically separated by 10s of astronomical units to more than 100 AU, whereas smaller gas-giant/star ratio fragmentations are typically separated by tenths to 1s of AU, with 1 AU being the most typical orbital distance of gas-giant planets suggested to have formed by FHSC-fragmentation.

Each generation of FHSC-fragmentation is suggested to have higher metallicity than the proceeding generation, due to progressive outgassing of volatile hydrogen and helium across the vast Roche sphere of the isolated mass. Proto-Saturn is suggested to have fragmented twice, forming a larger binary pair orbited by a circumbinary tertiary component, namely Titan. Then secular perturbation core collapse caused the larger binary pair to spiral in until they merged, causing Titan to spiral out, and indeed, Titan has a lower-volatility (higher-metallicity) than the larger binary pair suggested to have merged to form gas-giant Saturn.
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Second-hydrostatic-core fragmentation (SHSC-fragmentation) in protostars and proto-planets:

After forming a FHSC, protostar cores undergo a second round of approximately isothermal free-fall collapse in the process of forming a second hydrostatic core when the internal temperature reaches about 2000 K (Larson 1969) at which temperature molecular hydrogen begins endothermic dissociation, which absorbs the energy that would otherwise cause thermal rebound. Free-fall in the FHSC once again isolates the outer protostar gas with excess angular momentum which may coalesce into its own gravitationally-bound mass and may subsequently undergo Jeans instability to form a hot-Jupiter in a low hot orbit around its host star.

SHSC-fragmentation hot Jupiters can be recognized by having lower (hotter) orbits around their host stars, typically on the order of hundredths of an astronomical unit, vs. tenths to 1s of an AU for FHSC-fragmentation gas-giant planets, since the stars with a FHSC are several orders of magnitude smaller and more compact than the Bok globule gas clouds undergo initial Jeans instability.

If each component of a binary star system SHSC-fragments a hot Jupiter, and then if the binary pair undergoes stellar core collapse (causing the binary stellar components to spiral in and merge), the planetary components will tend to retain their formational angular momentum and remain behind, creating the illusion of two FHSC-fragmentation planets like Jupiter and Saturn in our own solar system. And indeed, Jupiter and Saturn are suggested to have formed as hot Jupiters by SHSC-fragmentation around the binary components of our former binary-Sun, with Jupiter fragmenting from the the larger former solar component and Saturn fragmenting from the smaller solar component. Then binary-Sun is suggested to have spiraled in to merge at 4,568 Ma, leaving Jupiter and Saturn behind.

HIP 14810 star system with 3 gas-giant planets:
– 3.88 Mj at .0692 AU (SHSC-fragmentation)
– 1.28 Mj at .545 AU (first-generation FHSC-fragmentation planet)
– .57 Mj at 1.89 AU (second-generation FHSC-fragmentation planet)
Apparently the star FHSC-fragmented the first-generation 1.28 Mj planet, which in turn FHSC-fragmented the smaller second-generation .57 Mj planet, ending with the star FHSC-fragmenting the 3.88 Mj hot-Jupiter component–all essentially in situ.

Offspring SHSC-fragmentation planets (and moons) are assumed to have higher metallicity than their parents, due progressive warming during solar system evolution and due to weaker gravitational attraction of smaller offspring. And since Jeans instability only occurs when the sound crossing time exceeds the free-fall time, sub-stellar-sized objects can not undergo gravitational instability unless or until volatile outgassing sufficiently decreases the speed of sound through a gravitationally-bound mass.
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Merger-fragmentation in binary stellar mergers and in binary gas-giant planet mergers:

A suggested third type of stellar (and planetary) fragmentation may occur during the common envelope phase of binary spiral-in mergers, facilitated by electromagnetic repulsion. When Roche spheres touch in a stellar ‘contact binary’, the smaller stellar component may siphon material from the larger component until their masses are more-nearly balanced.

An actively-merging binary pair can rid itself of excess potential energy by radiation and a super-intense solar wind, but ridding itself of excess angular momentum is not as straightforward, since the solar wind only has average specific angular momentum such that merging cores would have to vaporize their entire cores to eliminate their remaining angular momentum.

While ‘contact binaries’ can be stable for millions to billions of years, the ‘common envelope’ phase is unstable, lasting only months to years. As stars the cores continue to spiral in within an enshrouding common (plasma) envelope, tidal gravity is suggested to distort the cores into a ‘bar-mode instability’, with a symmetrical pair of bars of higher angular momentum gas extending radially outward from the cores, attached gravitationally and electromagnetically. But the strain of a slower Keplerian rotation rate of the bars at a greater radial distance from the barycenter may cause them to smear into a tail. (To avoid the ambiguity of plurals, lets discuss one side of a bilateral bar-mode instability, having a core, bar and tail.) If or when the tail pinches off in a magnetic reconnection event, induced opposing magnetic fields between the pinched off tail and bar-mode arm attached to the stellar core may give the core something to magnetically push backward against to catastrophically give up sufficient angular momentum for the cores to merge. And the backward kick may give the pinched-off gravitationally-bound mass sufficient angular momentum to climb into a circa 1 AU orbit, with the bilateral symmetry forming two merger-fragmentation planets.

While FHSC-fragmentation and SHSC-fragmentation are suggested to form exactly one offspring, merger-fragmentation is suggested to form exactly two offspring, forming twin planets. When the stellar Roche spheres initially touch in the ‘contact binary’ phase, the smaller stellar component may siphon the atmosphere of the larger component until their masses are nearly balanced, perhaps tending to form twin planets with particularly-similar masses and densities like Venus and Earth. Indeed, Venus and Earth are suggested to be merger-fragmentation twin planets formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Their severe volatile depletion occurred in their pithy proto-planet phase while orbiting inside the brief LRN (red-giant) phase of the Sun for a number of months following the merger. Stellar mergers of pre-main-sequence stars, however, may avoid a LRN, including a red-giant phase, resulting in significantly larger and more volatile twin merger-fragmentation planets, still, presumably, in circa 1 AU orbits.

In the Jovian system, Io and Europa are suggested to be merger-fragmentation moons formed during the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Jupiter, presumably prior the solar merger at 4,568 Ma.
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Condensation of planetesimals by gravitational instability (GI) against stellar or giant-planet resonances in accretion disks:

Pebble accretion does not appear to be borne out by an examination of chondrites that appear to have no internal structure above that of chondrules and CAIs. If chondrules formed by melting accretionary dust clumps in super-intense solar flares from the 3 million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger, then inner solar system accretion appears to end at chondrule-sized masses (inside the snow line). Large, centimeter-scale chondrules, such as those in late-forming CB chondrites (4,562.7 Ma), point to late formation date at considerably-greater distance from the Sun, suggesting melting of accretionary masses, perhaps against Saturn’s outer resonances in centaur orbits (between Saturn and Uranus) from core material ejected in polar jets from the the spiral-in merger of former binary Saturn.

Gravitational instability (GI) within accretion disks is suggested to require a resonant pressure dam to sufficiently concentrate dust and ice grains spiraling in due to gas drag. This pressure-dam resonance may be,
1) the inner or outer orbital resonances of giant planets,
2) the magnetic corotation radius of a (proto)star (or recently-merged star in the case of a debris disk), or
3) the binary resonances that define the inner edge of a circumbinary accretion disk.

Our suggested former quadruple-star solar system apparently condensed planetesimals against the inner edge of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk when our former binary-Companion had spiraled out sufficiently to allow the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form in the ever-increasing wide-binary gap between binary-Sun and binary-Companion. And these protoplanetary planetesimals are suggested to have accreted to form the hybrid-accretion (Thayne Curie 2005) planets, Uranus and Neptune, with the leftover planetesimals scattered into the scattered disc.

After the emergence of Saturn and Jupiter as circumbinary planets around our former binary-Sun, a second round of protoplanetary planetesimal condensation may have taken place at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, which accreted to form the planet Mars.

Next, following the binary spiral-in merger of binary-Sun, the primary debris disk may have condensed severely-volatile-depleted asteroids at the magnetic corotation radius of the recently-merged Sun, most of which accreted to form the hybrid-accretion planet Mercury. Somewhat later, chondrites may have condensed by GI against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances.

Finally, Kuiper belt objects are suggested to have condensed by GI from the primary and secondary debris disks against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances.
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Exponential rate of increase in the wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation:

Note: The actual mass of our former binary Companion is relatively unimportant if the perturbation of KBOs and SDOs is due to the solar system barycenter between the Sun and the Companion, as suggested, so the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB and our former binary Companion corresponding to the mass of Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri would complete the symmetry: suggesting a former .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) binary-Companion.

Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separate the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting an the first of a bimodal pulse LHB. (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in Far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
In addition to earlier lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
Evidence suggesting an an early pulse of a bimodal LHB with hte sharply-defined early pulse around 4.22 Ga when the SSB crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune where the Plutino population resides. The second main pulse of the LHB occurred as the SSB traveled through the KBO ‘cubewanos’ which reside between the 2:3 resonace with Neptune and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.

Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation of the form,
y = mx + b
where:
y is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
x is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
m is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
b is the y-intercept, corresponding to 0.0 Ma (the present)

Calculate ‘m’ and ‘b':
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune:
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b

Where:
1.5955 = log( 39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
1.6335 = log( 43 AU)
1.2370 = log( 1 + 16.26 ) This scales the SSB distance from the Sun to the Companion. With the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is ‘16.26’, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26 (added logarithms are multiplied distances).

Solving for ‘m’ and ‘b’, yields:
y = -x/8421 + 3.334

x = 4,567 Ma, y = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
x = 4,220 Ma, y = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutino orbit)
x = 3,900 Ma, y = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike)
x = 2,500 Ma, y = 1088 AU, SSB = 63 AU (Archean to Proterozoic, TTG to granite transition)
x = 542 Ma, y = 1859 AU, SSB = 108 AU

The SSB crossed the 1:3 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2530 Ma at the Archean to Proterozoic boundary, when when Tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) gneiss domes transition to granite in continental basement rock (The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, 2006).

So the timing of the LHB may be calculable and falsifiable rather than fortuitous and ad hoc as in Grand Tack:
1) The Sun-Companion solar-system barycenter (SSB) crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The SSB reaches 43 AU in the classical Kuiper belt Cubewanos at 3.9 Ga, causing the second and extended pulse of the LHB, ending around 3.8 Ga and ushering in the Archean Eon.
3) The SSB reaches the 3:1 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2.5 Ga, entering the scattered disc to where the bulk of protoplanetary planetesimals are suggested to have been scattered by Neptune

SSB perturbation makes an additional falsifiable suggestion that (SSB) perturbation initiated aqueous differentiation in planetesimals, forming gneiss-dome cores in Plutinos and KBOs (TNOs = Plutinos + KBOs) and supracrustal rock on the surface of SDOs. (See sections:
– AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF TNOs, DWARF PLANETS AND COMETS
– SUPRACRUSTAL ROCK AS A DIFFERENTIATED DEBRIS-DISK COATING ON TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS)

Asymmetry of the Companion merger at 542 Ma:
While the contact-binary and common-envelope phases of spiral-in stellar mergers are known to bleed gas from the larger stellar component to the smaller stellar component, tending to balance the component masses prior to merger, the process may be less efficient in cooler stars and particularly so in compact brown dwarf binary pairs, permitting sufficient asymmetry in the brown-dwarf merger of our former Companion to have resulted in escape velocity.

Kuiper belt, scattered disc and Oort cloud:
So the well behaved Kuiper belt condensed in situ, explaining its typically low inclination and low eccentricity of TNOs compared to SDOs which are suggested to have been scattered outward by Uranus and Neptune. Then the ‘Kuiper cliff’ can be explained as a combination of in situ condensation of larger debris-disk planetesimals inside the 1:2 resonance with Neptune and orbit clearing of comets by the Companion to a distance beyond its own 1:3 resonance, putting the inner edge of the IOC at about 3800 AU (with the 1:3 resonance beyond the Companion about twice the apapsis distance of the 1859 AU Companion from the Sun by 542 Ma).

Former quadruple-star with binary-Companion conclusions:
– Timing and mechanism for a bimodal LHB
– All the Eon transitions on Earth: Hadean to Archean, Archean to Proterozoic, and Proterozoic to Phanerozoic
– Composition and location of Plutinos and classical (in situ) Kuiper belt and ‘Kuiper cliff’
– Composition of the scattered disc and location of scattered disc
– Composition of the Oort cloud and the location of the inner edge of the IOC
– Cambrian Explosion of life on Earth
– Transitional trends in Earth’s rock record and the origin of continental tectonic plates
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Mechanism for perturbation of planetesimals by a former solar system barycenter (SSB):

The Sun and Companion are hypothesized to have spiraled out from the SSB at an exponential rate for 4 billion years on increasingly-eccentric orbits, fueled by core collapse of the hard close-binary-Companion system. The Sun and Companion orbital eccentricity around the SSB could be replaced by Galilean relativity from the perspective of the Sun, by the SSB periodically sweeping through the solar system, with each sweep extending deeper into the Kuiper Belt and then scattered disc due to exponential core collapse of the triple (Sun, binary-Companion) star system.

SSB-periapsis: Specially defined as the closest approach of the SSB to the Sun (in the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB)

SSB-apoapsis: Specially defined as the most distant excursion of the SSB from the Sun (in the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB)

Waxing SSB: The portion of the Sun-Companion orbit during which the Sun-SSB distance was increasing over time

Waning SSB: The portion of the Sun-Companion orbit during which the Sun-SSB distance was decreasing over time

Negative gravitational binding energy is an inverse square function with distance, such that an orbit 100 times further away will have 1/10,000 the binding energy. Angular momentum, by comparison, is an inverse square function of the semimajor axis, such that an orbit 10 times further away will have 10 times the angular momentum. Since the binding energy function is much steeper than the angular momentum function with respect to distance, the components of binary-Companion could effectively reduce the negative Sun-Companion binding energy of the system without materially affecting its angular momentum. Periapsis of an orbit is a good measure of its relative angular momentum while apoapsis is a good measure of its relative binding energy, so the 4 billion year spiral-in of the binary components of binary-Companion effectively increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis at an exponential rate, (by Galilean relativity) causing the SSB apoapsis to spiral out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time, perturbing planetesimals with progressively greater semi-major axes over time (becoming progressively eccentric over time).

(Note, the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is assumed to be much longer than trans-Neptunian object (TNO) periods. The following example is of a scattered disc object (SDO) during the Phanerozoic Eon, but a cubewano during the Hadean Eon would work as well.)

At the Sun-Companion barycentric closest approach (SSB-periapsis) the SSB was closer to the Sun than SDO perihelia (< 30.1 AU). With the SSB closer to the Sun than SDOs, their eccentric aphelia would have been gravitationally attracted to the Companion and thus would have pointed toward the Companion, with their long axes aligned with the Sun-Companion axis. But as stellar core collapse caused the SSB-apoapsis to spiral deeper and deeper into the scattered disc, centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB tending to sling the orbit away from the Companion became increasingly more significant while the gravitational attraction toward the Companion became progressively weaker. When the SSB crossed the semimajor axes of planetesimals, their aphelia suddenly flip-flopped from pointing toward the Companion to pointing away from the Companion, and when the SSB-periapsis dipped below the perihelia of the planetesimals, planetesimal orbits reset, once again flip-flopping to point toward the Companion again. So in this way as the SSB reached deeper and deeper into the scattered disk during the Proterozoic Eon, progressively more SDOs flip-flopped with the Sun-Companion period.

Earth ocean tide analogy:
On Earth, ‘spring tide’ experiences more gravitational acceleration toward the Moon on the Moon side of the Earth-Moon barycenter (which lies inside the Earth) and experiences more centrifugal acceleration away from the Moon on the far side. Similarly, a heliocentric orbit which crossed the former SSB would have nominally experienced more gravitational acceleration toward the Companion on the Companion side of the SSB (toward orbital perihelion) and more centrifugal acceleration away from the Companion beyond the SSB (toward orbital aphelion). Note, the semi-major axis [half way between perihelion and aphelion] is stated as the ‘nominal’ crossover point for gravitational vs. centrifugal acceleration without proof in this conceptual approach.

Orbital flip-flop, ‘aphelia precession':
During ‘waxing-SSB’, when the SSB would reach the semi-major axis of an SDO, the perihelion side of an SDO orbit would feel a stronger centrifugal force away from the Companion than its gravitational attraction toward the Companion, cause ‘aphelion precession’ of the SDO away from the Companion when the SSB crossed the semimajor axis of the SDO. During ‘waning-SSB’, when the SSB retreated below the semimajor axis of the SSB, the SDO experienced a stronger gravitational attraction toward the Companion than a centrifugal force away from it and aphelion precession was toward the Companion. Note that this greatly-simplified analogy completely ignores the position of the SDO in its orbit around the Sun, so the actual precession would likely reverse itself repeatedly with each Sun-Companion period.

The angular-momentum vector precession associated with SSB-mediated aphelia precession is suggested to have initiated the spiral-in merger of binary classical Kuiper belt objects during the Hadean Eon, whereas binary SDOs had presumably merged prior to 4,567 Ma due to perturbative torque during the orbit clearing of Uranus and Neptune.

Beat patterns in aphelia precession may have robbed some planetesimals of their heliocentric energy and angular momentum, causing their perihelia to spiral in to the planetary realm, where the giant planets decided their ultimate fate. Planetesimals with different orbital periods may have experienced exactly the opposite affect, having their orbits pumped with energy and angular momentum, perhaps explaining the origin of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP-113.

Gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, so it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system.

separating Sun-Companion by 100s AU from one another, and perhaps as much as 2000 AU at the wide-binary Sun-Companion apoapsis by 543 Ma. While aphelia precession of TNOs is suggested to be the primary perturbation mechanism, shepherding a trillion comets into the inner Oort cloud through Companion orbit clearing and resonant effects may have been significant as well.

Gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, so it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system. But aphelia precession of KBOs and SDOs may have caused a persistent torque which over 4 billion years had a significant cumulative effect.
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Oort cloud comets:

Before the wide-binary separation opened sufficiently to permit the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun, an earlier protoplanetary disk may have condensed a trillion circa 1-20 km comets which were gradually shepherded out into the inner Oort cloud (IOC) beyond the Sun-Companion wide-binary pair over the next 4 billion years.

But since gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer separating Sun-Companion by 100s AU from one another, and perhaps as much as 2000 AU at the wide-binary Sun-Companion apoapsis by 542 Ma. While aphelia precession of TNOs is suggested to be the primary perturbation mechanism of the triple star system, the heavy lift of shepherding a trillion comets into the inner Oort cloud may have been significant as well.

In addition to the heavy lift of boosting comets into the Oort cloud, the orbital kick (‘gravity assist’ or ‘gravitational slingshot’) of comet close encounters with one of the binary components of binary-Companion may have ejected many comets into the outer Oort cloud (OOC) or more likely out of the solar system altogether, extracting more than average angular momentum from the binary-Companion components.

Surprisingly, the potential energy of one stellar hard binary can equal the binding energy of an entire globular cluster. “Binaries provide a huge reservoir of energy; a single hard binary can have a binding energy equal to that of the [globular] cluster as a whole!” (The Dynamic Lives of Globular Clusters, by S. George Djorgovski) So, perhaps, the combined effect of many hard-binary TNOs and comets may have a significant cumulative effect, even on vastly-larger brown dwarfs. And the typical peanut shape of presumed contact-binary comets points to spiral-in-merger perturbation.
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Hot-Jupiter SHSC-fragmentation planets Jupiter and Saturn:

When the temperature in the core of protostars with a FHSC reaches several thousand Kelvins, endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen and its ionization absorb incremental energy of compression contributed by new infalling gas, clamping the temperature and promoting nearly-isothermal (runaway) gravitational collapse in the core. Runaway gravitational collapse of the FHSC may isolate the outer layers which have too much angular momentum to collapse into the SHSC and thus assume Keplerian orbit. If the increasingly doughnut shaped ring of isolated gas destabilizes and gravitationally collects on one side into its own Roche sphere, it may subsequently undergo its own Jeans instability to become a gas-giant proto-planet in a low hot orbit.

For Jeans instability, the free-fall time must be less than the sound crossing time, otherwise the system rebounds, but evaporative diffusion of volatile hydrogen across a vast proto-planet Roche sphere will tend to progressively increase the average molecular weight of the proto-planet over time, decreasing the speed of sound until free fall wins, collapsing to form a FHSC. During this initial gravitational collapse, proto-planets themselves will typically fragment due to excess angular momentum, bifurcating to form binary proto-planets, perhaps with even greater frequency than the formation of binary stars, since the fragmented proto-planet formed due to excess angular momentum in the first place. Still higher generations of fragmentations may form proto-moons which themselves may fragment to form binary-moons, (although below a certain mass the collapsing material may be sufficiently gas depleted so as not to have a temporarily-stable hydrostatic state). And the multiplicity of resonant beat frequencies of binary stars with their binary planets binary moons may cause rapid secular core collapse of the system, causing the rapid spiral in of binary pairs chasing nearby beat frequencies.

In our own solar system, the larger A-star ‘Jupiter-component’ of binary Sun formed the SHSC-fragmentation, Jupiter, and the smaller B-star ‘Saturn-component’ may formed the SHSC-fragmentation planet, Saturn. The separation of the Jupiter-component from the Saturn-component of binary-Sun at the time they fragmented their respective hot-Jupiters may have been about the current maximum separation of Jupiter from Saturn at opposition with respect to the Sun, that is about the separation of Jupiter’s semi-major axis plus Saturn’s semi-major axis for a total binary separation of about 15 AU.

Gas-giant proto-planets, in turn, will also form first and second hydrostatic cores, and may typically fragment during the formation of their FHSCs to briefly become binary planets. And each binary-planet component may in turn for spin-off moons during the formation of their SHSCs which may themselves fragment to form binary moons. In this way, Ganymede may be a spin-off moon formed from the larger binary-Jupiter component, with spin-off moon Callisto forming around the smaller binary-Jupiter component. (And Ganymede and Callisto likely fragmented to form binary moons which subsequently spiraled in to merge and form solitary moons, like former binary-Jupiter and binary-Saturn.

As binary Sun spiraled in, Jupiter and Saturn retained their orbital energy and angular momentum and so were left behind their progenitor stars. When Jupiter and Saturn, in turn, reached the nearest Lagrangian point of the binary solar pair they converted from circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits to circumbinary orbits. And Jupiter’s SHSC-fragmentation ‘hot-moons’ Ganymede and Callisto did likewise until Jupiter’s binary components spiraled in to merge to form a solitary Jupiter prior to the 4,568 Ma solar merger. Jupiter’s 4 Galilean moons appear to correspond to the formation process of Jupiter-and-Saturn and Venus-and-Earth. By comparison, Saturn’s former SHSC-fragmentation moons appear not to have spiraled in and merged like Jupiter’s, but instead to have spiraled out and separated, forming the 4 low-density moons, Mimas, Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus, perhaps due to proximity to the solar B-star during Saturn’s transition from circumsecondary to circumbinary status. But like Jupiter’s merger-fragmentation moons Io and Europa, Saturn’s hypothesized merger-moons, Enceladus and Dione, are higher density than Mimas, Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus, and thus likely fragmented to form binary moons which spiraled in to merge.
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Merger-fragmentation planets Earth and Venus:

The proceeding subsection on merger-fragmentation describes the suggested process for forming merger-fragmentation planets and moons in circa 1 AU orbits. Along with Venus and Earth, Io and Europa at Jupiter and Enceladus and Dione at Saturn are suggested to be merger-fragmentation moons.

Proto-Venus and proto-Earth underwent substantial volatile depletion in their vulnerable proto-planet phase in which they filled their respective Roche spheres while likely orbiting inside the greatly-expanded red-giant (LRN) phase of the Sun, which lasted less than an Earth year.

The red giant phase of LRN M85OT2006-1 would have reached the Kuiper Belt and perhaps well into it with a size estimated as R = 2.0 +.6-.4 x 10^4 solar radii with a peak luminosity of about 5 x 10^6 solar mass. (Rau et. al. 2007) “Previously published line indices suggest that M85 has a mean stellar age of 1.6+/-0.3 Gyr. If this mean age is representative of the progenitor of M85 OT 2006-1, then we can further constrain its mass to be less than 2 Msolar.” (Ofek et al. 2007) So the red-giant phase of the solar LRN of half the mass likely have enveloped at least the terrestrial planets along with Jupiter and Saturn, and would have contributed to the volatilization of proto-Venus and proto-Earth across the enormous surface area of their Roche spheres, but the red-giant phase only lasts for a few months.

The magnetically repelled gravitationally-bound merger-fragmentation masses cooled by expansion as well as by diffusive evaporation of hydrogen and helium and other volatiles across their enormous Roche spheres. When the twin masses had cooled and the metallicity had climbed sufficiently for the sound crossing time to exceed the freefall time, the globules underwent Jeans instability. collapsing to form a FHSC. Both proto-Venus and proto-Earth likely underwent FHSC-fragmentation forming binary pairs, but the smaller binary Earth component apparently underwent secondary FHSC-fragmentation to form a tertiary component. Then subsequent core collapse caused binary Earth to spiral in, lifting the tertiary component to become Earth’s oversized Moon with high angular momentum. All the former binary components of Venus and trinary components of Earth may have originally begun to differentiate an anorthosite crust by fractional crystallization during slow cooling, but only the Moon failed to merge and thus the Moon alone retains its formational anorthosite crust in its lunar highlands.

The spiral-in merger of the binary Earth components, some 50 million years after the solar merger, may have emitted polar jets of molten core material, highly chemically reduced and highly siderophile in composition. This material may apparently condensed below Jupiter’s 4:1 resonance at about 2 AU from the Sun to form chemically-reduced enstatite chondrites, dated 4.516 ± 0.029 Ga (Minster et al. 1979), elevated in siderophile elements which lie on the terrestrial fractionation line, telegraphing their origin from Earth’s core.

Earth’s ‘terrestrial fractionation line’ (∆17O) on a 3-isotope oxygen plot lies below presumably protoplanetary Mars, which indicates terrestrial contamination with stellar-merger oxygen-16 enrichments, but if the proto-merger-masses were magnetically hurled off during spiral in, then the contamination must have been the result of inward diffusion of oxygen-16 from the red-giant phase of the LRN and subsequently during the 5 million year debris-ring phase during which chondrites were presumably condensed by GI. Mars too would have received an LRN debris-disk coating, but a vastly more massive (if originally Saturn sized) and pithy object like proto-Earth would have had a vastly-larger surface on which to interact with dust and heavy gaseous compounds in heliocentric orbits. Unfortunately we have no Venus meteorites to see if the twin merger-fragmentation planets also have twin isotopic signatures.
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Super-Earth planets Uranus and Neptune:

Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be a two-planet ‘hybrid accretion’ cascade of super-Earths formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals condensed by GI at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk around former binary-Sun.

Uranus is suggested to have spiraled in as a result of the lift required to clear its orbit of leftover planetesimals, resulting in its 98° axial tilt. But whether the bulk of the planetesimals condense in one go against the binary-Sun resonances or whether the rise of Uranus disrupted the protoplanetary disk sufficiently to precipitate a second generation of planetesimals near the orbit of Neptune is unknown. If the latter occurred to any great extent, then conceivably, even a third generation of planetesimals might have condensed at the distance of Neptune’s outer resonances or beyond. But even if inner super-Earths disrupt the protoplanetary disk, the outermost gap between adjacent super-Earth orbits in exoplanet solar systems with cascades of 3 or more super-Earths is always substantially wider than then gaps between inner planets within the same cascade, so the last super-Earth apparently subject to less heavy lifting. (See section: CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS)
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Super-Earth Mars:

The elevated ∆17O of Martian meteorites compared to the terrestrial fractionation line suggests a hybrid-accretion protoplanetary origin for Mars, slightly before the 4,567 Ma solar merger.

As binary-Sun continued spiraling in after forming super-Earths Uranus and Neptune, the emergence of Saturn and Neptune as circumbinary planets disrupted any reformation of the protoplanetary disk until the orbit of Mars, at less than 1/3 the orbit of Jupiter. By this time, however, the protoplanetary disk was fast dissipating and only able to condense sufficient planetesimals to hybrid accrete a diminutive super-Earth. Then subsequent orbit clearing by Mars may be the origin of protoplanetary icy asteroids like Ceres.

Mars has significant outcrops of finely-layered rock (with horizontal layering) on a centimeter scale, which has been photographed by the various Mars rovers, but in the Arabia Terra region, Mars orbiters have photographed bedrock layering on a much coarser meter scale in chasmas and central crater uplifts, and much of this coarser layering is tilted. A number of processes are indicated.

Arabia Terra:
After condensation by GI, gravitational perturbation from beat frequencies with nearby minor-planet-sized planetesimals and Mars itself may heat the planetesimal to the melting point of water ice, precipitating authigenic minerals that form surficial supracrustal rock at or near the planetesimal surface. The rhythmic layering occurs on two scales, forming ‘steps’ a few meters thick; then the steps are grouped into ‘bundles’ of 10 steps, so the layering has steps and the steps have bundles suggesting two strong beat frequencies stressing the former planetesimal. Becquerel Crater has a particularly-good exposure of the steps and bundles in the (slightly offset) central uplift. Rhythmic layering on two frequency scales is easily conceived in an orbital environment where the former planetesimal was perturbed by beat frequencies with two perturbing objects, one in a slightly higher orbit with a longer period and the other in a slightly lower orbit with a shorter period. Or perhaps binary-Sun could have constituted one beat frequency component. Such a busy orbital neighborhood with overlapping resonances seems to make the most sense in the context of the early solar system during the active hybrid-accretion formation of Mars. Thus the hybrid accretion of an aqueously-differentiated planetesimal points to Martian formation as a super-Earth.

The twisted terrain of Hellas Planitia (impact basin) is suggested to be something slightly different, perhaps from the outer solar system. If Hellas impact basin occurred during the LHB, then the twisted terrain may represent the differentiated core of a secondary–debris-disk KBO, with aqueous differentiation occurring catastrophically when a former KBO binary pair spiraled in to merge, initiating aqueous differentiation in the core. So while the rhythmic layering in Arabia Terra is suggested to be progressive surficial supracrustal rock, the gneiss-dome twisted terrain of Hellas Planitia is suggested to represent catastrophic aqueous differentiation in the core with typical metamorphic rock, comparable to TTG series gneiss domes formed during the Hadean and Early Archean Eons on Earth.
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Asteroids, chondrites, Mercury and the odd rotation rates of Mercury and Venus:

CAIs are suggested to have condensed from polar jets blasting from the core of the spiral-in solar-component merger, explaining their canonical enrichment of stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis aluminum-26. If the flare-star phase of the Sun following the LRN melted dust accretions to form chondrules, then the flare-star phase must have lasted the 3 million-year duration of chondrule formation. The 1 slope of chondrules and CAIs of the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line indicates complete mixing, whereas the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line indicates complete fractionation (not mass-independent fractionation as is commonly supposed). Ordinary chondrites, however, have a greatly-elevated ∆17O bulk-matrix lying above presolar Mars 3-oxygen-isotope fractionation line which may indeed be due to photochemical-induced mass-independent fractionation due to extended solar radiation exposure of small dust grains with high surface-to-volume ratios over some 5 million years prior to their condensation by GI into ordinary chondrites, where mass-independent fractionation may be “occurring mainly in photochemical and spin-forbidden reactions” (Wikipedia–Mass-independent fractionation).

Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI from the inner edge of the solar-merger debris disk sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun. And Mercury may be a hybrid accretion of asteroids, followed by asteroid orbit-clearing by the 3 terrestrial planets into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Rocky-iron asteroids may have ‘thermally differentiated’ by radioactive decay of LRN f-process radionuclides, whereas chondrites may have condensed after the relative extinction of the short-lived radionuclides. So the planet Mercury is suggested to have isotopic enrichments similar to the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) meteorites thought to be from 4 Vesta.

If Venus had formerly been in a synchronous orbit around the Sun prior to the loss of our former binary-Companion, the loss of the centrifugal force is suggested to have lowered its orbit slightly, perhaps accounting for its slight retrograde rotation. The planet Mercury is in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance in which it undergoes 3 rotations for every 2 orbits around the Sun, so if Mercury had a former 1:1 synchronous orbit like Venus, then its prograde rotation rate increased, unlike Venus. However, perhaps this configuration was the simplest Sun-Mercury closed-system conservation of total energy and angular momentum.
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Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos:

Abstract
“We have searched 101 Classical transneptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space
Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical transneptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)

“The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits (Stevenson et al. 1986).”
“The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI.”
“We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical
composition (and colors) of the binary components
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)

From the proceeding references, the high frequency of binary KBOs in the cold population with similar-size and similar-color components argue for (in situ) condensation of 100 km and larger minor planets by gravitational instability.

Cold and hot classical Kuiper belt populations (cubewanos):
Most cubewanos are found between the 2:3 and 1:2 orbital resonance with Neptune, although there is no formal definition of cubewano or classical KBO. The low-eccentricity, low-inclination cubewanos are defined as the cold population, with the ‘hot’ population having distinctly higher-eccentricity and higher-inclination orbits. The cutoff inclination between the hot and cold populations is set at 12°.

Cold classical KBOs:
– Low inclination
– Low eccentricity
– Reddish coloration
– Typical binary configuration, similar size and color

Hot classical KBOs:
– Higher inclination
– Higher eccentricity
– Bluish coloration
– Typical solitary configuration

If orbital perturbation tends to cause binary pairs to spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate,
if orbital perturbation tends to increase orbital inclination,
if orbital perturbation tends to increase orbital eccentricity,
if orbital perturbation tends to mix blue and red populations,
then cold cubewanos are suggested to have condensed in situ since the last substantial upheaval which perturbed the hot population.

Two discrete populations suggests condensation from two discrete debris-disks, the first ‘primary debris disk’ at 4,568 Ma and the second ‘secondary debris disk’ at 542 Ma. And two discrete populations are provided for by a former quadruple (quad) star system ideology for our solar system which underwent two spiral-in merger incidents separated by 4 billion years. By comparison, two distinct populations are problematical for the Grand Tack Hypothesis.

If the typically-binary cold cubewanos are suggested to have condensed 542 million years ago then binary dwarf-planet Pluto is most likely also 542 million years old, explaining the young uncratered surface with its 11,000 foot high mountains estimated to be no more than 100 million years old discovered in 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft.

The preexisting hot cubewano population and SDOs likely received a substantial accretionary coating from the young 542 Ma secondary debris disk, perhaps in some cases sufficient to initiate surficial aqueous differentiation (forming faux Proterozoic supracrustal-like ‘platform’ rock?). Additionally, the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter may have caused tidal-stress-induced melting of water ice, combined with thermal melting by brown-dwarf-merger nucleosynthesis radionuclides.
………………..
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Dixon, E. T., Bogard, D. D., Garrison, D. H., & Rubin, A. E. 2004, Geochim. Cosmochim.
Acta, 68, 3779.

Garrick-Bethell, I.; Fernandez, V. A.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Becker, T. A., 2008, 4.2 BILLION YEAR OLD AGES FROM APOLLO 16, 17, AND THE LUNAR FARSIDE: AGE OF THE
SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN?, Early Solar System Impact Bombardement.

Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295.

Minster, J. F.; Ricard, L. P.; Allegre, C. J., 1979, 87Rb-87Sr chronology of enstatite meteorites, Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 44, Issue 3, Sept. 1979

Nesvorny, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Richardson, Derek C., (2010), Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse, The Astronomical Journal 140 (2010) 785, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/785

Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, William M.; Stephens, Denise C.; Levison, Harold F.; Kern Susan D., 2008, Evidence for Two Populations of Classical Transneptunian Objects: The Strong Inclination Dependence of Classical Binaries, arXiv:0711.1545.

Trieloff, M., Jessberger, E. K., & Oehm, J. 1989, Meteoritics, 24, 332.

Trieloff, M., Deutsch, A., Kunz, J., & Jessberger, E. K. 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 541.
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THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs):

Introduction:

Quadruple star system:
Our former protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times during its gravitational collapse to form a quadruple star system which evolved into a hierarchical wide binary system with each wide binary component composed of a close binary pair, (close) binary-Sun and (close) binary-Companion, and comets are suggested to have condensed from the inside edge of an early circum-multiple-star-system protoplanetary disk beyond or before the stellar fragmentation which formed binary-Companion.

SDOs:
Scattered disc objects (SDO) are suggested to have condensed by gravitational instability (GI) at the resonance-pressurized inside edge of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun after binary-Companion had spiraled out sufficiently to allow the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk. A majority of these protoplanetary planetesimals hybrid accreted to form Uranus and Neptune, with a small leftover remnant scattered out to the scattered disc by Neptune prior to 4,568 Ma.

KBOs:
Secular perturbation of the quadruple system caused the wide-binary separation to increase (spiral out) at an presumed exponential rate, fueled by the potential energy of the close binary pairs which spiraled in. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge in a ‘luminous red nova’ (LRN) also sometimes called a ‘red transient’, which created a secondary debris disk from which condensed asteroids and chondrites in the inner solar system and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances. KBOs presumably condensed by GI at warmer temperatures than comets and SDOs and are thus predominantly ‘water worlds’, compared to protoplanetary comets and SDOs which presumably additionally condensed a considerable component of more volatile ices like carbon monoxide and nitrogen.

Solar system dynamics:
Continued stellar ‘core collapse’ following the solar LRN continued to increase the wide-binary Sun–binary-Companion separation at a presumably lower exponential rate, fueled by the close-binary presumably brown-dwarf components. Sun and binary-Companion orbited the solar system barycenter (SSB) for the next 4 billion years until the components of binary-Companion merged in an asymmetrical merger which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun at 543 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon.

Solar system barycenter (SSB) perturbation:
As the Sun and binary-Companion spiraled out from the SSB by Galilean relativity from the perspective of the Sun, the SSB effectively spiraled out into the Kuiper belt during the Hadean Eon and into the scattered disc during the Proterozoic Eon. KBO perturbation by the SSB during the Hadean is suggested to have caused the late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the inner solar system from 4.2 to 3.8 Ga and SSB perturbation of SDOs during the Proterozoic Eon is suggested to have caused them to internally differentiate to form granite plutons and surfically differentiate to form supracrustal rock, while also perturbing SDOs into the inner solar system.
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Alternative solar-system ideology:

Scattered disk objects (SDOs):
The typically high-eccentricity and or high-inclination orbits of SDOs are suggested to be due to their having been scattered outward by Uranus and Neptune during their planetary orbit-clearing phases, assumedly prior to 4,567 Ma. SDOs are suggested to have condensed by GI from the protoplanetary disk while still within our birth Bok globule, presumably from solid-phase icy chondrules in which the majority of stellar metallicity is suggested to reside within Bok globules (See section, DARK MATTER). Stars, planets, moons and planetesimals formed by gravitational instability (GI) typically fragment (bifurcate) due to excess angular momentum, forming gravitationally-bound close-binary pairs; however, scattering by Uranus and Neptune likely perturbed binary pairs to either spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate. Additionally, many SDOs will have undergone collisional mergers at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk. And finally, the orbit-clearing perturbation would have caused tidal stresses on SDOs, contributing perturbative energy; however, the heat of vaporization of sublimed volatile ices is suggested to have clamped SDO temperatures below the freezing point of water during collisions, mergers and orbit clearing perturbation by Uranus and Neptune to the scattered disc, clamping the internal temperature below the melting point of water ice where (inherited) authigenic mineral grains can form.

Debris-disk condensates, including KBOs:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged at 4,567 Ma , creating a ‘luminous red nova’ (LRN), ‘red nova’ or ‘red transient’. The stellar-merger explosion is suggested to have formed a secondary debris disk which condensed asteroids, chondrites and KBOs, of which Mercury may be the largest hybrid-accretion asteroid. Asteroids were the first condensates from the debris disk, and thus condensed most volatile depleted at the highest temperatures in the lowest heliocentric orbit with the most most active stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis radionuclides. Core accretion of asteroids condensed by gravitational instability (GI) formed Mercury, followed by planetary orbit clearing of the leftover asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Chondrites condensed as late as 5 million years after the stellar merger, perhaps in situ within Jupiter’s inner resonances. But even KBOs, the most distant condensates of the secondary debris disk, are assumedly more volatilely depleted than protoplanetary comets and SDOs. In situ condensation of Plutinos and classical KBOs (‘cubewanos’ between a 2:3 and a 1:2 resonance with Neptune) may explain their typical low-eccentricity low-inclination orbits, and the profusion of similar-size and similar-color binary pairs.

Former Companion to the Sun:
Our solar system is suggested to have formed from a protostar that fragmented 3 times, forming a quadruple star system that evolved into two close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, in a wide-binary Sun-Companion separation. Secular perturbation of the star system caused progressive stellar core collapse, causing the close-binary pairs to spiral in as the wide-binary pair spiraled out at an exponential rate. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma, and binary-Companion spiraled in to merge some 4 billion years later, at 543 Ma, in an asymmetrical merger that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun and ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon.

Comets vs. SDOs:
While SDOs may be closely related to comets (with both condensing from the presolar protoplanetary disk), they may, however, have formed in slightly different locations at slightly different times. In the framework of our suggested former quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, comets may have condensed before SDOs in circum-quadruple orbit beyond our former close-binary brown-dwarf Companion, or perhaps in circumbinary orbit before the Companion stellar components fragmented from the smaller binary-Sun component. SDOs are suggested to have condensed slightly later in circumbinary orbit around our former binary Sun (perhaps between the present orbits of Uranus and Neptune) after stellar core collapse had opened up a wide-binary Sun-Companion separation sufficient to allow a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun. Orbit clearing by binary-Companion is assumed to have shepherded the comets outward in barycentric orbits for 4 billion years, with binary-Companion sculpting the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud (IOC). Comets only achieved heliocentric status with the loss of our former binary-Companion at 543 Ma in the asymmetrical spiral-in merger which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. So SDOs assumedly formed slightly later than comets and perhaps at slightly higher temperatures with slightly more volatile depletion than comets, but not nearly as volatile depleted as debris-disk KBOs.

Solar-system barycenter (SSB):
The SSB was the point around which the Sun and binary-Companion orbited for 4 billion years. Stellar core collapse caused the Sun-Companion wide-binary period to increase at a suggested exponential rate. The exponential-rate period increase also translates to an exponential increase in the wide-binary apoapsis over time, progressively increasing the wide-binary eccentricity. From a heliocentric perspective (by Galilean relativity), the SSB Sun-Companion apoapsis appeared to spiral out through the Plutinos and into the Kuiper belt during the Hadean, through the 1:2 and 1:3 resonance with Neptune gap during the Archean, and into the scattered disc (beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune) during the Phanerozoic Eon, perturbing progressively more distant planetesimals over time. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS). The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the Hadean Eon is suggested to have been caused by the perturbation KBOs by the SSB: perturbing Plutinos around 4.22 Ga in the first pulse of a bi-modal LHB, and perturbing classical KBOs (cubewanos) between 4.1 and 3.8 Ga in the main prolonged pulse of the LHB. The Archean corresponds to the SSB transit between the 1:2 and 1:3 resonances with Neptune. The SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon by reaching the main scattered disc reservoir of protoplanetary SDOs, the primary subject of this section.
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Perturbative formation of supracrustal rock:

The SSB is suggested to have reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune by 2,500 Ma, creating sustained SDO perturbation during the Proterozoic Eon. Rhythmic stroking of SDOs by the SSB is suggested to have caused eccentric SDO orbits to ‘flip-flop’ with the Sun-Companion period, from having their aphelia gravitationally attracted toward the Companion to being centrifugally slug away from it. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS). And tidal torquing, resulting in aphelia precession flip-flopping during the Phanerozoic, reached the melting point of water ice at or near the surface, precipitating authigenic mineral grains that formed surficial supracrustal rock, with flip-flop perturbation forming sharply-layered supracrustal rock. Progressive melting and sublimation caused subsidence (SDO-quakes) which released the potential energy to form ash and magma volcanic layers, common in supracrustal rock. Subsidence also reduced SDO surface area, creating the reverse faults typical in supracrustal rock. Volcanic ash, ropy volcanic flows and mud-cracked bedding surfaces typical in supracrustal rock show that supracrustal rock formed at the surface.
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S-type vs. I-type granites:

Within mixed S-type and I-type batholiths, S-types tend to be older, more highly reduced, formed at lower temperature, surrounded by metasomatic skarns and pegmatites, with hornblende absent but common muscovite, and often containing inherited zircons and supracrustal enclaves. I-types tend to be younger, lower temperature, surrounded by contact-metamorphic hornfels and aureoles and sometimes associated economic mineralization, with hornblende common. (Chappell and White 2001) These differences are suggested to point to an authigenic aqueous origin for S-type granites and a molten (plutonic) origin for I-type granites.
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Suggested energy concentration mechanism in SDOs for forming granite plutons and volcanic magma in supracrustal rock:

Boiling saltwater within internal SDO voids, previously voided by the sublimation of low-temperature ices, is suggested to be the distinctive setting for the formation of authigenic S-type granite, with catastrophic energy input by way of intermittant SDO-quake subsidence. Boiling greatly increases circulation, peculating sedimentary grains that would otherwise fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, thereby increasing the average size of mineral grains for any given gravitational acceleration.

SDO structure:
Binary spiral-in mergers, accretionary collisions with other planetesimals and perturbation into the scattered disc followed by perturbation by the SSB is suggested to have significantly hollowed out SDOs by subliming volatile ices, such as molecular nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and etc., perhaps turning the interior into a foam-like structure like Styrofoam Christmas balls, supported internally by a latticework of interconnecting arches of less volatile material. Progressive sublimation ultimately results in gravitational (SDO-quake) subsidence.

Charles law heating:
W = f * ds and W = dP * dV (where W is work, dP is change in pressure and dV is change in volume). Since gases are vastly more compressible than liquids or solids, gasses trapped in internal voids are suggested to absorb the vast majority of potential energy converted to heat in SDO-quake subsidence events. SDO quakes progressively reduce the surface area of SDOs, forcing the supracrustal-rock crust to overlap itself in reverse faults. Reverse faults are typical of supracrustal rock. Internally, subsidence is suggested to flash heat sublimed gasses trapped in the void-riddled interior. The flash-heated gas may melt water ice at depth. If the water fails to boil, it may precipitate authigenic gneissic sediments, but if it reaches the boiling point, authigenic S-type granitic sediments may be the result. Flash-heated gas may even reach the melting point of silicates, forming transient localized pockets of magma. If flash-heated compressed gas vents to the surface, it may drive guisers, volcanic ash and even magma onto the surface, adding new supracrustal-rock layers.

So tidal torquing of low-density pithy SDOs may cause internal heating which sublimes low-temperature ices at depth and melts water ice at or near the surface. Sublimation and melting undermine the structural integrity, leading to SDO-quake subsidence. The gravitational potential energy released is concentrated in compressed gas in the interior which may melt water to form gneissic sediments below the boiling point, S-type granite above the boiling point and I-type granite above the melting point of silicates. Additionally, compressed gas may force magma, ash and water to the surface, forming new layers of upward-younging surficial supracrustal rock. So by this curious method of catastrophically-concentrating energy, SDOs are suggested to have occasionally reached much-higher spot temperatures than generally-warmer water-world KBOs.
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Felsic segregation in authigenic granite:

Simple Simon quartz and the feldspars are the most common felsic minerals in granite, which are suggested to crystallize with ease on existing mineral grains due to the relative simplicity of their crystalline structure. More-complex mafic mineral grains, by comparison, may tend to precipitate (nucleate) new mineral grains rather than crystallizing on existing mineral grains, due to the greater relative complexity of mafic mineral grains. (Mafic) minerals, with greater complexity felsic grains, require the juxtaposition of more reagents for crystallization and may have a higher probability of local depletion of one or more necessary reagents in the vicinity of preexisting mafic mineral grains. Mafic biotite, containing K, (Mg, Fe), Al, Si and F + hydrogen & oxygen, need only be locally depleted in one of 5 components (with an allowable either/or substitution in the iron/magnesium mafic component) to retard mineral-grain growth by crystallization in an aqueous setting, whereas feldspar only requires 3 components, (Na, K, Ca), Al and Si & oxygen, with an allowable 3-way substitution in the alkali/alkaline metal component, making felsic feldspar crystallization more flexible than mafic biotite. So mafic species may be more likely to precipitate new mineral grains, whereas felsic species may be more likely to crystallize onto existing mineral grains, resulting in larger, felsic mineral grains and more-numerous, smaller, mafic mineral grains.

Quartz solubility, however, is temperature dependent, causing quartz to tend to precipitate at the cold ceiling junction, so when the negative buoyancy of quartz grains no longer carry them to the cold junction (typically at the ceiling), their growth by crystallization may shut down, making feldspar typically the larges mineral grains in massive S-type granite. Feldspar solubility, by comparison, is more pH dependent than temperature dependent. Quartz is frequently the mineral that fills the sedimentary voids during subsequent lithification, locking the other mineral grains together.

In the rapid circulation of a boiling environment in which only the largest feldspar (felsic) mineral grains are able to fall out of suspension, smaller, more-mobile, mafic mineral grains may remain largely suspended in solution, except for those grains that become wedged between large feldspar grains already settled on the sedimentary floor of growing S-type plutons. But over time, aqueously-differentiated S-type plutons should tend to skew toward mafic composition as the aqueous reservoir gradually assumes a more mafic composition over time due to progressive feldspar depletion. However, even mafic mineral grains grow by crystallization over time until they too begin to fall out of suspension. And as the ferocity of boiling presumably declines over time (going from a ‘rolling boil’ to a slow boil) and mafic mineral grains begin to fall out of suspension en masse, the sediments should progressively skew to a more-mafic composition beyond the definition of granite or granitoid rock to that of mafic rock. So physical segregation suggested to be caused by boiling saltwater will tend to peculate finer-grained mafic sediments in suspension, tending to cause ‘upward maficing’. And presumed cooling over time will tend to cause ‘upward fining’ as well.

Finally, the peculation accompanying boiling will tend to jostle sediments that have already fallen out of suspension, tending to obscure periodic influences which may otherwise reveal sedimentary layering. Boiling peculation jostling may also tend to interlock sedimentary mineral grains by ‘evaporating’ the voids between grains. So peculation caused by boiling may give a massive structure to sedimentary S-type granite.

Mafic xenoliths in S-type granite:
Many mafic country-rock enclaves in S-type granite appear to be composed of the same type of felsic and mafic mineral-grains as the enshrouding granite, but the enclaves are typically, mostly composed of small, mafic mineral grains with relatively-few larger felsic grains. If felsic species tend to crystallize on preexisting mineral grains, compared to mafic species which may tend to precipitate new mineral grains, then the negative buoyancy of the larger, heavier felsic mineral grains will tend to weigh them down to the lower regions of growing S-type plutons. Thus the mineral grains that ‘plate out’ on the walls and ceilings of SDO voids, may be quite mafic in composition. And thus when mafic masses occasionally slough off from the ceiling and walls of growing aqueously-differentiated granitoid plutons, they get incorporated into the more-felsic granitoid sediments on the floor as mafic ‘country-rock enclaves’ or ‘xenoliths’ within S-type granite.
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Rhythmic varve in supracrustal rock, including banded iron formations (BIFs):

Rhythmic rock layering, particularly ‘bifurcated layering’ such as banded iron formations (BIFs), may record the whipsaw apsidal precession of planetesimals caused by the SSB crossing the semi-major axes of SDOs, predominantly beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune in the Early to Mid Proterozoic Eon.

By Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun, the solar system barycenter (SSB) could be said to have progressively swept outward through the Kuiper belt and into the scattered disk at an exponential rate over a period of about 4 billion years, as stellar core collapse of the triple (Sun, binary-Companion) system is suggested to have transferred orbital potential energy from the binary components of former close-binary Companion system to the wide-binary Sun-Companion system. Additionally, the SSB is suggested to have swept back and forth (again by Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun) with each eccentric orbit of Sun and Companion around the SSB, causing the periodic (rhythmic) layering discussed in this section.

We Assume highly-eccentric former wide-binary Sun-Companion orbits around the SSB which effectively put the SSB below SDO perihelia (< 30.1 AU) at wide-binary periapsis (Sun-Companion closest approach). Then by the Proterozoic Eon, the wide-binary apoapsis (Sun-Companion most distant separation) effectively put the SSB beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune (> 62.5 AU) into the scattered disc. Stroking SDO orbits from their perihelia to a point beyond their semi-major axes is suggested to have caused SDO aphelia to have flip-flopped by rapid aphelia precession from pointing toward the Companion to pointing away from it at a flip-flop rate controlled by the barycentric Sun-Companion orbital period. Note, the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is assumed to be much longer than SDO orbital periods.

Lunar-tide analogy:
On the side of Earth closest to the Moon, the ocean experiences greater than average gravitational acceleration toward the Moon, pulling the ocean up into an elevated lunar tide. On the opposite side of the Earth (most distant from the Moon), the Earth’s centrifugal force around the Earth-Moon barycenter slings the ocean away from the Moon in a nearly-symmetrical elevated lunar tide. Similarly, when the SSB was closer to the Sun than SDO perihelia, SDOs would have experienced greater than average gravitational acceleration toward the Companion, suggested to have pointed SDO aphelia toward the Companion. But when the SSB was beyond the semi-major axis of SDOs, those SDOs nominally experienced more centrifugal force away from the Companion than toward it, which is suggested to have caused an aphelia-precession flip-flop, slinging SDO aphelia away from the Companion. Note, the semi-major axis [half way between perihelion and aphelion] is stated as the ‘nominal’ crossover point for gravitational vs. centrifugal acceleration mediated aphelia-precession flip-flopping, regardless of the actual cross-over point (which is conceptually immaterial).

So when the SSB nominally reached and exceeded the semi-major axis, centrifugal force away from the Companion gained ascendency, which is suggested to have caused orbital ‘flip-flop’, hurling the orbital aphelion 180° away from the Companion by the gradual process of aphelia precession. Note, since an an object orbits slowest at aphelion and spends a higher percentage of its period on the aphelion side of the semi-major axis, the point at which orbital flip-flop (aphelia precession) occurs may be a considerable distance beyond the semi-major axis even if the inflection point for relative acceleration vector lies exactly at the semi-major axis. Additionally, a sufficient degree of differential centrifugal force would be necessary to affect the flip-flop such that it may be presumed that the ‘centrifugal flip-flop’ (pointing the aphelion away from the Companion) does not occur until the SSB has spiraled out considerably beyond the semi-major axis toward aphelion.

In SDO granite formation ideology, mafic mineral grains are assumed to be smaller than felsic mineral grains and therefore tend to remain in aqueous suspension after larger felsic mineral grains have fallen out of suspension by their greater negative buoyancy. With this in mind, one orbit of Sun-Companion around the SSB, resulting in two SDO flip-flops, may create two rhythmic BIF layers, with the felsic chert preferentially deposited during the greatest tidal torquing and the mafic iron oxide deposited during the relatively quiescent periods between flip-flop episodes. To form BIF surficial supracrustal rock on the surface of SDOs apparently requires aqueous eruptions (geysers/springs) from below forced up by the heating caused by SSB torquing. This suggests that rhythmic varve is a physical rather than a chemical process, such as in the 1.849 Ga Sudbury SDO impact with its associated Aphebian BIF.
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Three major categories of rock, suggested to be of planetesimal origin:

– Gneiss dome: T he binary spiral-in merger of volatile-depleted TNOs condensed from the secondary debris disk, causing aqueous differentiation, precipitating authigenic sedimentary cores which undergo lithification and metamorphism to form gneiss domes with hydrothermal mantling rock, and possibly surmounted by ‘platform’ sedimentary rock.
Problems for a terrestrial interpretation: gneiss dome problem, leucosomes/melanosome differentiation (particularly ptygmatic folds), tight (isoclinal) folds on a centimeter (hand-sample) scale
– Supracrustal rock: Thermal differentiation of protoplanetary SDOs, primarily by the solar system barycenter (SSB) during Late Archean to Mid Proterozoic, presumably flooded the surface with water volcanoes and geysers which precipitate mineral grains on the surface before boiling off and/or freezing over, forming parallel layers of supracrustal rock. Intermittent subsidence gradually reduced the volume and surface area of SDOs, creating characteristic reverse fractures in supracrustal rock.
Problem for a terrestrial interpretation: prevalence of reverse faults
– Granite plutons: Once the vast majority of more highly-volatile ices have evaporated from SDOs, creating internal voids, further perturbation melts water ice. If subsidence catastrophically raises local temperatures and pressures above the boiling point of water, precipitation and settling out of sedimentary granitoid mineral grains may form authigenic S-type granite plutons. If the energy released by subsidence reaches the melting point of silicates, molten (plutonic) I-type granite or volcanic rock may be the result.
Problems for a terrestrial interpretation: granite (space) problem
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Snowball Earth:

Snowball Earth is suggested to have been a solar system wide perturbative event which subsequently found its way to Earth in the form of SDOs, containing the characteristic diamictite and cap carbonate layers in their surficial supracrustal rock. The long duration of glacial episodes during the Cryogenian Period are suggestive of one or more close encounters with a ‘globule cluster’ or giant molecular cloud. Gravitational perturbation could arise from a cluster as a whole and perhaps from individual (Bok) globules within the cluster, as well as young/nascent stars which had condensed therein. (See section DARK MATTER) Globule clusters are suggested to be the reservoirs of galactic dark matter which typically orbit the galactic core on steeply-inclined halo orbits. Globule clusters on typical steeply-inclined orbits pass through the disk plane rapidly, but those globule clusters on shallowly-inclined orbits take much longer to cross the disk plane, and our solar system is suggested to have had a protracted close encounter with one of these more desultory clusters during the Cryogenian Period.

Suggested perturbation torquing by globule clusters of the Cryogenian Period would have been superimposed onto ongoing SSB perturbation during the Phanerozoic Eon. While carbonate rock is common in SDO supracrustal rock, it’s not otherwise associated with diamictite containing ‘dropstones’, indicative of ice rafting. Perhaps dropstones represent melting of an icy mantle, say by OB supergiant radiation or by hot fluids from the interior gushing onto the surface. So rather than glacial period freezing of Earth oceans, diamictite may instead represent melting of SDO icy mantles overlaying supracrustal rock, which is almost the exact opposite. Glacial striations on supracrustal rock, underlying diamictite deposits, bear witness to glacial activity which could be explained by either terrestrial or planetesimal ice sheet mobility.

Could globule-cluster contamination of the solar system in the form of icy chondrules have caused the carbon and oxygen isotope excursions during the Cryogenian and subsequent Ediacaran Periods? If so, solar capture of icy chondrules into a Kuiper belt debris ring followed by gradual secondary accretionary assimilation by TNOs seems more likely than direct capture by planetesimals themselves. Not all supracrustal rock contains cap carbonate sequences. Huronian supracrustal rocks of the Great Lakes region, are suggested to have been on Earth during the Cryogenian Period, having arrived with the 1,849 Ma Sudbury impact. Neither does the supracrustal rock of Labrador Trough, suggested to have arrived ca. 12,800 years ago with the Nastapoka arc SDO impact.
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Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001
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CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS:

Thayne Currie suggests a compelling hybrid mechanism for forming (giant) planets by accretion from a population of 1 km planetesimals, in which the planetesimals have been formed by gravitational instability (GI). (Currie, 2005)

Suggested alterations to Thayne Currie’s hybrid accretion model:

1) Planet types formed by hybrid accretion:

This hybrid mechanism may be limited to forming terrestrial super-Earth–type planets like Mars and ice giants like Uranus and Neptune, but not gas-giant planets which are posited to form by GI from outer stellar layers isolated by their excess angular momentum.

2) Hybrid-accretion planetesimal size:

Presolar planetesimals forming super-Earths may be vastly larger than the 1 km planetesimal size envisioned if circa 100 km trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were formed by GI as the evidence of similar size and color of TNO binaries suggests. Secondary debris disks, however, may ‘condense’ smaller planetesimals, perhaps down to 1 km, due to elevated dust-to-gas ratios, forming Mercury as a hybrid accretion planet from asteroids ‘condensed’ from the spiral-in binary solar merger (4,567 Ma) debris disk.

3) Location, location, location:

The formation of planetesimals by GI may require,
1) elevated dust-to-gas ratios, and
2) pressurization,
both of which may most typically occur in the pressure dam at the inside edge of accretion disks. The inner edge of accretion disks around solitary stars may be governed by the magnetic corotation radius of the star, whereas the inner edge of circumbinary accretion disks may be governed by binary stellar resonances. Finally, a limited degree of planetesimal formation by GI may occur in giant planet resonances, such as chondrite formation which may have occurred in situ in Jupiter’s inner resonances at highly-elevated dust-to-gas ratios.

Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune may be ‘super-Earth’ type planets formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals in 3 separate planet-formation episodes.

Uranus and Neptune:
The super-Earth cascade of Uranus and Neptune first super-Earth formation episode at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond our former binary Sun, where the binary solar-component separation at the time may have been on the order of the combined semi-major axes of Jupiter and Saturn. When Uranus reached its current size by hybrid accretion of TNOs, it was able to clear its orbit by ‘evaporating’ most of the planetesimals outward. But the effort of clearing its orbit of more than its own mass of TNOs and larger dwarf-planet–sized hybrid accretions lowered Uranus’ orbit, perhaps resulting in its 98° axial tilt due to closed-system conservation of orbital and rotational angular momentum. Neptune formed after Uranus and then similarly cleared its orbit of the remaining TNOs and dwarf planets, most of which were evaporated into the Kuiper belt beyond.

Mars:
If Jupiter and Saturn are spin-off planets (see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS) that spiraled out from the binary solar components as the solar components spiraled during stellar core collapse, Jupiter and Saturn may have disrupted the circumbinary protoplanetary disk from condensing protoplanets until the binary separation of our former binary Sun was considerably less than 1 AU. So the hybrid accretion of Mars occurred prior to the ultimate binary solar merger at 4,567 Ma. Orbit clearing by Mars of remaining planetesimals and larger dwarf-planet hybrid accretions may have wound up in Jupiter’s inner resonances, with 1 Ceres as the largest surviving hybrid-accretion dwarf-planet.

Mercury:
Mercury’s high density and proportionately-large iron core size suggests a hybrid accretion of highly volatilely-depleted asteroids ‘condensed’ by GI from the solar-merger debris disk with its inner edge at the (super-intense) magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the solar merger, but we won’t know for certain until we get samples from Mercury to see if it corresponds to the stellar-merger–nucleosynthesis stable-isotope enrichment of ∆17O with rocky-iron asteroids like 4 Vesta. The terrestrial planets in turn cleared their orbits of the left-over asteroids, evaporating them into Jupiter’s inner resonances.

The size of super-Earth planets may be governed by the separation distance from the star or from the stellar barycenter in the case of circumbinary disks around binary stars, with larger super-Earths potentially forming further out in circumbinary accretion disks. The term ‘super-Earth’ implies a planet size larger than Earth, and indeed, super-Earths are more abundant in the exoplanet surveys than smaller terrestrial planets. Super-Earth size may also be constrained by lack of sufficient planetesimals, as may be the case in the diminutive size of Mars and Mercury. In cascades of Super-Earths, all but the outermost planet should have reached its target mass for dynamic orbit clearing, so only Uranus should be typical in size for its formation conditions.

In super-Earth cascades of 3 or more planets, the separation between the outermost two planets will typically be wider than inner separations since only the outermost planet has not sunk in orbit by clearing its orbit of one or more planet’s worth of planetesimals. Cascades of super-Earths tend to exhibit adjacent orbital-period ratios of 1:3 to 2:3 except for the outermost separation. This of course assumes no subsequent planetary dynamics which frequently may be a poor assumption.

The inner edge of circumbinary disks may be governed by corotation resonances and outer Lindblad resonances in the range of 1.8a to 2.6a, where ‘a’ designates the binary-stellar semi-major axis. (Artymowicz and Lubow 1994)

In cascades of super-Earths, do all the planetesimals form first? Can super-Earths push out the inner edge of circumbinary disks, creating renewed spates of planetesimal formation further out? A close examination of planet size and planetesimals separations may provide the answer.

In binary systems, spin-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn may interrupt the formation of super-Earths as our solar system seems to indicate. Around solitary stars, spin-off planets would presumably form before super Earths and may push out the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, causing super-Earths to form further out at more temperate separations. Merger planets hurled to circa 1 AU separations from their merged stars like Venus and Earth may merely jostle a super-Earth cascade where it can squeeze in, confusing the sequence and thus confusing planetary origins. Indeed Earth may have edged Mars into a slightly higher orbit in Earth’s earliest protoplanet phase when it may have originally had the mass of Saturn or greater before becoming severely volatilely depleted.

Tau Ceti and HD 40307 are apparently five and six super-Earth exoplanet star systems, respectively, without the complication of spin-off planets or merger planets.

Star Systems with Super-Earth Cascades

 

Finally, aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores may be visible on Mars in a number of chasmas and impact basins (Melas Chasma, Hellas Planitia, the central uplift in Becquerel Crater and etc.) where prevailing winds have removed sand dunes, revealing Mars’ internal composition.

Hellas Planitia, Twisted Terrain

Hellas Planitia, Twisted Terrain_1

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LUMINOUS RED NOVA (LRN) ISOTOPES:

Oxygen isotopes:

Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating the r-process radionuclides of the early solar system (aluminum-26, iron-60 et al.) and its helium-burning stable-isotope enrichment (carbon-12 and oxygen-16 et al.).

Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope toward the lower left corner of the graph 3-isotope oxygen graph (δ17O vs. δ18O), with a 1 slope representing complete mixing due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase. (The anhydrous modifier is significant since any subsequent aqueous alteration, forming hydrous minerals, would occur slowly, allowing mass fractionation which would move the altered material off the 1 slope line.) By comparison, complete fractionation of oxygen isotopes plot as a 1/2 slope, since 17O – 16O = 1 unit of atomic weight and 18O – 16O = 2 units of atomic weight. The terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) plots with a slope of .52, nominally 1/2. The low cooling rate from a molten magma state on Earth and the similarly slow rate of authigenic precipitation from an aqueous state provides a significant opportunity for chemical reactions to occur within the temperature window in which mass fractionation is significant. So the 1 slope of CCAM merely represents complete mixing while the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) merely represents complete fractionation.

Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope, representing complete mixing, due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase.  The terrestrial fractionation line (TF) plots with a 1/2 slope, representing complete mass fractionation, due to slow cooling from a molten state.

Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope, representing complete mixing, due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase. The terrestrial fractionation line (TF) plots with a 1/2 slope, representing complete mass fractionation, due to slow cooling from a molten state.

When comparing completely fractionated materials such as terrestrial basalt and Mars meteorite basalt, it can be convenient to force force the nominal 1/2 slope (.52 slope for the TFL) to zero, making it a horizontal line, with the conversion:
∆17O = δ17O – .52 δ18O
∆17O vs. δ18O plots the TFL horizontally with igneous Mars rock on a horizontal rock above.

The degree of 16O enrichment can be be obscured by isotope fractionation when only δ17O (17O/16O) or δ18O (18O/16O) are measured isolation, but the measurement of all three oxygen isotopes and their graphing on a 3-isotope oxygen plot will cause mass-dependent fractionation to wash out, by aligning along a ‘fractionation line’ which is 16O-enrichment dependent. Comparing δ17O or ∆17O to δ18O on a 3-isotope oxygen plot, however, is generally reserved for meteorites, since continental Earth rock is assumedly terrestrial, but if the continental tectonic plates are aqueously and thermally differentiated planetesimal cores from two separate reservoirs (presolar protoplanetary and variably-enriched secondary debris disk) then comparison of all three isotopes becomes significant.

Plotting sufficient terrestrial basalt samples along side Mars meteorite basalt samples shows the two materials lie near fractionation lines, regardless of the extent of mass-dependent fractionation of individual samples. If only that were the end of the story, but ordinary chondrites plot above suggested presolar Mars which makes no sense if they condensed from the secondary debris-disk created by the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma and thus were enriched in 16O. Without subsequent aqueous alteration, ordinary chondrites would plot below the TFL due to their suggested greater 16O contamination than Earth rock.

Secondary aqueous alteration may be responsible for forming secondary magnetite with high ∆17O, which raise ordinary chondrites above assumedly presolar Mars on the 3-isotope oxygen plot. “The maximum fractionation between magnetite and liquid H2O is -13.6‰ at 390 K [9]. In the UOC parent asteroid, H2O probably existed as a gaseous phase when magnetite formed. The maximum fractionation between magnetite and gaseous H2O is -10.5‰ at 500 K [10].” (Choi et al., 1997, Magnetite in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: evidence for an 17O-rich reservoir in the solar nebula) But rather than a “17O-rich reservoir”, if the mechanism had been a matter of mass-dependent fractionation of gaseous H2O in the crust followed by the escape of the 17O-depleted remainder into interplanetary space, would not the result be the same?

During thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites, if the temperature had reached the boiling point of water, the lightest-weight H2O molecules containing 16O would be the first to sublime or boil, and the least likely to condense or deposit (the opposite of sublimation), and the fastest to diffuse outward in a vapor phase. And outward mass-dependent fractionation may have been the result of repeated episodes of sublimation and deposition during the warming phase of thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites which progressively expelled water ice from the core, then the mantle and finally the crust, increasing the degree of fractionation with each cycle. Then oxidation into magnetite selected the most mobile of the remaining oxygen isotopes, preferentially incorporating 17O into magnetite.
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The flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in stellar merger may be recorded in the 3 million year period of chondrule formation by super-intense solar-flare melting of debris-disk dust accretions, spiraling in toward the Sun by Poynting–Robertson drag.

If stellar-merger nucleosynthesis enriched the Sun in the stable isotopes 12C, 16O, and 20Ne by helium burning, then the stellar-merger core temperatures may have been in the neighborhood of 100-200 million Kelvins, with r-process nucleosynthesis forming the neutron-rich short-lived radionuclides (SRs) of our early solar system:
7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 44Ti, 53Mn, 54Mn, 60Fe, 63Ni, 91Nb, 92Nb, 107Pd, 129I, 146Sm, 182Hf and 244Pu.

The high velocities necessary to create spallation nuclides in LRNe may have been observed in LRN PTF10fqs from a spiral arm of Messier 99. The breadth of the Ca II emission line may indicate two divergent flows, a high-velocity polar flow (~ 10,000 km/s) and a high-volume, but slower equatorial flow. (Kasliwal, Kulkarni et al. 2011) Some of the SRs may have been created by spallation in the high-velocity polar outflow of the LRNe, particularly 7Be and 10Be, since beryllium is known to be consumed rather than produced within stars.

The solar wind is ~40% poorer in 15N than earth’s atmosphere, as discovered by the Genesis mission. (Marty, Chaussidon, Wiens et al. 2011) The same mission discovered that the Sun is depleted in deuterium, 17O and 18O by ~7% compared to all rocky materials in the inner solar system. (McKeegan, Kallio, Heber et al. 2011) “[T]he 13C/12C ratio of the Earth and meteorites may be considerably enriched in 13C compared to the ratio observed in the solar wind.” (Nuth, J. A. et al., 2011)

The most apparent deficit in the Sun and in debris-disk material, however, may be the δ15N differences between presolar protoplanetary comets and CAIs condensed from solar-merger polar jets from the core, with canonical 26Al.

Most oxygen isotopes variations are only a few per mill (‰), but δ15N departures from terrestrial values are often measured in hundreds of per mille (tens of percent), with a solar difference of δ15N = -386 ‰ and cometary difference of δ15N ≈+800 ‰ for CN and HCN (Chaussidon et al. 2003). So 15N destruction must have been particularly efficient by way of two mechanisms, 15N(p,α)12C and 15N(p,γ)16O, known as the CN and the NO cycles respectively (Caciolli et al. 2011).

Deuterium will also have been destroyed in the solar merger, dramatically lowering the D/H ratio in the Sun and in debris-disk condensates, but the 2:1 difference in mass between H and D often makes fractionation more significant than the degree of depletion, making the D/H ratio a poor measure of the reservoir depletion.
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AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs):

The problem of planetesimal formation is a major unsolved problem in astronomy since meter-sized “boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a ‘head wind’ from the slower rotating gas” (Johansen et al., 2007).

This approach rejects pebble accretion in favor of gravitational instability (GI) for the formation of planetesimals. In protoplanetary disks or debris disks (generically ‘accretion disks’), GI is suggested to occur in the pressure dam at the inner edge of accretion disks around solitary or binary stars. Around solitary stars, the inner edge of the accretion disk is assumed to be sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius, while the inner edge of accretion disks around binary stars is sculpted by the binary resonances. Heliocentric resonances associated with giant planets may also serve as pressure dams against which planetesimals can condense, such as chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances.

Our former protostar is hypothesized to have fragmented 3 times in succession, due to excess angular momentum, to form a quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, composed of a close-binary Sun and a close-binary Companion in a wide-binary separation which orbited the solar-system barycenter (SSB).

Protoplanetary reservoir comets and SDOs:

Solar system planetesimals are suggested to have condensed from 2 accretionary reservoirs at slightly-different times, with Oort cloud comets having condensed first from the circum-quaternary protoplanetary disk, most likely while still ensconced in our Bok globule stellar nursery. As stellar core collapse opened up an ever-increasing Sun-Companion wide-binary separation two things occurred. Comets were shepherded by the outer Sun-Companion resonances into ever-higher SSB-centric orbits by the ever-increasing period of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB, and the increasing wide-binary separation opened up a sufficient Sun-Companion gap for a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun, causing a second round of planetesimal condensations that would ‘hybrid accrete’ to form ‘super-Earth’ Uranus and Neptune. (Core accretion of planetesimals formed by gravitational instability, hence ‘hybrid accretion’. [Thane Currie 2005]) Orbit clearing by Uranus and Neptune is assumed to have scattered the leftover planetesimals into the scattered disc, as scattered disc objects (SDOs), presumably prior to 4,567 Ma.

Protoplanetary SDOs are suggested to have condensed with a significant percentage of highly-volatile ices, such as CO, N2, CH4, NH3, CO2 and etc., whereas more volatilely-depleted KBOs apparently condensed primarily from water ice, making KBOs the water worlds of the solar system.

If highly-volatile SDOs had undergone similar aqueous differentiation in orbit-clearing scattering prior to 4,567 Ma and found their way to Earth like suggested KBO gneiss-domes, then there should be rock on Earth older than 4,567 Ma, which is not the case, so highly-volatile ices must have sacrificially clamped comet and SDO temperatures below the melting point of water ice during pre-4567 Ma binary spiral-in mergers and hybrid accretion events. As a result, SDOs are suggested to contain numerous internal voids created by the sublimation of volatile ices, with internal compositions like pithy Styrofoam balls used in holliday craft projects. Suggested subsequent SDO differentiation into supracrustal rock and granite batholiths is covered in other sections.
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Secondary debris-disk reservoir KBOs:

Our former binary-Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating a secondary debris disk from which asteroids, chondrites and
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed. The low-inclination, low-eccentricity typical binarity of classical Kuiper belt objects (cubewanos) speaks to their having condensed in situ, not having been scattered there by a mythical planetary migration of Neptune during the late heavy bombardment. Plutinos are suggested secondary debris-disk condensates as well.

Binary spiral-in mergers of KBO water worlds are suggested to cause ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting salt-water oceans in their cores which precipitate dissolved mineral species of mineral grains, forming sedimentary cores which can undergo lithification and even diagenesis and metamorphism to form rocky gneiss-dome cores with hydrothermal-rock mantles. So ‘geochonology’ of gneiss domes gives the age of their spiral-in mergers.
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Perturbation of trans-Neptunian objects:

Our Sun-Companion system is suggested to have undergone 4 billion years of core collapse, feeding off the potential energy of the Companion’s close-binary components to increase the wide-binary Sun-Companion period around the SSB (assumedly at an exponential rate) until the Companion’s binary components asymmetrically merged at 543 Ma, giving the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. After 4 billion years of core collapse, the Companion’s apoapsis from the Sun may have reached the (circa 2000 AU) distance of the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud, explaining the ‘Kuiper cliff’ fall off of planetesimals beyond about 50 AU as orbit clearing by the Companion and explaining the shepherding of Oort cloud comets into the Inner Oort cloud in a circum(wide)binary SSB-centric (not heliocentric) orbit beyond the Companion at apoapsis.

As the Sun and Companion spiraled out from the SSB, by Galilean invariance with respect to the Sun, the SSB spiraled out through the Kuiper Belt and scattered disc, passing through the cubewanos from 3.8 – 4.1 Ga (causing the late heavy bombardment) and perturbing binary KBOs to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation. The perturbation mechanisms since the loss of the Companion and the SSB are less mechanistic and may be related to the loss of the angular momentum of the Companion which may have previously stabilized the solar system against external perturbation from passing stars and ‘globule clusters’ (see section DARK MATTER). Additionally, the solar system may have a large reservoir of ‘detached objects’ in highly eccentric orbits of which Sedna and 2012 VP-113 are two members, with the vast majority beyond detection near perihelia where detached objects spend the lion’s share of their orbit. (Assumedly detached objects have been pumped into high-eccentricity long-period orbits by former Sun-Companion resonances, but with the loss of the Companion’s gyroscopic stability, they may be induced to suffer angular momentum loss by by external perturbations, causing their perihelia to spiral down into the planetary realm where the giant planets eventually perturb them in to the Sun or out of the inner solar system. External perturbation tending to torque objects forward in long-period orbits tends to increase the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, raising their perihelia, but perturbations retarding objects in their orbits decrease the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, lowering perihelia.)

Ignoring Oort cloud comets, detached objects may be the TNO reservoir responsible for the largest Earth impacts in the Phanerozoic Eon since the loss of the Companion, assumedly perturbed by passing stars and dark-matter globule-clusters/giant-molecular-clouds (see section DARK MATTER). And the vast majority of the detached object reservoir are beyond the present limits of detection, so we can only calculate the extent of the reservoir by observing the aphelia tip of the iceberg.
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Aqueous differentiation into sedimentary cores:

Aqueous differentiation is initiated when planetesimals collide or when binary planetesimals spiral in and merge to melt water ice and form salt-water oceans in their cores, creating a solution of mineral species from the dissolution of nebular dust. Microbes may catalyze chemical reactions, greatly increasing the number and complexity of precipitated minerals.

Precipitated (authigenic) mineral grains continue to grow through crystallization until they fall out of suspension due to negative buoyancy in microgravity. The gravitational acceleration, and thus buoyancy, is also dependent on location within the planetesimal, ranging from zero at the gravitational center and rising to a peak value some 2/3 of the way to the surface, so aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores should have the largest authigenic mineral-grain size in the center, barring metasomatic pegmatites.
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pH spike during pressure venting:

The partial pressure of CO2 in trapped gas pockets between the core ocean and the overlying ice-water boundary of the icy mantle forces carbon dioxide into solution where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, lowering the pH. Following binary spiral-in mergers when internal temperatures are still rising and expanding the core ocean by melting, subsidence faults in the icy mantle would periodically vent the trapped gas to the surface.

A sudden drop in pressure on the core ocean would cause dissolved carbonic acid to convert to gaseous CO2 by nucleating on suspended mineral grains which the bubbles would float to the surface creating a froth of CO2 foam at the ice-water boundary, like the effect of sugar added to a carbonated drink. And the repetition of gradually rising CO2 partial pressure followed by its sudden venting would cause ‘sawtooth’ pH fluctuations over time.

The solubility of aluminum salts is particularly pH sensitive, so pressure overlying planetesimal oceans could indirectly control the reservoir of dissolved aluminous species in solution. Aluminous species solubility is U-shaped with respect to pH with an inflection point at about 6-1/2 pH (Driscoll and Schecher, 1990). A rise in pH from 3.5 to 6.5 would decrease the aluminous species solubility by a factor of more than 100,000, effectively dumping the entire reservoir of dissolved aluminous species, presumably in a precipitation of felsic feldspar minerals.

Dissolved aluminous species vs. pH with trough at 6.5 pH

Silica solubility, by comparison, is particularly temperature sensitive, so quartz grains will precipitate at the cold ice-water boundary where silica solubility is at a minimum, and a sudden venting of pressure to the surface may cause the surface of the ocean to flash boil, further concentrating solutes and lowering its temperature. So with quartz precipitation at the ice-water boundary and catastrophically precipitated feldspar mineral grains floated to the surface by nucleating CO2 bubbles, the floating mass buoyed up by CO2 foam is suggested to have a felsic composition. And mineral grains would continue to grow by crystallization as long as they remain buoyantly trapped at the surface.

A frothy mass, perhaps cemented with slime bacteria, is suggested to have a degree of mechanical competency, forming a cohesive floating mat. When the mat became ‘waterlogged’ by negative buoyancy, it would begin to sag until finally sinking as a two-dimensional membrane onto the more mafic sedimentary core, and the larger surface area (circumference) at the ice-water boundary would be forced to crumple when mapping onto the smaller surface area of the sedimentary core, bunching into disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds as it fell onto the core below. Some ptygmatic folds in migmatite double back on themselves like alpine hairpin turns or ribbon candy.
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Ptygmatic Folds in Gneiss Migmatite from Helsinki Finland
–used with permission of Sameli Kujala, http://www.flickr.com/photos/sameli/2040126969/
Conventional metamorphic theory might suggest that the felsic granite leucosome was intruded as a flat dike, followed by folding of the rock like the bellows in an accordion, presumably due to a high degree of elevated-temperature plasticity. Bellows are readily able to fold by displacing air, but since rock is essentially incompressible, hypothesized centimeter-scale folding is highly problematic. Metamorphic theory of migmatites requires felsic leucosomes to have a lower melting point.than the mafic melanosome, and yet in this case, the felsic leucosome dike apparently folds while remaining entirely intact as the mafic melanosome is apparently squeezed out from in between like toothpaste.
Conventional metamorphic theory is untenable in the face of a simple alternative, that of a sedimentary origin within a planetesimal ocean in which the phaneritic, authigenic grain size can be attributed to micro gravity.
Quartz solubility is highly temperature sensitive and feldspar is highly pH sensitive, so quartz precipitates at the cold-junction ice water boundary and feldspar precipitates when gas pressure (containing a partial-pressure of CO2) over the internal ocean is suddenly vented through a fissure allowing it to escape toward the surface, causing CO2 to bubble out of solution. As carbonic acid is converted to CO2 bubbles, the pH rises, precipitating feldspar, and the CO2 bubbles nucleate on the feldspar grains floating them to the surface where they add to the quartz grains, forming a felsic layer.
Perhaps silica gel or slime bacteria lend a degree of mechanical competency to the felsic ‘mat’ causing it to fold and bunch together into ptygmatic folds when it finally became water logged and sank onto the authigenic mafic ‘sand’ of the sedimentary core. Then over time, diagenesis and lithification turn the planetesimal sediments to rock, just as on earth.

Folding in metamorphic rock:

Planetesimal circumferential folding:
Lithification of gneiss-dome sedimentary cores is a process of porosity destruction, forcing out the (aqueous) connate fluids, shrinking the volume of the authigenic sedimentary core and crumpling in the process. This lithification compaction of the circumference at which sedimentary layers were laid down causes ‘circumferential folding’ at all scales by the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids, like grapes dehydrating to form raisins. Lithification of sedimentary rock on Earth similarly results in volume reduction as well, but because of Earth’s enormous diameter, no perceptible reduction in circumference occurs, hence the absence of circumferential folding on Earth. And if circumferential folding of gneiss dome cores typically undergo subsequent metamorphism during the progressive pressure increase caused by the expansion of the overlying ocean freezing solid, then circumferential folding of sedimentary rock may have the misleading appearance having occurred during metamorphism.

Terrestrial tectonic folding:
Large-scale folding due to plate tectonics on Earth, typically forming orogenic synclines and anticlines, is easily explained and demonstrated by folding up into the void of the atmosphere; however, suggested metamorphic folding on Earth at depths necessary for attaining (high-pressure) metamorphic pressures can shear, but has no voids to fold into at depth. So, tectonic folding is readily demonstrable, whereas metamorphic folding at depth is problematic.

Planetesimal or possibly terrestrial crenellations:
Personalization of mica perpendicular to the principal stress field can occur during metamorphism, and if this recrystallization occurs in succession in different overlapping planes, the intersection can create a characteristic texture called crenellation in phyllite. Crenellation is a secondary process, sometimes called overprinting, which occurs during metamorphism, probably primarily during primary planetesimal metamorphism; however, crenellation during subsequent terrestrial metamorphism is not ruled out. If lithification and metamorphic recrystallization occur concurrently, then the distinction between circumferential folding and crenellation may become somewhat blurred.

Planetesimal Ptygmatic folding:
Disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds (described in the previous section) is suggested to occur during sedimentation prior to lithification.
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Freeze-out metamorphism:
In aqueous differentiation of icy planetesimals, when primary sedimentation runs to completion in forming gneissic sedimentary cores, hydrothermal fluids expelled during diagenesis of the core precipitate hydrothermal mineral-grain sediments with different chemistry over top of the gneissic core, namely, sandstone/quartzite, schist and carbonate rock (limestone and dolostone) sediments, which form hydrothermal-rock mantles over gneissic cores. Then as the planetesimal cools and the internal ocean freezes solid, the volume increase of the saltwater ocean expanding to form ice may be largely responsible for pressure increase during gneiss-dome metamorphism, converting sedimentary gneissic sediments to migmatite and gneiss, and hydrothermal sandstone to quartzite, and limestone to marble by ‘freeze-out metamorphism’.

Authigenic Mineral-grain size:
A major difference between authigenic terrestrial sediments and authigenic planetesimal sediments would be mineral grain size. On the surface of our high-gravity planet, precipitated authigenic mineral grains fall out of aqueous suspension at clay size to become sequestered in sedimentary layers which lithify into mudstone, but in the microgravity deep inside planetesimal oceans, microgravity dispersion apparently allow mineral grains to grow by crystallization to the size typically found in migmatite and gneiss before falling out of aqueous suspension (although in the case of granulite metamorphism, the mineral grains have typically personalized at that size). Felsic leucosome mineral grains can be significantly larger than the typical mafic mineral grain size, which may indicate entrapment in buoyant flotsam at the ice-water ceiling where felsic grains can grow out of proportion to their negative buoyancy. Gravitational acceleration increases from zero at the gravitational center to a maximum value part way between the core and the surface, so mineral grain sizes would tend to decrease over time from the inside out in sedimentary planetesimal cores, except for leucosomes and metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to prodigious size on surfaces exposed to hydrothermal fluids but protected from sedimentation.

Authigenic Gneiss with Sharp Isoclinal Folds

Summary and discussion:

In conventional geology, the supposed segregation of felsic and mafic minerals into leucosome, melanosome and mesosome layers by metamorphism of protolith rock to form migmatite gneiss is explained by the partial melting (anatexis) of lower-melting-point (primarily felsic) minerals and the extrusion of this melt down a “potential force gradient.” “The consensus today is that both in situ melt and externally derived melt are present in most migmatites (Kriegsman, 2001).” (Urtson, 2005) This means that adjacent layers alone can not explain the local enrichments and depletions of felsic and mafic layering, and so non-local externally-derived melt is needed for mass balance. In an aqueous planetesimal setting, adjacent felsic and mafic leucosomes and melanosomes have the entire planetesimal ocean to draw from. “Comingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas” is also suggested as an explanation for alternating felsic/mafic layers. (Sandeman et al., 2000)

Conventionally, gneiss domes are divided into two classes: fault related and fault unrelated.  Larger gneiss-dome systems are divided into evenly spaced and unevenly spaced.  Evenly spaced dome systems are considered to be instabilities caused by vertical-density or -viscosity contrast and horizontal loads, leading to buckling.  Unevenly spaced dome systems are associated with fault development or “superposition of multiple deformational phases.” “In nature, gneiss domes are often produced by superposition of several dome-forming mechanisms. This has made determination of the dynamic cause of individual domes and dome systems exceedingly challenging.” (Yin, 2004)

Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability is a favored explanation for the formation of evenly-spaced gneiss domes which is sometimes called a fingering instability where a finger is theorized to spread into a mushroom cap to explain concentric layering in ellipsoid gneiss domes.  RT instabilities, however, fail to explain the typical sedimentary basements: “In some, the lowest horizon of the mantle consists of basal conglomerate with boulders of the same gneiss that forms the dome; in others, the basement stratum is a layer of quartzite, above which follow dolomite and mica schist; and in still others, dolomite forms the basement.” (Eskola, 1948)

Section View of a Differentiated Comet

The basement horizon of quartzite, carbonate rock and conglomerate in gneiss-dome mantles can only be explained in conventional geology with secondary ad hoc mechanisms, but in aqueous differentiation, the concentric layering of gneiss domes are merely sedimentary growth rings transitioning to hydrothermal sedimentation, followed by diagenesis, lithification and metamorphism. So sedimentary migmatite, gneiss and schist are on an equal footing with the mantle layers of quartzite and carbonate rock. And conglomerate or graywacke outer layer on gneiss domes is merely grinding of the rocky core against the ice ceiling as the freezing ocean finally closes in on the core, creating a clastic frosting on authigenic sedimentary core. Often the conglomerate pebbles, cobbles and boulders in the frosting conglomerate are highly polished with an indurated (case-hardened) surface as freezing tends to reject dissolved minerals, creating a final spike in dissolved mineral species that deposit (plate out) on cobbles and pebbles.

The mantled domes apparently represent earlier granite intrusions related to a orogenic period. The plutonic mass was later eroded and levelled, and thereafter followed a period of sedimentation. During a subsequent orogenic cycle the pluton was mobilized anew and new granite magma was injected into the plutonic rock at the same time as it was deformed into gneiss, causing its migmatization and granitization, or palingenesis.

(Eskola, 1948)

Our former binary Companion may have somewhat stabilized the solar system prior to its hypothesized loss at 542 Ma. “Culler et al. [2000] studied 179 spherules from 1 g of soil collected by the Apollo 14 astronauts, and found evidence for a decline in the meteoroid flux to the Moon from 3000 million years ago (Ma) to 500 Ma, followed by a fourfold increase in the cratering rate over the last 400 Ma.” (Levine et al., 2005) But the 400 Ma comes from the 400 million-year bin size used in the study.
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SURFICIAL SUPRACRUSTAL ROCK ON SCATTERED-DISC OBJECTS:

If tidal perturbation of scattered disc objects (SDOs) (typically during the Proterozoic Eon) reached the melting point of water ice, authigenic mineral grains may have precipitated and lithified into supracrustal rock at or near the surface. Then in subsequent SDO impacts with Earth, the highly-compressible ices in the SDO core will rebound following the primary shock wave, and these decompressing (supercritical) fluids may loft supracrustal rock hundreds or even thousands of kilometers from the impact basin, forming a secondary-rebound strewn fields.

Belcher Islands supracrustal rock in the center of Nastapoka arc is related to Nastapoka Islands supracrustal rock which rims its eastern shore, is suggested to be the lithified crust of a scattered disk object that impacted the Laurentide ice sheet, perhaps 12, 900 years ago.

Proterozoic supracrustal rock from Labrador Trough in Quebec, Canada with its characteristic reverse faults is suggested to have aqueously differentiated on the surface of the scattered-disk object which impacted to form the Nastapoka arc (impact basin). Then the rebound of the SDO icy core compressed at impact is suggested to have lofted surficial supracrustal rock into Labrador Peninsula (strewn field) which rafted atop chunks of the Laurentide ice sheet to concentrate in Labrador Trough.

Introduction:

Super-earths Uranus and Neptune and the scattered disc:
Uranus and Neptune are suggested to have formed by ‘hybrid accretion’ of planetesimals condensed by gravitational instability (GI), with ‘hybrid accretion’ reflecting the hybridization of core-accretion planets formed from GI-condensed planetesimals (Thayne Curie 2005). Any planet formed by hybrid accretion is defined here as a ‘super-Earth’, regardless of size or composition. The super-Earth ‘cascade’, consisting of Uranus and Neptune, are suggested to have formed in succession (cascade), with Uranus forming first followed by orbit clearing of more than its own weight of planetesimals which formed Neptune. The effort of the planetesimal lift caused Uranus to sink into a lower heliocentric orbit and to tilt its spin axis onto its side. Subsequent orbit clearing by Neptune evaporated the leftover scattered disc objects (SDOs) to the scattered disc, most with suggested aphelia beyond the 1:3 orbital-period resonance with Neptune.

Solar-merger secondary debris disk, condensing KBOs:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in to merge in a luminous red nova (LRN) (solar mergers are also called ‘red transients’) at 4,568 Ma, forming a secondary debris disk from which asteroids, chondrites, Plutinos and Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed by GI, with Plutinos and (cubewano) KBOs condensing in situ in Neptune’s outer resonances, explaining their typical low-eccentricity low-inclination orbits compared to the less well behaved ‘scattered’ orbits of SDOs.

Scattered disk objects (SDOs):
So high-eccentricity/high-inclination SDOs are attributable to having been scattered by Uranus and Neptune during their orbit clearing phases, assumedly prior to 4,568 Ma. SDOs assumedly condensed directly from the protoplanetary disk, originating in a bitterly-cold Bok globule within a giant molecular cloud. Stars, planets, moons and planetesimals formed by GI often fragment due to excess angular momentum, forming binary pairs, but the subsequent scattering by Uranus and Neptune would have presumably perturbed binary pairs to either spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate, populating the scattered disc with solitary SDOs in scattered orbits. Finally, preexisting SDOs may have accreted a substantial coating from the secondary debris disk, shortly after 4,568 Ma.

Former Companion to the Sun:
Our former protostar is suggested to have fragmented three times to form a quadruple star system that evolved two close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, in a wide-binary separation. (Resonant) stellar core collapse caused ‘secular perturbation’ of the system, causing the close-binary pairs to spiral in and transfer their orbital energy to increasing the wide-binary separation, causing binary-Sun and binary-Companion to exponentially spiral out from the solar system barycenter, increasing the wide-binary period at an exponential rate over time. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge in at 4,568 Ma and binary-Companion spiraled in to merge some 4 billion years later at 543 Ma in an asymmetrical merger that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun.

Former Solar-system barycenter (SSB):
The solar system barycenter (SSB) was the point around which the Sun and binary-Companion orbited for 4 billion years, and the apoapsis (most distant separation) of the wide-binary Sun-Companion separation increased at an exponential rate over time into an increasingly eccentric Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB. From a heliocentric perspective (by Galilean relativity) the SSB effectively spiraled out into the Kuiper belt and scattered disk at an exponential rate, perturbing planetesimals by causing 180 degree apsidal flip flopping of planetesimal orbits (see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS). The late heavy bombardment of the Hadean Eon is suggested to have been caused by the perturbation of KBOs by the SSB, first the Plutinos around 4.22 Ga followed by the cubewanos between 4.1 and 3.8 Ga. The relatively-quiet Archean represents the SSB transit between the 1:2 resonance with Neptune and the 1:3 resonance with Neptune. The SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon where the semimajor axes of the main body of the scattered disc reservoir of protoplanetary SDOs are suggested to lie.

SSB perturbation is suggested to have caused the spiral-in merger of many binary KBOs, initiating aqueous differentiation which melted saltwater oceans in their cores. (See section AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS [KBOs]) Authigenic sedimentary cores are suggested to have precipitated in core oceans which went on to lithify and metamorphose into tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) series gneiss domes of the Archean.
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Proterozoic supracrustal rock:

The SSB is suggested to have reached Neptune’s 1:3 resonance (62.6 AU) at about 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Proterozoic Eon as it began perturbing protoplanetary SDOs, which are closely related to protoplanetary comets.

Supracrustal rock on Earth is rife with desiccation-cracked mudstone, mud chips, cross stratification, rippled layers and turbide, suggestive of near shore deposition followed by episodes of regression, causing desiccation cracks. Desiccation cracks suggest supracrustal rock formation at or near SDO surfaces, with intermittent flooding and volcanic episodes caused by catastrophic subsidence events (SDO-quakes).

Volcanic rock layers in supracrustal rock, both both volcanic ash and basaltic lava, may result from catastrophic SDO-quake subsidence events. If SDOs are internally riddled with gas-filled voids from sublimation of highly-volatile ices like carbon-monoxide ice and nitrogen ice, then compression of trapped gas in internal voids during SDO-quakes would concentrate subsidence energy into the most compressible material, that being trapped gas which might instantaneously soar to thousands of Kelvins, sufficient to melt and vaporize silicates to briefly create volcanic fireworks.

Tidal heating of SDOs is suggested to occur from the outside in, typically only melting a portion of the lithosphere, with SDO cores and mantles remaining frozen. When tidal heating or subsidence forces saltwater to the surface in the form of geysers and water volcanoes, dissolved solutes precipitate mineral grains as the water boils off into the vacuum of space or freezes solid into ice, lowering the solubility of mineral species.

Characteristic reverse faults in supracrustal rock:
Sublimation of the most volatile ices in SDOs is suggested to create voids in the interior which lead to SDO-quake subsidence events. Subsidence progressively reduces the surface area where supracrustal rock forms, causing reverse faults, characteristic of Proterozoic supracrustal rock. ‘Reverse faults’ are the opposite of ‘normal faults’, in which compressive shortening forces the hanging wall over top of the footwall at steep angles greater than 45 degrees.
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Rocky-iron impact craters vs. icy-body impact basins:

Work = force times distance, and similarly Work = pressure times change in volume (W = pdV), so in icy-body impacts on rocky Earth, relatively-compressible ices will absorb the vast majority of the impact energy, which is suggested to largely clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target-rock silicates, and below the formation pressure of shatter cones and other high-pressure manifestations which are the hallmarks of meteorite-impact craters.

So clamped shock-wave pressures are suggested to reduce the power of icy-body impacts by extending the shock wave during the rebound period of supercritical fluids (former ices), and the combination of lower impact power and longer duration shock waves may largely preclude excavation of impact craters and may give Earth’s crust time to depress into (impact) basins. So while rocky-iron impacts form characteristic bowl-shaped impact craters with overturned ejecta and shock metamorphism, icy-body impacts may merely form shallow impact basins, masking their impact origins.
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Supracrustal rock in secondary-rebound strewn fields:

So during impact, SDOs may act like rubber balls with glass shells, where the compressed icy core rebounds to loft chunks of brittle supracrustal rock into secondary-rebound strewn fields, which may be hundreds of kilometers long. In this case, only the supracrustal rock on the top surface of the impacting SDO would be lofted by rebound, while the supracrustal rock on the bottom surface should be overturned within the impact basin itself.

Secondary-rebound strewn fields should be lofted at trajectory velocities, many times slower than the interplanetary velocity of the primary impact.
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Sudbury Basin:
Secondary rebound supracrustal rock may have been lofted into a corridor west of the Sudbury impact basin, reaching as far west as the banded iron formations of Northeast Minnesota. Sudbury breccia (1.85 Ga) overlays Gunflint chert. “Most of the impact layer consists of breccia—a mixture of fragments broken from the underlying iron-formation and cemented together (Figure 4). These fragments represent pieces of seafloor that were ripped loose by impact-related earthquakes and carried down a submarine slope.” (Minnesota’s Evidence of an Ancient Meteorite Impact) Alternatively, the local ‘seafloor’ nature of the breccia could have occurred in the secondary impact of the lofted supracrustal rock, rather than from primary-impact earthquakes.
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Labrador Trough, Grenville Province, supracrustal rock and iron-ore mining:

Suggested ice sheet witness marks from the catastrophic melting of the Laurentide ice sheet caused by the Nastapoka SDO impact may be mapped across Labrador Peninsula into Labrador Trough and in the adjacent Churchill Province to the East and down into the Grenville Province to the south. The Secondary-rebound strewn field of the Nastapoka impact appears to be to the west onto the Labrador Peninsula, perhaps followed by rafting on two kilometer thick chunks of the Laurentide ice sheet to concentrate supracrustal rock in the Labrador Trough.

Suggested corridor of the secondary-rebound strewn field (red line), followed by rafting atop chunks of the Laurentide ice sheet (black arrows).

Supracrustal rock of the Labrador Trough. Witness marks (in red) carved into Archean terrain, possibly formed during catastrophic (impact) melting of the Laurentide ice sheet. Witness marks suggest the direction of travel of rafted supracrustal rock.

Smith Island, Hudson Bay (60.78, -78.38) is the extension of a horizontal stripe of Proterozoic rock across the northern tip of the Labrador Peninsula which doesn’t align with (doesn’t point to) Nastapoka arc. Instead, it may point to far-larger SDO impact in the Late Devonian Period which formed upper Hudson Bay, causing the second of the five major extinction events in Earth’s history: the Late Devonian extinction.

One lofted chunk of supracrustal rock from the Nastapoka arc SDO appears to have hit the ice sheet around the bay of Leaf River, QC, Canada (58.92, -69.77), but this mass of supracrustal rock appears to have gotten largely hung up at Koksoak River, Kuujjuaq, QC, Canada (57.77, -69.37), presumably by the rough terrain of the Koksoak River valley.

The bulk of supracrustal rock that ultimately rafted into Labrador Trough may have been lofted into Ungava Bay, slightly east of Labrador Peninsula, and then been swept south southwest across Churchill Province until it ran aground in Labrador Trough.
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Schefferville area iron ore:

“In the Schefferville area, iron formation crops out in long linear north-west trending belts, parallel to the regional trend of the Hudsonian Orogeny. Not all the exposed iron formation is mined, however as much of it is too lean to be economic. Mines are located in areas that underwent secondary alteration during the Cretaceous period, 130 – 60 million years ago. At that time, the whole of Labrador was uplifted to form an exposed land mass and subjected to intense weathering, probably in a tropical environment. During the weathering process, ground water circulated deep into the iron and leached out the silicate and carbonate minerals to leave a highly porous rock composed largely of iron oxides. Later solutions moved through the porous rock and deposited more iron oxides and hydroxides in the pores, producing an ore which is not only highly enriched in iron (65% iron) in comparison to normal iron formation (35% iron), but also soft and crumbly and therefore easy to mine.”
(Rivers and Waddle 1979)

Alternatively, rather than metasomatically concentrating iron ore over an extended period during the Cretaceous, perhaps the iron ore concentration was fluvial and catastrophic during the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet. (The suggestion of a Cretaceous period of deformation comes from Cretaceous tree trunks and other floral fossil remains in the iron-ore sediments, which could have been fortuitously assembled in the catastrophic melting event, and thus a red herring.)
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Chandler, F.W., (1988), THE EARLY PROTEROZOIC RICHMOND GULF GRABEN, EAST COAST OF HUDSON BAY, QUEBEC, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada

Rivers, Toby and Wardle, Richard, (1979), LABRADOR TROUGH: 2.3 BILLION YEARS OF HISTORY, Mineral Development Division, Department of Mines and Energy, St. John’s
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HYDROTHERMAL QUARTZITE, CARBONATE ROCK, AND SCHIST:

This section will concentrate on the suggested precipitates resulting from the aqueous differentiation of icy-planetesimals, presumed to be from the Kuiper belt and most likely the result of spiral-in mergers of binary planetesimals.

Scattered disk objects (SDOs):
SDOs are presumed to be presolar, having condensed from the protoplanetary disk, and they owe their their present eccentric orbits to having been scattered outward by the orbit clearing of Uranus and Neptune. SDOs are presumably mostly solitary objects which may have originally formed as binaries by fragmentation during gravitational instability, but the binaries were either perturbed to spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate in the process of being scattered outward prior to 4,567 Ma.

Kuiper belt objects (KBOs):
KBOs, including Plutinos, cubewanos, are suggested to have condensed in situ by gravitational instability (GI) from a secondary debris disk that formed from the aftermath of the spiral-in merger of our former binary Sun at 4,567 Ma. Excess angular momentum during GI often causes fragmentation forming binary pairs, and indeed, many of the cold classical Kuiper belt objects (cubewanos) are comprised of similar-sized and similar-colored binary pairs. The debris-disk was presumably more volatilely depleted than the protoplanetary disk, with SDOs trending toward low-temperature ices like CO, CH4, N2 and CO2. and with KBOs trending toward higher-temperature water ice, making KBOs water worlds.

In the initial phase of icy-planetesimal ‘aqueous differentiation’ (defined as internal melting), perhaps primarily cause by binary spiral-in mergers, internal heating melts water ice, liberating nebular dust. Dissolution of nebular dust increases mineral species solutes in solution until reaching (super)saturation, whereupon mineral grains precipitate and grow through crystallization until their negative buoyancy causes them to fall out of solution to form a sedimentary core.

When aqueously-differentiated planetesimals reach thermal equilibrium, the ocean begins to freeze over, cutting off the supply of nebular dust from the icy overburden and concentrating the mineral species in solution as freezing water tends to exclude solutes. The expansion of freezing builds pressure in the ocean, causing lithification and diagenesis of the sedimentary core, expelling hot hydrothermal fluids with high concentrations of solutes in solution. The type of mineral precipitation changes over time and over distance from hydrothermal vents during ‘freeze out’ of the ocean.

Pressure solution/dissolution, leaching and metasomatism during diagenesis and lithification of the sedimentary gneissic core expels hot aqueous fluids, partially or completely saturated with salts, minerals, (cat)ions and other species that may rapidly reach (super)saturation in the cooler ocean above, precipitating mineral grains and crystallizing on suspended sediments, particularly in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents. Mineral grains grow by crystallization to a characteristic size for the buoyancy of the planetesimal ocean with its local (thermal) circulation rate before falling out of suspension to be mostly sequestered from further growth by crystallization.

Authigenic mineral grain size is related to local buoyancy (and circulation rate) which is a function of the planetesimal mass and roughly the relative distance between the surface and the gravitational center. (From the center of the Earth to its surface, zero gravitational acceleration at the ‘center of gravity’ climbs to a maximum value a little more than half way to the surface, followed by decreasing acceleration from the maximum to the surface.) Assuming any sedimentary core lies below the point of maximum gravitational acceleration, authigenic mineral grain size should decrease from the center outward, excepting metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to fantastic size in sheltered areas. The characteristic, authigenic sand-grain size in Wissahickon schist is about 450 microns in diameter (.45 mm).

Mantled gneiss domes:
In mantled gneiss domes, the authigenic migmatite-gneiss core is typically surrounded by a concentrically-layered mantle with an outward progression of gneiss to sandstone/quartzite to carbonate-rock (limestone, dolostone or marble) to schist.

Note the typical gneiss-dome mantle sequence: gneiss>>quartzite/sandstone>>limestone/dolostone/marble>>schist Reference:  Fourteen Geologic Cross Sections through the Gneiss Domes near Baltimore Maryland Geological Survey, 1937; Volume 13, Plate 32

Note the typical gneiss-dome mantle sequence: gneiss>>quartzite/sandstone>>limestone/dolostone/marble>>schist
Reference: Fourteen Geologic Cross Sections through the Gneiss Domes near Baltimore
Maryland Geological Survey, 1937; Volume 13, Plate 32

Skolithos trace fossils in quartzite:
On earth, tube worm communities commonly surround hydrothermal vents. As tube worms extend their tubes to avoid burial as sand settles out of suspension around hydrothermal vents in planetesimal oceans, their addition of organic material, weakens the subsequent quartzite, making it more susceptible to erosion. Tube-worm trace fossils in quartzite may be interpreted as Skolithos trace fossils. Large platform-sized dwarf planet oceans, in which silt-sized authigenic mineral grains fall out of suspension in quiescent regions, may precipitate coarser authigenic sand in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents due to fluid flows, hydrothermal fluid issuing directly from the vent itself and secondary thermal-gradient flows. So authigenic sand, more typical of smaller gneiss-dome-sized planetesimals, may be found on larger platform-sized compound-planetesimal platforms in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents, and Skolithos trace fossils (along with sand-grain size) may help to differentiate gneiss-dome-planetesimal sand from platform-planetesimal sand, assuming gneiss-dome planetesimals do not (typically) support macroscopic life forms.

Quartzite boulder with highly-indurated surface from the Susquehanna River at Millersburg, PA with end-on view of Skolithos trace fossils as dimples.

Quartzite boulder with highly-indurated surface from the Susquehanna River at Millersburg, PA with end-on view of Skolithos trace fossils as pockmarks.

Quartzite boulder with indurated surface from the East branch of the Susquehanna River near the PA New York border with Skolithos trace fossils.

Quartzite boulder with indurated surface from the East branch of the Susquehanna River near the PA New York border with Skolithos trace fossils.

‘Black smoker’ chimney structures form over hydrothermal vents on earth in areas where tectonic plates are separating like at the mid-Atlantic ridge. These chimney structures can reach heights of 40 meters like ‘Godzilla’ in the Pacific Ocean before toppling over from their own weight and then regrowing, creating mounds of hydrothermal rock. Chimney structures may similarly form, topple and reform in planetesimal oceans, creating similar mounds of hydrothermal schist, but the forces causing chimney collapse in planetesimal oceans may be more seismic in nature as the sedimentary core progressively shrinks during diagenesis and lithification, leading to dramatic ‘planetesimal quakes’.

Euhedral garnets in schist:
Round euhedral almandine garnets in schist suggests Bernoulli suspension of garnets in hydrothermal fluid plumes in the low gravity of planetesimal cores, like a balloon trapped in the air leaving a vacuum cleaner. Sand grains to not attain such sizes, likely because quartz solubility is inversely proportionate to temperature, such that quartz grains precipitate and crystallize near the cold-junction ice-water ceiling and get dispersed at some distance from black-smoker chimneys, whereas the garnets may typically incorporate themselves into the chimney structures themselves. Round euhedral garnets do not appear to have grown attached on one side like metasomatic pegmatites, which typically grow in protected crevices.

Pegmatites in schist:
Pegmatites containing large sheets of mica often large feldspar crystals are typically imbedded in highly-indurated quartzite, but no garnets. If sand grains rain out of suspension at a short distance from hydrothermal vents, they do not appear to interfere with the growth of large mica and feldspar crystals, which suggests growth in protected areas on the ice ceiling or perhaps in overhangs or crevices. In Philadelphia Wissahickon schist, the largest crystalline masses of are kilogram-scale blocks of feldspar crystals with sheets of muscovite up to 10’s of square centimeters in area, frequently embedded in large masses of highly-indurated quartzite. Since schist pegmatites are hypothesized to be metasomatic (formed by aqueous crystallization), schist feldspars should be massive without exsolved lamellae structure like perthite which has cooled from a melt.

Wissahickon-schist pegmatite from Philadelphia: Mica and quartz

Wissahickon-schist pegmatite from Philadelphia:
Mica and quartz

Wissahickon schist pegmatite from Philadelphia:  gray, quartz;  white, albite(?);  pink, orthoclase

Wissahickon schist pegmatite from Philadelphia:
gray, quartz;
white, albite(?);
pink, orthoclase

Quartz stalactites in schist?:
Quartzite stalactites are suggested to have formed on ice ceilings overhanging hydrothermal vents, bathed in warm hydrothermal fluids. Quartz stalactites conduct heat, lowering the contact temperature below the solubility saturation temperature of quartz which crystallizes on the ceiling and stalactites until planetesimal quakes break them free to fall onto the growing planetesimal core. If euhedral garnets in schist are indeed formed over hydrothermal vents, then the occasional inclusion of small garnets in quartz stalactites bear out the suggestion of stalactite formation over hydrothermal vents. Quartz stalactites have sinewy longitudinal furrows like American hornbeam branches and trunks, depending on diameter, making them look very much like petrified wood. Stalactite cross sections range from perhaps 1 cm Dia to 1 meter Dia, but usually fractured at both ends so lengths are indeterminate. Cross-sectional aspect ratios vary widely, some thin almost like ribbons similar to flows in terrestrial caves, but more commonly with oval or nearly-circular cross sections.

Section of hypothesized quartz stalactite hanging from an icy ceiling into an internal Oort cloud dwarf-planet ocean over a hydrothermal vent over a sedimentary core undergoing diagenesis.  From the Wissahickon schist terrain along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA.

Section of hypothesized quartz stalactite hanging from an icy ceiling into an internal Oort cloud dwarf-planet ocean over a hydrothermal vent over a sedimentary core undergoing diagenesis. From the Wissahickon schist terrain along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA.

Quartz Stalactites of Various Cross Sections

Cross-sectional chunks of hypothesized quartz stalactites hanging from an icy ceiling into an internal Oort cloud dwarf-planet ocean over a hydrothermal vent over a authigenic sedimentary core undergoing diagenesis (the lithified and metamorphosed Baltimore gneiss-dome). The three chunks show wide variations in color, texture and cross-sectional aspect ratios, but all chunks are longitudinally striated to some degree. The red cross section chunk on the left has red garnets embedded in the ‘bark’ on the outside and was found a number of kilometers downstream from the center and right chunks with less terrestrial stream-tumbling wear.

Hypothesized quartz stalactite hanging from an icy ceiling into an internal Oort cloud dwarf-planet ocean over a hydrothermal vent over a sedimentary core undergoing diagenesis.  From the Wissahickon schist terrain--this chunk was found some 5 to 10 kilometers downstream from more pristine chunks along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA.  This stalactite section is heavily particularly striated with deep furrows.  The corners and ridges have been heavily worn from tumbling downstream, but the furrows are fairly pristine.

Hypothesized quartz stalactite hanging from an icy ceiling into an internal Oort cloud dwarf-planet ocean over a hydrothermal vent over a sedimentary core undergoing diagenesis. From the Wissahickon schist terrain–this chunk was found some 5 to 10 kilometers downstream from more pristine chunks along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA. This stalactite section is heavily particularly striated with deep furrows. The corners and ridges have been heavily worn from tumbling downstream, but the furrows are fairly pristine.

Hypothesized segments of linearly-striated quartz stalactites which grew from the ice ceiling over hydrothermal vents of Baltimore-gneiss-dome Oort cloud planetesimal. From the Wissahickon schist terrain, along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA.

Hypothesized segment of linearly-striated quartz stalactite which grew from the ice ceiling over a hydrothermal vent of the Baltimore-gneiss-dome Oort cloud planetesimal. From the Wissahickon schist terrain, along the Bells Mill Road tributary to the Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia, PA. Outside perimeters are longitudinally striated like driftwood, most with massive cross sections, but some with growth rings like this piece, and note the red garnets.

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ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL:

This section suggests an icy-body impact origin for long-chain hydrocarbon reservoirs on Earth, formed in endothermic chemical reactions of carbon ices in impact shock waves.

Coal Fields of the Conterminous United States (USGS Open-File Report OF 96-92):
Pennsylvanian-age abiotic coal fields, suggested to be of impact origin which were widely distributed in debris-flow from a Mid-Carboniferous impact.

Legend for above map

Legend for above map

Energy absorption of compressible ices in icy-body impacts:
Work = force times change in distance, and similarly, Work = pressure times change in volume (W = PdV), so ices that are significantly more compressible than silicates will absorb the vast majority of icy-body impact energy which may (largely) clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target rock and largely below pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, masking icy-body impact structures from identification as such. Thus the relative compressibility of ices is suggested to clamp the impact power of icy-body impacts by extending its duration through the rebound period of the compressed ices.

Super-high shock-wave pressures are suggested to endothermically convert short-chain hydrocarbons (ethane, methane ices and perhaps carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as well) into long-chain hydrocarbons. The high mobility of hydrogen ions may largely scavenge liberated chalcogens and halogens, helping to protect endothermic hydrocarbons from burning during shock-wave rebound. Experimentally, methane converts to long alkane chains and free hydrogen at 60 GPa and 4509 K (Li, Zhang et al., 2011).

Impact induced super-tsunami debris flows are suggested to bulldoze forests before it, forming debris mounds littered with floral debris that internally differentiates into a multiplicity of coal-seam cyclothems in which clastic sediments sink to form basement ‘ganister’ or ‘seatearth’. The lower-density hydrocarbons rise to form hydrocarbon deposits which may terrestrially metamorphose into coal seams. Subsequent slumping (reworking) of debris mounds may form coal seams of apparent younger age, blurring bright line nature of catastrophic impact events.

Rocky-iron impact craters vs. icy-body impact basins:
The clamped shock-wave pressure of icy body impacts, lowers the power by extending its duration during the subsequent rebound of the compressed ices, which may provide time for the deformation of the Earth’s crust into a basin, suggesting an impact origin for many round basins on Earth, such as the 450 km Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay. Additionally, an extended shock wave pressure may tend to clamp fractured target rock in place, largely preventing its (overturn) excavation into bowl-shaped craters, along with mixing to form polymict breccia. Icy-body impact basins may resemble the muted blow of a dead-blow hammer compared to rocky-iron impact craters which may resemble the sharp blow of a ball-peen hammer.
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Li, Dafang, Zhang, Ping & Yan, Jun, (2011), Quantum molecular dynamics simulations for the nonmetal-metal transition in shocked methane, Condensed Matter Materials Science, 24 March 2011, arXiv:1012.4888v2
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TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECT CRUST (TNO-CRUST) METEORWRONGS:

This section describes a common class of low-nickel ‘meteorwrongs’, frequently containing metallic-iron inclusions with occasional fusion crust, designated, ‘trans-Neptunian object crust’ (TNO-crust), due to their suspected trans-Neptunian vehicle of transportation to Earth. TNO-crust is suggested to have formed from a ‘young debris disk’ created by the spiral-in merger of the former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun at 543 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon. Accretionary masses from the young debris disk were swept up by preexisting trans-Neptunian objects, namely Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and scattered disc objects (SDOs), forming a crust on their surfaces, hence TNO-crust.

Hypothesized trans-Neptuian object crust (TNO-crust) meteorwrong

Suggested trans-Neptuian object crust (TNO-crust) meteorwrong

Section view of hyothesized trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust) with metallic-iron inclusions  (Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

Section view of suggested trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust) with low-nickel metallic-iron inclusions
(Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

Hypothesized native iron from Doe Run, Pennsylvania, suggested to be from the crust of a Kuiper belt planetesimal

Hypothesized native iron from Doe Run, Pennsylvania, suggested to be from the crust of a Kuiper belt object

Suggested TNO-crust, low-nickel nodular iron fused into a folded sheet, from Conshohocken, PA

Suggested TNO-crust meteorwrong from City Island, Harrisburg, PA
Note from the fractured front side that the bulk material has no voids to correspond to the regmaglypt-like depressions on the the top surface.

Suggested TNO-crust with black fusion crust and fused nodular iron. Note the white limestone inclusions in two pieces
(Native iron, Telluric iron, Meteorwrong, Iron meteorite)

Former Companion to the Sun:
The suggested asymmetrical nature of the spiral-in merger of our former binary brown-dwarf Companion gave it escape velocity from the Sun, but its effects may still be seen in the similar argument of perihelion of extended scattered disk (ESD) objects like Sedna and 2012 VP113, as well as the slight retrograde rotation of Venus. (Prior to the Phanerozoic Eon, Venus is suggested to have had a synchronous orbit around the Sun in which its day equaled its year, but with the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around a solar-system barycenter, Venus fell into a slightly lower, shorter-period orbit, such that the length of its day now exceeds the length of its year.)

Brown-dwarf merger debris captured by the Sun apparently formed a young debris disk in the Kuiper belt, with gaps and enhancements created by Neptune’s outer resonances. Plutinos, Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) (namely cubewanos), and scattered disc objects (SDOs) constitute the trans-Neptunian object (TNO) population which assumedly accreted TNO-crust debris-disk coatings whose concentration depended on the local debris-disk density. Highly-eccentric orbits of SDOs assumedly accreted TNO-crust near perihelia where they dip into the Kuiper belt.

Proposed mechanism for the observed melting of TNO-crust:
Radioactive decay of very-short-lived radionuclides from brown-dwarf merger nucleosynthesis is suggested to have caused the observed melting of TNO-crust in early accretionary masses, presumably while in the zero gravity of heliocentric orbit in Neptune’s outer resonances. Then differing surface tension between molten metallic iron and basaltic magma allowed molten metallic iron spherules to merge by cohesion like blobs of mercury to form larger metallic-iron inclusions within larger masses of basaltic rock.

Scale of accretionary masses in TNO-crust:
Planetesimals are suggested to form by gravitational instability from accretion disks pressurized against planetary or stellar resonances, whereas chondrules are suggested to be the scale limit of pebble accretion in the inner solar system. The young debris disk material, however, already had the orbital energy and angular momentum of the Companion whose highly-eccentric orbit may have ranged from 100 to 1000 AU from the Sun (in its former barycentric Sun-Companion orbit). (Following the binary merger, however, the debris material assumed a heliocentric orbit with the loss of the Companion.) While only small (centimeter-scale to meter-scale?) masses accreted quickly enough to have melted by extremely-short-lived nucleosynthesis radionuclides, the ultimate accretionary scale of material in the former Companion orbit may be on the order of several 10s of meters across, perhaps explaining local super abundance of TNO-crust excavated from round quarries in the Appalachians, namely one in Conshohocken, PA and and one in Harrisburg, PA as discussed below. And the accretionary masses of TNO-crust impacted dwarf planets in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk, prior to the perturbation of dwarf planets with TNO-crust ‘frosting’ into the inner solar system, causing extinction events on Earth.

TNO-crust at Ordovician–Silurian boundary in the Appalachians:
A small percentage of TNO-crust in the Appalachians appears to have received a fusion crust from the suggested Earth impact of the Appalachian KBO around 443 Ma, causing the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. So TNO-crust is suggested to have been accreting on the KBO surface over top of the icy mantle for 543 – 443 = 100 million years while Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rock was being precipitated in the core ocean under the icy mantle. Then at impact, the surficial TNO-crust assumedly met up with the End-Ordovician carbonate rock of the core where it is suggested to be found today, at the boundary between Ordovician (planetesimal) and Silurian (terrestrial) rock formations.

TNO-crust in the North American Cordillera and Western Europe:
Similarly, TNO-crust may be found at the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary in the North American cordillera from a North Pacific SDO impact at 66 Ma, causing the K-Tr extinction event (of which Chicxulub crater was an associated minor impact). And TNO-crust may be found beneath the Old Red Sandstone formations in Western Europe if the 428 Ma Ireviken event contributed much of the land mass of Western Europe, including Spain, France and England south of Scotland, but excluding Germany, Czechoslovakia and points south and east.

The Great Unconformity and the Cambrian Explosion:
If the Cambrian Explosion of life is suggested to have been disseminated from the smaller, cooler of the binary brown dwarf precursors, perhaps a cool, spectral class Y brown dwarf or smaller super-Jupiter component formerly fostering aquatic life, presumably within a circulating layer of liquid or supercritical fluid. And the Great Unconformity was assumedly the result of repeated regressions and transgressions of the ocean (super tsunamis) which eroded as much as a billion years’ of Earth’s continental rock record, so brown-dwarf merger affected the inner solar system as well as creating a young debris disk in the outer solar system.

TNO crust meteorwrongs vs. asteroid meteorites:
Many properties of suggested TNO-crust are at odds with the well-understood properties of rocky-iron asteroids and chondrites from the asteroid belt, and these differences conspire against an extraterrestrial interpretation of TNO-crust, despite sometimes exhibiting fusion crust with flow lines and metallic-iron inclusions that could not have cooled from a molten state on the surface of a high-gravity planet, in industrial slag or naturally.
– Physical characteristics and distribution: Local superabundance of TNO-crust in Early Cambrian and younger formations in the absence of impact craters. TNO-crust frequently exhibits fractal and rounded shapes that cooled in small accretionary masses, compared to larger asteroids that formed by gravitational instability and were only later fractured in subsequent asteroid-asteroid collisions. Metallic-iron inclusions in TNO-crust are most frequently rounded or nodular (from presumably having cooled from a molten state in zero gravity), compared to fractured iron surfaces in iron meteorites, rounded over with atmospheric ablation, or fractured iron shards often seen in brecciated meteorites. TNO-crust exhibits frequent vesicles (voids) due to having cooled from a molten state in small accretionary masses.
– Chemical: Low-nickel and low PGE element abundances in TNO-crust (.2% nickel in metallic-iron inclusions and no iridium down to 2 ppb) are at odds with siderophile-enriched asteroids and chondrites. And high calcium abundance in the basaltic component is more in line with limestone/dolomite-fluxed iron-furnace slag, despite its anomalously-high density and other differences.
– Young age: A suggested finding of an early Cambrian age for TNO-crust would be at odds with early solar system ages for asteroids and chondrites which are many times as old.
– Iron-industry association: TNO-crust is often mixed with iron-furnace slag, due to the hypothesized use of TNO-magnetite as a source of iron ore by the early iron industry.

Siderophile depletion in TNO-crust:
TNO-crust meteorwrongs are depleted in siderophile elements compared to differentiated asteroids and largely undifferentiated chondrites, which immediately dismisses them as probable industrial slag. Siderophile depletion from chondritic abundances, however, may be expected in the spiral-in merger of a binary brown dwarf in which a majority of its siderophile elements had been sequestered in iron cores, similar to planets. In the suggested binary spiral-in merger, core material is hypothesized to have escaped in polar jets, but these were apparently largely confined within the Companion’s Roche sphere, whereas mantle material from the more energetic equatorial explosion attained escape velocity into the Sun’s gravitational control. The polar-jet hypothesis stems from the suggested origin of ‘merger planets’, like Venus and Earth, and ‘spin-off planets’, like Saturn and Jupiter, as described in the section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS. Hypothesized ‘merger planets’ and ‘spin-off planets’ may fragment during gravitational collapse, due to excess angular momentum (briefly forming binary planets), which subsequently spiral-in and merge to form solitary planets. The spiral-in mergers of former binary Earth is hypothesized to have condensed to form enstatite chondrites (which lie on the ‘terrestrial fractionation line’ of oxygen isotopes, attesting to their terrestrial origins) from polar jets. Similarly, CB chondrites are hypothesized to have condensed from the spiral-in merger of former binary-Saturn polar jets. (The large centimeter-sized chondrules in CB chondrites suggest possible accretion distant Centaur orbits between Saturn and Uranus at much-lower orbital velocities than other chondrite types with smaller chondrules melted in low heliocentric orbits.) TNO-crust is depleted in nickel, and the siderophile platinum group elements (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Hs, Mt, Ds). The mass spec abundance of nickel in a metallic-iron inclusion was measured at .2%, and no iridium was found down to 2 ppb.

INAA and Mass Spec. Analysis of Hypothesized TNO-crust

INAA and Mass Spec. Analysis of Hypothesized TNO-crust

Distribution of TNO-crust:
Meteorite impacts originating from the asteroid belt et al. fall in small quantities at frequent intervals and are thus widely distributed over the Earth’s surface, but due to their visual similarity to Earth rocks, most asteroidal meteorites are found where they stand out a mile by the relative scarcity of Earth rocks, such as in sandy deserts, Midwestern USA farms (where the glacial top soil is 10 feet thick) or on the Antarctic ice sheet. TNO-crust, by comparison, is most likely commonly found in large concentrations near historic iron furnaces or in use as clean fill in roads, paths, parking lots and even railroad ballast. TNO-crust can also be found in and along rivers and streams where it naturally concentrates after eroding out of carbonate rock formations. And since TNO-crust (the black swan of meteorites) is suggested to arrive in exceedingly-infrequent intervals as the frosting on top of assumedly-terrestrial rock, it won’t be found on the Antarctic ice sheet, which to scientists is damning negative evidence against it. So asteroidal meteorites are found in abundance on the Antarctic ice sheet and almost never in streams and rivers, whereas slag-like TNO-crust is the exact reverse: no wonder the scientists are so sure of themselves.

Physical characteristics of TNO-crust:
The typical shape and appearance of hypothesized TNO-crust is markedly dissimilar to ablated meteorites of asteroid origin, although TNO-crust occasionally exhibits ablative fusion crust and some fusion crust has flow lines. A distinct minority of TNO-crust has one relatively-smooth rounded surface with the other surfaces fractured, suggestive of fractured sections of pillow lava containing with metallic-iron inclusions, although the rocks are suggested to have cooled in zero-gravity orbit rather than underwater. While massive TNO-crust in Southeast Pennsylvania may reach 1 meter diameter boulders of basaltic rock and metallic iron, a majority of the material appears to be granular on a millimeter to centimeter scale. Metallic-iron masses seem to defy generalization in the great variety of their shapes and wide ranging sizes. And massive TNO-crust often exhibits vesicular steam voids characteristic of terrestrial vesicular basalt or industrial iron-furnace slag, although iron furnace slag doesn’t have rounded or irregularly-rounded molten surfaces like TNO-crust that cooled in orbit.

Suggested TNO-crust fused nodular metallic-iron from Conshohocken, PA, assumedly mined from Ivy Rock quarry
(Native iron, Telluric iron, Meteorwrong, Iron meteorite)

Suggested TNO-crust (unfused) metallic-iron, strongly attracted to a magnet.
(Native iron, Telluric iron, Meteorwrong, Iron meteorite)

Black fusion crust on suggested TNO-crust
(Meteorwrong, meteorite)

Shiny-black fusion crust on suggested TNO-crust
(Meteorwrong, meteorite)

Fusion-crust with flow lines on suggested TNO-crust
(Meteorwrong, meteorite)

Fusion-crust with flow lines on suggested TNO-crust. Note the embedded spherules.<br / (Meteorwrong, meteorite)

Fractured chunks of suggested TNO-crust that likely cooled from a molten state in zero-gravity of the Kuiper belt, with melting due to radioactive decay of very-short-lived radionuclides from the spiral-in merger nucleosynthesis of the former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun. Unfractured masses may be similar in shape and size to pillow lava on Earth; however, these rocks contain metallic-iron inclusions.

Fractured chunk of pillow-lava-like TNO-crust that cooled from a molten state in zero-gravity of the Kuiper belt, with melting due to radioactive decay of very-short-lived radionuclides from the spiral-in merger nucleosynthesis of the former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun. Note the magnet attached to a metallic-iron inclusion.
(Telluric iron, Native iron, Meteorite, Meteorwrong)

Suggested TNO-crust finds:

Camp Creek district, Silver Bow County, Montana, USA
– coloradoprospector.com
location withheld
a photo gallery of MeteorWrongs
location withheld
– a photo gallery of MeteorWrongs
location withheld
a photo gallery of MeteorWrongs
 location withheld
a photo gallery of MeteorWrongs
l
ocation withheld
– Greg Baumgartner (Knights Templar)
Northeast of Los Angeles, exact location withheld
Greg Baumgartner (Knights Templar)
Northeast of Los Angeles, exact location withheld
Greg Baumgartner (Knights Templar)
Northeast of Los Angeles, exact location withheld

Coordinates of find locations (most clean fill locations) in Southeastern PA:

Plymouth, PA
40.080893, -75.312770

Phoenixville, PA
40.134763, -75.513609

3595 Doe Run Church Rd
Coatesville, PA 19320
39.929497, -75.809780

2101-2199 Sycamore St
Harrisburg, PA 17111
40.254694, -76.850742

Secondary limonite:
Ferric and ferrous cations are suggested to leach from local TNO-crust superabundance concentrations, which may form secondary limonite concretions that contain less embrittling contaminants than primary TNO-crust, and thus more suitable for smelting in iron furnaces.

Limonite concretions, Conshocken, PA
40.077521, -75.276305

Limonite concretions, Conshocken, PA
40.077521, -75.276305

Primary magnetite:
While pre-industrial bloomery slag may be mixed with TNO-crust in Pennsylvania and particularly in the old world, it completely lacks the tell-tale cement-like coating so frequently found on TNO-crust. Massive, often broken chunks of magnetite iron-ore are often found mixed with TNO-crust in dumps and clean-fill locations, and when the magnetite has characteristic cement coating, it’s pretty clearly primary TNO-crust material. Beyond identification as primary Kuiper belt material by the giveaway indicator of cement coating, it’s mere speculation to speculate that ‘TNO-magnetite’ was suitable for smelting in iron furnaces, and therefore the economic object of mining local TNO-crust superabundance concentrations. Note, secondary limonite never has a characteristic cement coating.

TNO-crust magnetite Possibly smelted in iron furnaces, and thus the object of mining local TNO-crust superabundance concentrations, such as Ivy Rock Quarry in Conshohocken and the quarry in Harrisburg/Swatara-Township Note the characteristic cement-like coating that gives away authentic TNO-crust.

TNO-crust magnetitePossibly smelted in iron furnaces, and thus the object of mining local TNO-crust superabundance concentrations, such as Ivy Rock Quarry in Conshohocken and the quarry in Harrisburg/Swatara-TownshipNote the characteristic cement-like coating that gives away authentic TNO-crust.

Accretion vs. gravitational instability:
Planetesimals are suggested here to form by gravitational instability (GI) rather than core/pebble accretion, although super-Earths are suggested to form by ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005) from core accretion of planetesimals formed by GI (hence hybrid). In the inner solar system, chondrules are suggested to be the scale of core accretion; however, the outer solar system may experience still larger accretionary masses, but not of the 1 km scale size necessary to gravitationally survive collisions of similar-sized boulders. That is, when two 1 km planetesimals collide they tend to stick together, whereas when to smaller planetesimals collide they tend to fracture into smaller objects. The 25 m “Cheops” boulder on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko discovered by the Rosetta mission may give an indication of the size of accretionary masses in the outer solar system, so on that thin evidence, perhaps Ivy Rock quarry and the Harrisburg/Swatara-Township quarries are the locations of similar-sized accretionary masses which were swept up by the 443 Ma Appalachian KBO in the Kuiper belt.

Ivy Rock quarry, Conshohocken, PA and points west:
Ivy Rock quarry, just north of Conshohocken, PA, along Conshohocken Road on the east bank of the Schuylkill River (40.095, -75.315) may be the origin of a local superabundance of TNO-crust, which was mined and used to level a small triangle of land between Plymouth Creek and I-476 (Veterans’ Memorial Highway), just 1.6 km south of the quarry. (Access from Light Street, Conshohocken.) This local superabundance of TNO-crust is suggested to have at one time been a circa 25 m diameter accretionary mass in the Kuiper belt, which is suggested to have collided with the vastly-larger Appalachian dwarf planet while both were still in the outer solar system. Then the accreted, surficial TNO-crust was ferried to Earth on the Appalachian dwarf planet, whose impact with Earth is suggested to have brought the Ordovician Period to a close in the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event which contributed the aqueously-differentiated planetesimal land mass of the Appalachian region. TNO-crust can be found in the Conestoga Formation (valley) between Conshohocken and Coatesville (and no doubt points further west). In Phoenixville, PA, huge quantities of TNO-crust and iron-furnace slag has been pushed into French Creek ravine from the south bank, between N. Main St. and Ashland St., just east of Phoenixville Foundry. (Phoenixville appears to have the best fusion crust in the area.) TNO-crust and elongated flat lengths of native iron can be found in Doe Run, PA along roads and streams and pitched to fence posts of farmer’s fields.

Ivy Rock quarry, Conshohocken, PA:  TNO-crust accretionary masses may reach circa 25 m Dia in the Kuiper belt which are suggested to have been swept up by the Appalachian Kuiper belt object (KBO) which impacted Earth 443 Ma and contributed the aqueously-differentiated planetesimal land mass of the Appalachian region, causing the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event.  A circa 25 m Dia TNO-crust accretionary mass is suggested to have been excavated out of Ivy Rock quarry (now Ivy Rock Clean Landfill) near 1100 Conshohocken, Rd. in Conshohocken, PA.  The circled areas devoid of plant life may be due to the plant killing properties of granular TNO-crust.

Ivy Rock quarry, Conshohocken, PA:TNO-crust accretionary masses may reach circa 25 m Dia in the Kuiper belt which are suggested to have been swept up by the Appalachian Kuiper belt object (KBO) which impacted Earth 443 Ma and contributed the aqueously-differentiated planetesimal land mass of the Appalachian region, causing the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event. A circa 25 m Dia TNO-crust accretionary mass is suggested to have been excavated out of Ivy Rock quarry (now Ivy Rock Clean Landfill) near 1100 Conshohocken, Rd. in Conshohocken, PA. The circled areas devoid of plant life may be due to the plant killing properties of granular TNO-crust.

Author, standing in front of a hill of suggested granular trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust) in Conshohocken, PA between I-476 and Plymouth Creek, 1.6 km south of Ivy Rock quarry, which is suggested to be the location from which the Conshohocken TNO-crust superabundance was mined. Note, granular TNO-crust is an effective herbicide.

Harrisburg, PA quarry:
Much of the TNO-crust used as clean fill in the Harrisburg, PA area may have been excavated from the former quarry in the 2200 block of Paxton St. Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 (40.256178, -76.846737). TNO-crust has been used as clean fill at various locations throughout the Harrisburg Area which is easily identified by its attraction to a magnet and also, frequently but not always, by a rough cement-like texture. Chunks can be found intermittently scattered along the southwest bank of City Island in the Susquehanna River, with island access from Market Street Bridge. TNO-crust has also been used as clean fill on the East Shore of the Susquehanna River to extend residential parking on the river side of Front St. in Enola, PA. TNO-crust has been found as far west as Wesley Dr. in Mechanicsburg, PA, suggesting local superabundance on the West Shore.

Swatara Township quarry, Harrisburg, PA Area:  TNO-crust accretionary masses may reach circa 25 m Dia in the Kuiper belt which are suggested to have been swept up by the Appalachian Kuiper belt object (KBO) which impacted Earth 443 Ma and contributed the aqueously-differentiated planetesimal land mass of the Appalachian region, causing the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event.  A circa 25 m Dia TNO-crust accretionary mass is suggested to have been excavated out of the quarry at 2200 Paxton St., Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 PA.  The circled areas devoid of plant life may be due to the plant killing properties of granular TNO-crust.

Swatara Township quarry, Harrisburg, PA Area:TNO-crust accretionary masses may reach circa 25 m Dia in the Kuiper belt which are suggested to have been swept up by the Appalachian Kuiper belt object (KBO) which impacted Earth 443 Ma and contributed the aqueously-differentiated planetesimal land mass of the Appalachian region, causing the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event. A circa 25 m Dia TNO-crust accretionary mass is suggested to have been excavated out of the quarry at 2200 Paxton St., Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 PA. The circled areas devoid of plant life may be due to the plant killing properties of granular TNO-crust.

Economically, the significant percentage of metallic iron in TNO-crust precludes an industrial origin, even setting aside the impossibility of basaltic slag suspending centimeter-scale masses of metallic-iron in basaltic slag on the surface of a high-gravity planet. Iron-furnace fuel was even dearer in the early years before charcoal was replaced by coke. A batch of iron-furnace charcoal required twenty-five to fifty cords of split hardwood, quickly denuded local woods, and these roasting hardwood batches had to be tended around the clock for 10 to 14 days by colliers in large charcoal pits, making charcoal production for iron furnaces an industry unto itself. Additionally, the curved surfaces of hypothesized pillow-lava and the fractal shaped masses of metallic iron across many orders of magnitudes of size are strongly indicative of a natural origin in (near) zero gravity, particularly considering that manufacturing strives for uniformity.

45 kg mass of native iron in a fractal 'ring of flames' shape, suggested to be trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust).  (Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

45 kg mass of native iron in a fractal ‘ring of flames’ shape, suggested to be trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust).(Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

65 kg mass of native iron with a 'mushroomed' forged surface (mushroomed surface facing the bottom of the photo), of suggested trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust). (Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

65 kg mass of native iron with a ‘mushroomed’ forged surface (mushroomed surface facing the bottom of the photo), of suggested trans-Neptunian object crust (TNO-crust).(Telluric iron, Native iron, Iron meteorite, meteorwrong)

Bloomery slag:
The earliest type of iron smelting is known as ‘bloomery smelting’ which creates inefficient, high-density ‘bloomery slag’ or ‘tap slag’ with flow lines evident on the surface, as can be frequently found in England and in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The resulting ‘bloom’, containing a small amount of metallic iron, was spongy rather than dense like the slag which flowed off through a tap near the bottom of the furnace. The ropy flow lines on the surface of bloomery slag are evidence of uts having cooled in the open air. Larger and more-efficient blast furnaces gradually replaced bloomeries for iron production.

'Tap slag' or 'bloomery slag' from primitive bloomery smelting.

‘Tap slag’ or ‘bloomery slag’ from primitive bloomery smelting.

Blast-furnace Slag:
Microscopic examination of iron-furnace slag from historic Cornwall and Johanna furnaces reveals nothing larger than micron-scale metallic-iron spherules which require magnification. The microscopic spherules are most apparent in thin chips of translucent, glassy slag with strong back lighting at 100X magnification. The spherules come into focus and disappear as one varies the depth of focus, revealing hundreds of spherules per cubic centimeter with a distinctive upper size limit dictated by the high negative buoyancy of metallic iron in molten glassy slag on the surface of our high-gravity planet. By comparison, massive TNO-crust frequently contains millimeter to centimeter-sized metallic-iron blebs which are many orders of magnitude larger than the microscopic spherules of iron-furnace slag.

Iron Spherules (100X) in Iron-Furnace Slag from Joanna Furnace (1791-1898) Geigertown, PA

Iron Spherules (100X) in Iron-Furnace Slag from Joanna Furnace (1791-1898) Geigertown, PA

Silicides:
Silicides, Fe3Si, Cr3Si, Mn3Si (and particularly CaSi et al. are suggested to be somewhat-common constituents of highly-reduced TNO-crust; however, high-purity silicides in absence of accompanying basaltic TNO-crust are almost certainly manufactured products for steel and alloy industry. Calcium silicide is used as a deoxidizer and for removing removing phosphorus in steel manufacturing, and specialty silicides and ferroalloys are used to introduce carefully-controlled additives to make alloy steel and non-ferrous alloys. The following two silicide images are almost certainly man made compounds.

Assumed man-made silicide (magnetic), although not analysed as such. From Bristol, PA along the Delaware River.

Assumed man-made silicide (very-slightly magnetic), but not analysed as such. Found in Conshohocken along the Schuylkill River Trail.

——————


BOULDER FIELDS:

This section discusses a characteristic class of isolated boulder fields with uniformly weathered surfaces that often exhibit deep pits and striations not found in boulders outside their narrow confines. This section makes an argument for their catastrophic origin in seconds to minutes from secondary strikes of ice sloughed off from icy-body objects like comets or larger trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), rather than the relative gradualism of an exaggerated freeze and thaw cycle toward the end of the last glacial period as suggested by most academic sources.

Hickory Run boulder field, Pennsylvania  Boulder field hypothesized to have formed by a secondary impact of icy crustal material sloughed off from the icy body that formed the Nastapoka arc, of lower Hudson Bay, some 12,900 years ago.  Following the secondary impact, a downhill debris flow concentrated the boulders into the present boulder field.

Hickory Run boulder field, PennsylvaniaBoulder field hypothesized to have formed by a secondary impact of icy crustal material sloughed off from the icy body that formed the Nastapoka arc, of lower Hudson Bay, some 12,900 years ago. Following the secondary impact, a downhill debris flow concentrated the boulders into the present boulder field.

Boulder fields of impact origin would tend to be randomly located within a possibly-vast strewn field and therefore generally unassociated with scree and talus slopes below steep cliff faces where boulder fields are well known to form. The suggested randomness of impact fields, however, appear to be highly skewed to the rugged terrain of mountains, hills and slopes which would seem to obviate the random argument. True, mountains may provide significant obstacles for objects in exceedingly-oblique approach angles to Earth that may be nearly parallel to the limb of the planet, but other reasons are hypothesized to predominate. Slopes, relatively unprotected from impacts by thin soils, provide potential energy to concentrate boulders into downhill boulder fields by catastrophic debris flows in the seconds and minutes following impact. Additionally, we may be largely unaware of the effect of secondary impact sites on level ground, partly due to the original protection afforded to the bedrock by thicker lowland soil, but mostly due to their lack of concentration on level ground and due to their subsequent burial by thick lowland sediments. Finally, small boulder fields on low ground may have been largely scavenged for use as building stone, particularly for stone fences, in the early colonial years.

So secondary-impact breccia may form rapid downhill debris flows from a strike higher up on sloped terrain, and a debris flow into a shallow v-shaped gully may serve to concentrate boulders many stories deep. And deeply stacked boulder fields on sloping terrain will make effective French drains to clear the original debris flow sediments and keep it clear of future sedimentation: the relative absence of plant life is a notable characteristic of hypothesized impact boulder fields. Eastern Pennsylvania alone boasts two Ringing Rocks boulder fields, two Blue Rocks boulder fields (near Hawk Mountain, Berks County Park) and Hickory Run boulder field (Hickory Run State Park), as well as numerous smaller boulder unnamed boulder fields scattered throughout the ridge-and-valley terrain of the Appalachians.

Boulder fracturing mechanisms:
In addition to ‘impulse fracturing’, deep surface striations scoured into bedrock by entrained masses of super-high velocity slurries may provide leverage for super-high-pressure shock wave to split rock by tension. And high-pressure high-temperature phyllosilicate slurries are hypothesized to have rock-fracturing properties which may also contribute to bedrock fragmentation. (See section: PHYLLOSILICATE PROPERTIES).

Boulder cup marks from cairn of Great Britain:
Pitting and striations common in boulder fields of Southeastern Pennsylvania are also known on boulders in burial Clava cairns and other stone monument structures in Great Britain. In more-highly populated regions of the Old World, impact boulder fields may have been heavily scavenged for use as building stone, except where sacred monuments preserved them in part. Coincidentally, cairns are often found in uplands, moorland or moors (a type of habitat found in upland areas) and on mountaintops where impact boulder fields tend to form. In Great Britain, pitting associated with cairn boulders are known as ‘cup marks’, with concentric ‘ring marks’, likely added by hand for emphasis.  Imagine the prehistoric world of 12,900 years ago with a dwarf planet bearing down on the planet. Intermittent meteoric flashes brighter than the Sun accompanied by a thunderous roar that broke eardrums and collapsed lungs were accompanied by a rain of icy material at interplanetary speed in sufficient density to reduce northern populations to a remnant of their former numbers. All this was visited on primitive people before the advent of agriculture in Great Britain by angry gods apparently intent on world destruction. The sudden appearance of boulder fields were accompanied by special boulders containing sacred writing from angry gods. And so the creation of boulder monuments marking upland boulder fields from the gods, with their sacred texts prominently displayed, is just what one might expect from primitive peoples with modern language development.

Cup marks in a passage-type clava cairn at Balnauran of Clava near Inverness, Scotland. Hypothesized to be from an impact boulder field caused by a small secondary strike of icy crust material  sloughed off from a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) impact that may have formed the Nastapoka arc basin of lower Hudson Bay, some 12,900 years ago

Cup marks in a passage-type clava cairn at Balnauran of Clava near Inverness, Scotland.Hypothesized to be from an impact boulder field caused by a small secondary strike of icy crust material sloughed off from a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) impact that may have formed the Nastapoka arc basin of lower Hudson Bay, some 12,900 years ago

The academic geology explanation of boulder fields formed by exaggerated freezing and thawing cycles during the end of the last glacial period does not explain their segregation into narrow boulder fields. Take another example from nature which actually happened to me: imagine you’re driving through the countryside and notice that lots of trees have been knocked down in the woods on both sides of the highway, which have been ground into mounds of wood chips. You might justifiably think that a tornado had recently passed through, but as you continue to drive, you slowly become aware that the damage has gone on for 10s of miles uninterrupted, and you’d do well to alter your opinion to that of an ice storm, which tends to affect vastly-larger areas than tornadoes. In a reverse analogy, when you think of freezing and thawing cycles during the end the ice age you imagine vast swaths of the North American continent beyond the ice sheet, not very-few highly-defined boulder fields with astonishing local concentrations of boulders.

Finally, several characteristic boulder fields exhibit the unusual property that some individual boulders ring like a bell when sharply struck with a hard object such as another rock or a hammer. Two diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania independently go by the name ‘Ringing Rocks’.

Perhaps all of the relatively-recent impact boulder fields were caused by a single event which ended the Pleistocene, some 11,700 + 1,400 – 0.0 years ago, causing the local extinction of 33 megafaunal genera on the North American continent as well as ending the Clovis culture. But rather a than moderate-sized comet airburst over the Laurentide ice sheet, as suggested by proponents of the YD impact hypothesis, a vastly-larger TNO impact may have formed the 430 km Nastapoka Arc basin of lower Hudson Bay. Icy-body impacts are hypothesized to form basins rather than craters when relatively compressible ices clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target-rock silicates and the formation of shatter cones, masking their impact origins. (See section: ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL)

This hypothesized, end-Pleistocene impact event was apparently accompanied by
legions of secondary impacts suggested to be composed of sloughed off icy crust, apparently from an exceedingly oblique approach through the Earth’s atmosphere that almost missed the Earth altogether. The apparently astronomical quantity of secondary strikes should be suggestive of a non-fortuitous causal mechanism, rather than mere secondary ad hoc mechanisms, such as a collision with another planetesimal or a fortuitous close encounter with one of the giant planets.

Impact boulder-field characteristics:
Pockmarks and striations on boulders in several isolated boulder fields across Pennsylvania are suggestive of high energy processes. Two discrete diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania, separated by more than 50 kilometers, have several distinctive properties in common that they do not share with loose diabase boulders in between. Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Black Eddy, PA and Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Pottsgrove Township, PA share several distinctive properties:
1) a deep field of boulders, many stories high which make a French drain and prevent soil accumulation, precluding most plant life,
2) relatively-recently fractured boulders with a similar degree of weathering on all surfaces indicative of a simultaneous catastrophic origin,
3) similar surface features on some boulders, such as pockmarks, pot holes and striations indicative of a catastrophic origin since the limited degree of surface weathering precludes their formation by erosion,
4) some boulders ring like bells when sharply struck with a hard object as if the rocks had acquired a surface tension rind during the hypothesized, catastrophic, super-high pressure shock wave,
5) Subconchoidal fracturing of monolithic diabase also points to the tremendous force and energy of a catastrophic origin.

Ringing Rocks boulder field, Pennsylvania  Striations in diabase boulder, hyopothesized to have formed from super-high-velocity fluids from small secondary strikes of icy crust sloughed off of comets or larger TNOs

Ringing Rocks boulder field, PennsylvaniaStriations in diabase boulder, hyopothesized to have formed from super-high-velocity fluids from small secondary strikes of icy crust sloughed off of comets or larger TNOs

Ringing Rocks boulder field, Pennsylvania  More striations on diabase boulder

Ringing Rocks boulder field, PennsylvaniaMore striations on diabase boulder

Ringing Rocks boulder field, Pennsylvania  Potholes in diabase boulder, hyopothesized to have formed from super-high-velocity fluids from small secondary strikes of icy crust sloughed off of comets or larger TNOs

Ringing Rocks boulder field, PennsylvaniaPotholes in diabase boulder, hyopothesized to have formed from super-high-velocity fluids from small secondary strikes of icy crust sloughed off of comets or larger TNOs

Ringing Rocks boulder field, Pennsylvania  Impact boulder field pock marks (pits/cup-marks)

Ringing Rocks boulder field, PennsylvaniaImpact boulder field pock marks (pits/cup-marks)

Other Southeastern Pennsylvania boulder fields in sandstone and quartzite, such as Hickory Run State Park boulder field and Blue Rocks campground boulder field on Hawk Mountain exhibit the first 3 of the 5 (above) properties exhibited by diabase boulder fields, but lack the ringing quality of diabase rocks. Sedimentary rocks tend to be more brittle and perhaps less erosion resistant than diabase and thus can not be as finely sculpted to begin with, and the features tend to erode faster afterward. Sedimentary rocks also tends to split along bedding planes, which eliminate the subconchoidal fracturing property of diabase boulder fields which point to catastrophic origins. And in particular, Blue Rocks quartzite boulders appear to be particularly susceptible to bioerosion by lichen.

Hickory Run boulder field, Pennsylvania  Impact boulder-field scouring by super-high-velocity material hypothesized to have sloughed off of a trans-Neptunian object (TNO)

Hickory Run boulder field, PennsylvaniaImpact boulder-field scouring by super-high-velocity material hypothesized to have sloughed off of a trans-Neptunian object (TNO)

Hickory Run boulder field, Pennsylvania  Hypothesized scouring by super-high-velocity trans-Neptunian object (TNO) fluids

Hickory Run boulder field, PennsylvaniaHypothesized scouring by super-high-velocity trans-Neptunian object (TNO) fluids

Hickory Run boulder field, Pennsylvania  More hypothesized scouring by super-high-velocity trans-Neptunian object (TNO) fluids

Hickory Run boulder field, PennsylvaniaMore hypothesized scouring by super-high-velocity trans-Neptunian object (TNO) fluids

Extinction events separating geologic periods and shorter intervals are often correlated with unconformities and bright-line sedimentary layers, both of which may be attributable to impact events. The YD extinction event has its own bright-line layer known as the ‘black mat’.
“The layer contains unusual materials (nanodiamonds, metallic microspherules, carbon spherules, magnetic spherules, iridium, charcoal, soot, and fullerenes enriched in helium-3) interpreted as evidence of an impact event, at the very bottom of the ‘black mat’ of organic material that marks the beginning of the Younger Dryas.”
(Wikipedia: Younger Dryas impact hypothesis)
—————

PANSPERMIA AND FOSSILS IN DWARF-PLANET ROCK:

But what about macroscopic fossils in hypothesized comet rock?

Perhaps the question should be reversed to ask why multicellular life forms shouldn’t evolve first in the oceans of trillions of Oort Cloud planetesimal oceans, perhaps a 100 million years or more before earth cooled sufficiently to even support liquid water. Even today, Jupiter’s icy moon Europa alone is thought to harbor a liquid ocean containing twice the volume of water of all earth’s oceans.

If the solar system barycenter promotes mergers of close-binary planetesimals and also (compound) mergers of solitary planetesimals, then shattering of planetesimal ice occurring in planetesimal mergers may efficiently share genetic information, including eggs of higher life forms, widely throughout the Oort cloud and galaxy. If peanut-shaped Oort cloud comets are ‘contact binaries’ formed from the (core-collapse) merger of close-binary pairs precipitated by gravitational collapse — as similar-sized Kuiper belt binaries are hypothesized to have formed (Nesvorny, Youdin and Richardson, 2010, Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse ) — then perhaps the vast majority of Oort cloud planetesimals have merged and shattered, effectively sharing material among themselves.

Additionally, the 3 light-year diameter of the Oort cloud, particularly including the high surface area of shrapnel from planetesimal mergers, has swept out a considerable volume of the galaxy over its 18 galactic revolutions, or so, in 4-1/2 billion years, and the continual merger of close-binary pairs over the history of the solar system has likely maintained a considerable volume of liquid water for aqueous evolution, not merely static sharing. Then catastrophic, terrestrial comet impacts have similarly contaminated the earth at widely-spaced intervals, but since rock layers in differentiated planetesimal cores are laid down continuously, the intervals between impacts are masked.

If the Appalachian Basin Platform is a compound-planetesimal impact that brought on the Ordovician–Silurian (End Ordovician or O-S) extinction event, then the trilobites, brachiopods, gastropods, mollusks, echinoderms and etc. found in Ordovician limestone are of Oort cloud origin. And the planet matter found in late Silurian and younger deposits is terrestrial; however the (authigenic terrestrial?) mudstone of the Burgess ‘Shale’ Formation in the Canadian North American Cordillera may be terrestrial.

If photosynthetic plant life is a terrestrial adaption, then the slow emergence of flora in the Devonian compared to the earlier Cambrian Explosion of aquatic fauna may represent the explosive growth of multicellular life promoted in Oort cloud planetesimal oceans, likely accelerated by short-lived radionuclides from the luminous red nova (LRN) merger of Proxima’s, (the hypothesized companion star to the Sun, Proxima [Centauri]) close-binary pair.

At cold temperatures and low oxygen levels in comet oceans oxygen transport and exchange by hemocyanin and hemerythrin would be more efficient by hemoglobin, so hemoglobin may be a terrestrial adaption to higher oxygen levels facilitated by photosynthesis.

While the conodont might represent the height of chordata life forms in Oort cloud oceans, the cephalopod-mollusk octopus might represent the height of Oort cloud intelligence, and we may need go no further than Europa’s ocean to find higher life forms. And as in the deep hydrosphere on earth, aqueous planetesimal life forms may see and communicate with the light of bioluminescence.

Type II planetesimals are hypothesized to have formed from chemically-reduced dust and ice that condensed from super-intense solar wind during the common envelope phase of the central binary pair as they spiraled inward. High temperatures in chemically-reactive Type II planetesimal oceans may support only microbial life forms, perhaps mostly in the cool ranges near the ice water boundary. By comparison, primary and compound Type I planetesimals formed from more-highly-oxidized presolar dust and ice of the protoplanetary accretion disk may be the origin of multicellular Oort cloud life forms.

In a compromise between strictly terrestrial evolution and continuous panspermia, terrestrial evolution might be vastly accelerated by the catastrophic introduction of microorganisms containing alien DNA for higher traits from Oort cloud comets.

Interstellar infection of DNA sequences for higher traits might explain evolutionary spurts of new taxonomic ranks following extinction events caused by Oort cloud comet impacts, particularly if alien microorganisms tend to quickly succumb to native strains and thus have only a short time to infect higher organisms by genetic transformation, incorporating exogenous DNA into gametes prior to fertilization. Indeed, human DNA has been found inside gonorrhoeae bacteria.

In molecular biology transformation is genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane(s).
. . .
Transformation may also be used to describe the insertion of new genetic material into nonbacterial cells.

(Wikipedia: Transformation)

In their 2013 paper, “Life Before Earth”, Sharov and Gordon suggest that genetic complexity is a measure of the length of functional and non-redundant DNA sequence. They continue:

If we plot genome complexity of major phylogenetic lineages on a logarithmic scale against the time of origin, the points appear to fit well to a straight line (Sharov, 2006) (Fig. 1). This indicates that genome complexity increased exponentially and doubled about every 376 million years. Such a relationship reminds us of the exponential increase of computer complexity known as a “Moore’s law” (Moore, 1965; Lundstrom, 2003). But the doubling time in the evolution of computers (18 months) is much shorter than that in the evolution of life.

What is most interesting in this relationship is that it can be extrapolated back to the origin of life. Genome complexity reaches zero, which corresponds to just one base pair, at time ca. 9.7 billion years ago (Fig. 1). A sensitivity analysis gives a range for the extrapolation of ±2.5 billion years (Sharov, 2006). Because the age of Earth is only 4.5 billion years, life could not have originated on Earth even in the most favorable scenario (Fig. 2). Another complexity measure yielded an estimate for the origin of life date about 5 to 6 billion years ago, which is similarly not compatible with the origin of life on Earth (Jørgensen, 2007).

(Sharov and Gordon, 2013)

By this measure suggested by Sharov and Gordon, intelligent life is only beginning to emerge in our Galaxy. Then extrapolating beyond their paper, intelligent life likely takes the form of humanoids if genetic sharing by transformation has allowed life on Earth to keep pace with the Galactic genetic doubling rate of 376 million years. Genetic sharing would also seem to indicate that the highest (non mammal) aquatic intelligence, in the form of octopuses, may lag behind terrestrial intelligence by less than one doubling even though aquatic life is likely vastly more prevalent.
——————–

SPECIFIC KINETIC ENERGY OF LONG-PERIOD IMPACTS:

The orbital velocity of the earth makes a dramatic difference in the kinetic energy of comet impacts. For a comet falling from infinity toward the sun at earth’s orbit, the ratio of kinetic energy between comets hitting earth head-on in its orbit around the sun and those catching up with earth is a factor of 19, but most fall somewhere in between. (This calculation factors in earth’s gravity.)

Earth escape velocity: 11.2 km/s
Earth, orbital velocity: 29.8 km/s
Body falling from infinity towards the sun to a distance of 1 AU: 42.2 km/s (calculated from gravitational potential energy and checked by comparing velocity falling from infinity to the diameter of the sun with the escape velocity of the sun)

Running into the earth head on in its orbit:
42.2 km/s + 29.78 km/s = 71.98 km/s
71.98 * 71.98 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 5181.12 + 125.21 = 5306.33 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)

Catching up with earth in its orbit:
42.2 km/s – 29.78 km/s = 12.42 km/s
12.42 * 12.42 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 154.26 + 125.21 = 279.47 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)

Specific kinetic energy ratio between hitting the earth head-on and catching up with earth in its orbit:
5306.33 / 279.47 = 18.99

Dwarf comets having fallen through Proxima’s 3:1 ‘resonant nursery’ resonance will orbit CCW in the Oort cloud like the planets. If the solar-system barycenter (SS-barycenter) acts as an aphelia attractor that pins Oort cloud orbits in its vicinity to the SS-barycenter, then the 73.6 Myr orbit of the Sun around the SS-barycenter will align these pinned orbits with the Galactic core twice per orbit, causing the tidal effect of the Galactic core to gradually reduce their perihelia by extracting angular momentum from the orbits until they dip into the planetary realm of the inner solar system. And the dwarf planets most likely to collide with Earth will have perihelia on the order of 1 AU. These objects would catch up with Earth in its CCW orbit and impact at almost the lowest possible speed.

Finally, comet ice may undergo endothermic chemical reactions (ECRs) in comet impacts, mostly clamping the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of rock.
————

SPIRAL GALAXY FORMATION BY CONDENSATION:

This section suggests that spiral galaxies ‘condensed’ during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by endothermic temperature clamping in early baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO).

Andromeda galaxy:
Alternative ideology, suggesting spiral galaxies formation by condensation during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) compressions, with the specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies derived from the asymmetry of the BAO.

Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated ‘proto-galaxies’.

Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies; however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs. Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound. Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being. And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent ‘BBN-rebound’ of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.

Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle. Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole. (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.) Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes. Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.

And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum. So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse. Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase. So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum. The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.

And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies. Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found. Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.
——————–

 

DARK MATTER:

Subtitle: Condensation formation of stars, spiral galaxies and dark-matter (Bok) globules

Carina Nebula:The two states of giant molecular clouds (GMCs):
1) Invisible dark matter ‘normal state’, and
2) Familiar visible ‘excited state’.(1) In the dark matter ‘normal state’, the acquired stellar metallicity has ‘snowed out’ into icy chondrules within (Bok) globules of GMCs, sequestering it from visibility, while the remaining primordial molecular hydrogen and helium effectively don’t absorb or emit below Lyman-alpha UV frequencies, rending GMCs on highly-inclined ‘halo’ orbits essentially dark,
(2) GMCs on shallow orbits to the disk plane suffer sublimation of volatile ices from icy chondrules, causing GMCs in their ‘excited state’ to ‘decloak’, as in this image of Carina Nebula. 

 

 

Two states of giant molecular clouds (GMCs):

A. Dark matter GMCs in ‘normal state':
Gravitationally-bound giant molecular clouds composed of gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules on disk-crossing halo orbits are dark if their acquired stellar metallicity has ‘snowed out’ into the solid phase of icy chondrules, sequestering it from detection, since the remaining primordial molecular hydrogen and helium effectively don’t emit or absorb below (Lyman-alpha) UV frequencies.  To avoid confusion, giant molecular clouds in their invisible dark matter state will be designated, ‘globule clusters’.

B. Luminous GMCs in ‘excited state':
Giant molecular clouds on shallow orbits to the disk plane are exposed to significantly-more stellar radiation than their steep-orbit ‘halo’ counterparts, subliming the most volatile components of icy chondrules. And luminous, gaseous stellar metallicity lowers the ‘speed of sound’, increasing the ‘sound crossing time’ through Bok globules which promotes Jeans instability, causing excited Bok globules to tend to gravitationally collapse and condense stars.

DM GMCs in ‘Normal state’ >> Luminous GMCs in ‘Excited state’ >> Star clusters
…………………

 

Condensation formation of proto-galaxies in the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN):

Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated ‘proto-galaxies’.

Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies; however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs. Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound. Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being. And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent ‘BBN-rebound’ of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.

Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle. Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole. (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.) Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes. Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.

And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum. So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse. Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase. So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum. The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.

And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies. Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found. Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.
………………..

 

The ΛCDM tenets of non-baryonic dark matter:

1) “The primordial D /H ratio [from BBN] constrains the baryon density to Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002, assuming standard BBN.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
2) “Recently, CMB anisotropies have provided an entirely independent way to constrain the baryon density, yielding Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)

Epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN):
1) The baryon density of the universe (Ωbh2) is adjusted for cosmic expansion by the Hubble constant in a way that makes the baryon density a universal constant for all time. A related parameter from the epoch BBN is the baryon-to-photon ratio, eta (η), which controlled the survival of the fragile isotopes deuterium, helium-3 and lithium-7 following the epoch of BBN. Photon energy during BBN was sufficient to dissociate low-binding-energy nuclei, so the lower the photon-to-baryon ratio in the early universe, the greater the survival abundance of fragile isotopes. The baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratios, however, are derived quantities based on convergence of the measured deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio with the Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. The D/H ratio is more reliable than the the lithium assessment because stars can only consume deuterium, whereas they both consume and create lithium. The apparent low degree of baryon density uncertainty (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002) from the epoch of BBN, however, should tempered by the ‘missing baryon problem’, since something on the order of half the assumed baryons in the universe can not be accounted for.

Accounting for Ωbh2 and η from BBN with baryonic dark matter:
BAO compressions are suggested to have condensed the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum into spiral-proto-galaxies during the epoch of BBN, depleting the remaining uncondensed (inter-proto-galactic) medium to the expected baryon density of BBN calculations and confirmed by the D/H ratio. Then BBN rebound within gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies extended the nucleation duration (within the proto-galaxies) beyond the cessation of nucleation in the inter-proto-galactic medium. If the physics dictates the baryon density and the baryon-to-photon ratio during nucleation, then proto-galaxy rebound nucleation formed the same concentrations of deuterium, helium-3 and lithium-7 as primary BBN, with the exception of boundary conditions, perhaps allowing photons to sneak past the BBN rebound horizon, resulting in slightly higher deuterium, lithium and helium-3 survival concentrations within condensed galaxies, which may show up most pointedly in the most fragile lithium-6 ion, perhaps accounting for the ‘strong lithium anomaly’ of lithium-6 (the lithium isotope ratio, 7Li/6Li, is low by a factor of about 50, which is known as the strong lithium anomaly) (P. Bruskiewich 2007).

2) The inter-proto-galactic baryon density at the epoch of ‘recombination’ is recorded in cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies as a relic of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) at the time, and this number is in close agreement with the inter-proto-galactic baryon density derived from BBN. So the vast majority of the baryonic hydrogen and helium sequestered into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies are suggested not to have participated in the inter-proto-galactic BAO observed in CMB anisotropies, substantially reducing the apparent baryon density of the universe derived from the CMB. But if most of the baryons had been condensed into proto-galaxies during BBN, then the vast majority of CMB photons would have come from proto-galaxies rather than from the inter-proto-galactic medium, diluting the BAO effect and also extending the duration of the epoch of recombination within presumably-warmer proto-galaxies. So for dark matter to be baryonic, as suggested, the percentage of baryons sequestered into proto-galaxies at the epoch recombination should approximately equal the percentage of dark matter to total baryons today (very roughly around 5/6), and there may be considerable tolerance on this ratio, since about half the ΛCDM determined baryon-density baryons in universe are haven’t been found, a discrepancy known as the ‘missing baryon problem’.

So if proto-galaxy condensation during the epoch of BBN could mask roughly 5/6 of the baryons in the universe from participating in primary (inter-proto-galactic) BBN and from participating in primary (inter-proto-galactic) BAO, then the two tenets supporting non-baryonic dark matter might be greatly compromised.
………………..

 

Endothermic globule condensation within preexisting proto-galaxies in the epoch of ‘reionization':

‘Recombination’ was a phase change which occurred 378,000 years after the Big Bang when the plasma continuum had cooled sufficiently for protons to capture electrons and form neutral hydrogen. The resulting electric neutrality made the universe transparent to electromagnetic radiation.

After a long period of expansive cooling, partial ‘reionization’ of the universe occurred over an extended time frame, beginning about 150 million years after the Big Bang and ending about 1 billion years after the Big Bang. Reionization is suggested to have condensed the vast majority of the primordial hydrogen and helium, beginning by condensing the intergalactic continuum and later condensing the warmer continuum within preexisting proto-galaxies. During this epoch, hydrogen and helium condensed into gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules on the order of 10s to 100s of solar masses (at a scale of about a light year across in today’s cool universe).

(Bok) globules, with the Bok in parentheses, will be defined as invisible dark matter globules with their stellar metallicity frozen into the solid state of icy chondrules, whereas no parentheses will indicate the familiar opaque Bok globules of giant molecular clouds, which have a significant component of sublimed (gaseous) stellar metallicity.

Globules are suggested to have condensed by nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse, promoted by endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen along with endothermic hydrogen ionization which clamped the temperature, preventing thermal rebound until the masses had become gravitationally bound.

Gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules on the order of a light year across are ‘sticky’ compared to relatively point-mass stars since they can internally absorb significant linear and angular momentum, making it relatively easy for globules to become gravitationally bound to one another in globule-globule close encounters. Thus (Bok) globules quickly became gravitationally bound into larger clusters of up to many millions solar masses. And the largest ‘globule clusters’ were some of the first to ‘go nuclear’ and condense stars, converting to globular clusters.

“H2 may go unseen because its standard tracer, CO, is under-abundant (or frozen out) or because the gas is too cold for excitation to occur. Cold H2 is a candidate for hidden mass or ’dark matter’ in the universe, not at a level to change the global cosmological distribution of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, but as contribution to the galactic baryonic dark matter (Combes & Pfenninger 1997; Kalberla et al. 2001 p. 297ff.”
(Kroetz et al., 2009, Direct Observations of Cold Molecular Hydrogen
with Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy)
………………..

 

Equating Jeans instability of stars and globules:

Gaseous stellar metallicity raises the average molecular weight of the gas phase of Bok globules, decreasing the speed of sound which reduces their ability to rebound from positive pressure spikes. As long as the sound-crossing time is less than the free-fall time, the system rebounds, but if increasing gaseous metallicity causes the sound-crossing time to exceed the free-fall time, gravity wins and the region undergoes gravitational collapse to form a star. Thermal and radiative evaporation of volatile hydrogen from the vast surface area of Bok globules (nominally a half light year across) will also increase the average molecular weight of the gas which may cause Jeans instability in smaller than star-sized masses, enabling brown dwarfs and rogue (gas-giant) planets to condense inside GMCs.

The initial gravitational collapse in protostars is nearly isothermal as long as the contracting cloud remains transparent to infrared radiation. When the central density in protostars reaches about 10^-13 g/cm-3, a small region starts to become opaque, “and the compression become approximately adiabatic”. “The central temperature and pressure then begin to rise rapidly, soon becoming sufficient to decelerate and stop the collapse at the centre. There then arises a small central ‘core’ in which the material has stopped collapsing and is approaching hydrostatic equilibrium” [formation of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC)]. “The initial mass and radius of the core are about 10^31 g and 6×10^13 cm, respectively, and the central density and temperature at this time are about 2 x 10^-10 g/cm-3 and 170° K.”
(Larson 1969)

Larson suggests the second hydrostatic core begins forming at about 2000 K when hydrogen molecules begin to dissociate. “This reduces the ratio of specific heats, gamma, below the critical value 4/3, with the result that the material at the center of the core becomes unstable and begins to collapse dynamically.” (Larson 1969) However, experimental testing suggests that molecular hydrogen dissociation occurs over a temperature range of around 6,000 K – 8,000 K (Magro et al. 1996) which may grade directly into hydrogen ionization, forming a mixture of molecular-hydrogen + atomic-hydrogen + plasma. Figure 3 in Magro shows the nearly-isothermal decrease in kinetic energy occurring in the dissociation/ionization temperature range, indicating an endothermic event which promotes run-away gravitational collapse to form the ‘second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC).

Hydrogen in the earliest epoch of reionization may have been largely atomic, since high densities are thought to be necessary for very rare three-body collisions to form molecular hydrogen (Kroetz et al. 2009). It’s thought that H2 predominantly forms on dust grains, which wouldn’t have appeared until after the evolution of local Population III stars. So what if early condensations of atomic hydrogen (and helium) formed large gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules in the range of many 100s to 1000s of solar masses, and their immense mass promoted continuing collapse (rather than rebound) to form Population III stars? Then local dust contamination from these early Population III stars would locally convert neutral hydrogen to molecular hydrogen, ensuring that the contaminated continuum would condense smaller (Bok) globules that would condense smaller Population II and Population I stars, with the idea that endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen would facilitate the condensation nucleation of (Bok) globules in general, tending to condense more smaller globules rather than fewer larger ones. If so, then early Population III stars should be rather evenly distributed in the early universe if their dust contamination largely precluded the formation of other nearby Population III stars.

So star condensation by Jeans instability within Bok globules today is suggested to be an almost perfect analogy for globule condensation during the epoch of reionization, with higher mass compensating for higher ambient temperature in the early universe.

Population III stars:
The largest gravitationally-bound globules of several hundred solar masses or more may have failed to halt their gravitational collapse with the formation of a SHSC following suggested hydrogen ionization, continuing spontaneous gravitational collapse to form the first stars of the universe, known as Population III stars. Population III stars likely had super-intense Wolf-Rayet stellar wind phases, seeding galaxies and globular clusters with stellar metallicity even prior to their rapid demise as black holes for those Pop III stars over 250 solar masses. Then as today, stellar metallicity was scavenged by sticky gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules, raising the metallicity of the subsequent generation of Population II stars.

Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295.

Magro, W.R.; Ceperley, D.M.; Pierleoni, C.; and Bernu, B., (1996), Molecular Dissociation in Hot, Dense Hydrogen, Physical Review Letters, 19 February 1996, Volume 76, Number 8.

Kroetz, P.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Stupar, D.; Schieder, R., 2009, Direct Observations of Cold Molecular Hydrogen with Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, “The Evolving ISM in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies, The Fourth Spitzer Science Center Conference, Proceedings of the conference held December 2-5, 2007
………………..

 

Globule cluster dynamics:

Dynamic interactions between passing stars are very-nearly perfectly elastic due to their relatively small diameters compared to interstellar distances and their spherical symmetry, whereas (Bok) globules can internally absorb significant energy and (angular) momentum. Even star clusters dissapate over time, so only galaxies themselves and globular clusters within have survived as long as globular clusters, but even globular clusters undergo continual evolution in the form of core collapse and stellar evaporation. Due to their hydrostatic nature, (Bok) globule-(Bok) globule collisions may be analogous to colliding blobs of mercury, where a collision between two globules (that doesn’t precipitate star formaion) forms a temporary ‘virtual globule’ that rebounds and may eject a smaller mass at higher speed, may divide into multiple globules or may undergo any transformation allowable by thermodynamics, and conservation of energy and momentum. Colliding globule clusters, however, may closely resemble colliding galaxies with significant damping and very little overshoot, so while (Bok) globules are protected from merging by their hydrostatic nature, globule clusters may readily merge into larger clusters.

The relative homogeneity of stellar metallicity abundances between stars in open clusters compared to stars in the solar neighborhood suggests significant mixing within giant molecular clouds prior to star condensation. Logarithmic elemental variations in elemental abundance within open clusters typically range from 0.01 to 0.05, compared to variations of 0.06 to 0.3 from the interstellar medium from the vicinity of the cluster. (Feng and Krumholz 2014)
………………..

 

Dearth of dark matter in elliptical galaxy problem:

“Current thinking is that most if not all elliptical galaxies may be the result of a long process where two or more galaxies of comparable mass, of any type, collide and merge.” (Elliptical galaxy, Wikipedia)

Non-baryonic elementary-particle dark-matter hypotheses (WIMPs, axions, sterile neutrinos et al.) have trouble explaining the low dark matter to luminous matter ratios observed in elliptical galaxies, whereas the alternative dark-matter globule-cluster ideology predicts that galactic collisions will convert dark-matter globule clusters to star clusters, reducing the dark matter quantity and ratio.

“The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. The galaxies’ velocity dispersion profiles are found to decline with radius; dynamical modeling of the data indicates the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This surprising result conflicts with findings in other
galaxy types, and poses a challenge to current galaxy formation theories.”
(Romanowsky et al. 2003)

“Whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor, this is at odds with predictions from current ΛCDM cosmological simulations.”
(Lane et al. 2014)

Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; and Richtler, Tom, 2014, Dark Matter Deprivation in Field Elliptical Galaxy NGC 7507⋆, Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. NGC7507 ˙spectra˙ accepted December 11, 2014.

Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Douglas, Nigel G.; Arnaboldi, Magda;, Kuijken, Konrad; Merrifield, Michael R.; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Capaccioli, Massimo; and Freeman, Kenneth C., 2003, A Dearth of Dark Matter in Ordinary Elliptical Galaxies, Science 301:1696-1698, 2003.
………………..

 

The cuspy halo problem:

Non-baryonic cold dark matter simulations predict cuspy distributions in galactic cores, that is a steep power-law mass-density distribution (like a y=1/x inverse function), predicting ever increasing dark matter concentrations down to the SMBH of the core. Instead, “The rotation velocity associated with dark matter in the inner parts of disk galaxies is found to rise approximately linearly with radius” (de Blok 2009), which is termed a ‘cored distribution’.

Many non-baryonic solutions have been proposed, perhaps the most promising of which is fine tuning the degree of self-interaction of dark matter.

Alternatively, baryonic dark matter globule clusters that convert to star clusters in regions of high stellar concentrations, such as in globular clusters and in galactic bulges, predict low to absent dark matter in galactic cores, making globular baryonic dark matter predictive rather than problematic.

de Blok, W. J. G., 2009, THE CORE-CUSP PROBLEM, arXiv:0910.3538
…………………

 

Conclusion:

Hydrostatic concentrations of matter that are susceptible to gravitational instability may become gravitationally bound (condensed) by the assistance of nearly-isothermal collapse promoted by endothermic reactions. The Big Bang continuum is suggested to have condensed into proto-galaxies during the epoch of BBN, promoted by endothermic photodissociation of helium (helium fission), forming SMBHs in the cores of gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies. And proto-galaxies are suggested to have sequestered around 5/6 of the baryons in the universe into a form which did not participate in primary BBN or primary BAO, lowering the apparent baryonic density of the universe to the level suggested by ΛCDM, thus allowing baryonic matter sequestered into proto-galaxies to mimic theorized non-baryonic dark matter.

The continuum is suggested to have condensed a second time, 150 million to 1 billion years later into gravitationally-bound globules, promoted by endothermic hydrogen ionization, which cooled to become the coldest objects in the universe, so cold that their acquired stellar metallicity ‘snows out’ to form icy chondrules which are sequestered from visible- and infrared-wavelength detection. So the near invisibility of bitterly-cold H2 & He with its stellar metallicity condensed into the solid state is suggested to allow (Bok) globules on steeply-inclined halo orbits be the baryonic reservoirs of dark matter. And sticky Bok globules readily clump into ‘globule clusters’, of which giant molecular clouds are the intermediate state between dark matter globule clusters and star clusters
…………………
——————–


PHYLLOSILICATE PROPERTIES:

Shear thinning properties of phyllosilicates appear to promote earthquake-fault slippage, such as in the earthquake that caused the 11 March 2011 Japanese tsunami. Additionally, (certain) sheet-silicate slurries may promote rock fracturing as occur in stratovolcanoes. Inert and refractory phyllosilicates may subducted under continental plates where heat and pressure on phyllosilicate slurries may fracture the overlying plate, forming stratovolcanoes in which the (remote subducted and/or local devitrified) volcanic ash is the cause rather than the result of the eruption.

Additionally, phyllosilicates may have gotten injected into the upper mantle in large comet impacts which were expelled to form flood basalt. Evidence for rock fracturing properties of hot phyllosilicate slurries:

1) Volcanic ash (phyllosilicates) and steam are released by explosive stratovolcanoes that can blast away mountain sides.
2) Phyllosilicates are commonly used as drilling mud
3) Steam is used to fracture oil shale and shale has a high phyllosilicate content.
4) “Most mature natural faults contain a significant component of sheet silicate minerals within their core.” (Faulkner, Mitchell, Hirose, Shimamoto, 2009) Smectite was discovered in the fault that caused the 11 March 2011 Japanese tsunami which is thought to have facilitated the earthquake with a friction coefficient of .08. (Fulton et al. 2013)
5) Montmorillonite is the major component in non-explosive agents for splitting rock.

Finally, the shear thinning properties of phyllosilicates may contribute to catastrophic mud slides during heavy rains, liquefaction during earthquakes and high-velocity pyroclastic flows during volcanic eruptions of hot volcanic ash.
———–

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by Dave Carlson
dave19128@gmail.com

P.S. Soliciting contributions, criticism and collaborators. Pseudonyms are acceptable and assistance will be attributed.

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