– Aqueous Differentiation:
Melting water ice may form salt water oceans or pockets in planetesimal cores which precipitate authigenic mineral grains. Melting may be catastrophic as in the spiral-in merger of binary planetesimals or gradual, as in orbital perturbation torquing. Catastrophic binary spiral-in mergers may form sedimentary cores which lithify and undergo subsequent metamorphism when the ocean freezes solid, with the expansion of water ice greatly increasing the pressure on the core.
– Rocky-iron asteroids:
High-density volatile-depleted planetesmials are suggested to have ‘condensed’ by gravitational instability (GI) from the ‘primary debris disk’ formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma. Rocky-iron asteroids are suggested to have condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the stellar merger near the orbit of Mercury, and indeed Mercury is suggested to be a ‘hybrid accretion’ planet, formed from the core accretion of asteroid. And leftover asteroids not swept up by Mercury were evaporated outward by orbit clearing by the terrestrial planets, and many became trapped in Jupiter’s inner resonances. Many asteroids internally differentiated to form iron-nickel cores by radioactive decay of short-lived stellar-merger f-process radionuclides.
– C-type chondrites:
Chondrites are suggested to have condensed by GI from the stellar-merger primary debris disk against Jupiter’s inner resonances over a period of some 5 million years. Chondrites typically contain chondrules which may be dust accretions melted in super-intense solar flares during the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in merger at 4,567 Ma. CI chondrites without chondrules, which lie above the terrestrial fractionation line, may have condensed from presolar material, and thus may be of scattered disk or Oort cloud comet origin.
– Close Binary:
‘Hard’ close-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) tend to spiral in due to external perturbation, becoming progressively ‘harder’ orbits over time, often ultimately merging in binary spiral-in mergers. ‘Close binary’ orbits are defined to be ‘hard’ orbits.
Circa 1–20 km planetesimals condensed by GI from the protoplanetary disk prior to the suggested spiral-in merger of binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma. Many or perhaps even most comets formed in binary pairs, many of which spiraled in to form peanut-shaped ‘contact binaries’. Comets presumably formed at bitterly-cold temperatures, condensing a high percentage of highly-volatile ices which readily sublime in response to orbital torquing, creating internal voids which further reduces the density of the nuclei. A suggested former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun spiraled out from the solar system barycenter for 4 billion years, shepherding the main body of inner Oort cloud comets outward beyond itself into the inner Oort cloud (IOC).
– (Former) Companion to the Sun:
Our protostar is suggested to have undergone ‘flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation’ due to excess angular momentum, bifurcating into a binary-Sun, while spinning off a brown-dwarf proto-Companion into a circumbinary orbit around our former binary-Sun. Proto-Companion itself underwent flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation due to excess angular momentum, forming a binary Companion, presumably with brown-dwarf-sized components. Secular stellar core collapse is suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion to spiral in, increasing their wide-binary separation to increase over time. Binary-Sun merged at 4,567 Ma and binary Companion merged 4 billion years later at 542 Ma. The asymmetrical binary-Companion merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon.
– Flip-flop fragmentation, with or without bifurcation:
Collapsing prestellar objects which have much more mass in their envelopes supported by angular momentum around a diminutive core are suggested to be susceptible to disk (envelope) instability, which breaks the radial symmetry of the envelope, causing it to clump into a central mass which inertially displaces the smaller older core into a satellite status. Then the clumped envelope begins to form a new, younger core. Excess-excess angular momentum may cause the envelope to fragment into a binary pair to conserve both energy and angular momentum, displacing the former (generally oversized) core into a circumbinary orbit.
– Flip-flop perturbation:
The suggested 4 billion year exponential spiral out of our former binary-Companion which perturbed trans-Neptunian objects (TNO) into the inner solar system when the solar system barycenter (SSB) nominally crossed their semimajor axes, causing aphelia precession ‘flip-flop perturbation’.
– Gravitational instability (GI):
The mechanism whereby gas, dust and ice gravitationally collapse to form planetesimals, planets, moons and stars. GI of objects smaller than a Jeans mass appear to require assistance, generally in the form of infalling material from an accretion disk, pressurized against a planetary or binary stellar resonance.
– Hybrid Accretion (Thayne Currie 2005):
Planetesimals condensed by GI that core accrete to form hybrid-accretion planets, also known as ‘super-Earths’. Super-Earths form in low orbits around solitary stars from planetesimals condensed by GI at the magnetic corotation radius of their host stars; however, binary stars may also condense planetesimals at inner edge of their circumbinary protoplanetary disk which may accrete to form more distant super-Earths such as Neptune in our own solar system. Hybrid accretion super-Earths often to form in cascades from the inside out, with the innermost planet forming first followed by orbit clearing etc.
(Inner Oort cloud), also known as the ‘Hills Cloud’, which is the doughnut-shaped comet cloud with its inner edge in the range of 2,000 – 5,000 AU and outer edge at perhaps 20,000 AU, suggested to have been shepherded outward by the dynamic evolution of our former quadruple star system, where comets were shepherded outward by our former binary-Companion.
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘hot classical’:
Old minor planets condensed in situ by GI from the suggested 4,567 Ma ‘primary debris disk’ against Neptune’s outer resonances, principally the 2:3 resonance with Neptune. These included Plutinos and cubewanos between Neptune’s 2:3 and 1:2 resonance. The solar system barycenter perturbation greatly depleted the reservoir during the late heavy bombardment, also causing former binary pairs to spiral in and merge or to disassociate, and the remaining reservoir were perturbed into high-inclination high-eccentricity ‘hot’ orbits. The suggested binary spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun formed the primary debris disk.
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘cold classical’:
Young minor planets condensed in situ by GI from the suggested 542 Ma ‘secondary debris disk’ , principally against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. These include typically binary Plutinos and typically binary ‘cold’ classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits. The suggested spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma created the ‘secondary debris disk’.
(Outer Oort cloud), the spherical (isotropic) comet cloud, from perhaps 20,000 – 50,000 AU and beyond, assumedly perturbed from the inner Oort cloud by various internal and external perturbation mechanisms.
– LRN (LRNe plural):
(Luminous red nova), a stellar explosion with a luminosity between that of a nova and a supernova, thought to be caused by the spiral-in merger of (main-sequence) binary stars. Stellar-merger LRNe may be the typical origin of debris disks which condense asteroids and chondrites in low orbits and icy planetesimals in more distant orbits against planetary resonances. ‘Red transients’ are also thought to be caused by stellar mergers, so the terms LRNe and red transients may be used interchangeably. Mergers of pre-main-sequence stars may cause significantly-less violent explosions.
– Merger fragmentation:
As binary-stars spiral in to form first ‘contact binaries’ and then ‘common envelopes’, the tidal and centrifugal forces elongate the cores. As the cores spiral in within the common envelope, the twin cores shed gas into twin centrifugal tidal bulges, and when the growing bulges become much more massive than the evaporating cores, the system becomes unstable, allowing it to flip-flop, which spins the cores into high satellite orbits, forming proto-Venus and proto-Earth. Merger fragmentation apparently forms triple systems in order to conserve both energy and angular momentum. The in-spiral merger of binary gas-giant planets may also form ‘merger moons’.
– Minor planets or planetesimals:
A generic term for anything smaller than a planet, not specifically a moon. Planetesimals or minor planets may apply to comets, protoplanetary scattered disc objects (SDOs), asteroids, chondrites, and KBOs.
SDO (scattered disc object):
Objects suggested to have condensed by GI at the inner edge of the presolar, circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun near the orbit of Neptune, slightly before 4,567 Ma. Subsequent hybrid accretion formed Neptune, and Neptune scattered the leftover planetesimals outward to form the scattered disk, presumably before 4,567 Ma. The scattered disk is suggested to nominally begin at the 1:3 resonance with Neptune. SDOs originally condensed with highly-volatile ices, most of which have since sublimed due to internal torquing caused by orbital perturbation by the solar system barycenter, which is suggested to have creating an internal latticework of voids, resulting in low-density objects.
– SSB (solar-system barycenter):
The suggested gravitational balance point between the Sun and its former binary-Companion brown dwarf prior to the loss of the Companion from the solar system due to the asymmetrical nature of the binary spiral-in merger of the binary-Companion brown-dwarf components at 542 Ma. The spiral in of the binary Companion components fueled an exponentially-increasing wide-binary apoapsis between Sun-Companion, causing the SSB to spiral out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc for 4 billion years, perturbing ever more distant trans-Neptunian objects over time. The SSB passage through the Plutinos and cubewanos is suggested to have caused the late heavy bombardment.
– Stellar core collapse (mass segregation):
Orbit clearing may be viewed as a form of core collapse, whereby high-mass planets clear their orbits of lower-mass planetesimals by tending to ‘evaporate’ them outward into higher orbits. Similarly, resonant coupling may tend to cause close-binary stars to spiral in and evaporate smaller companion stars outward into higher wide-binary orbits. Globular clusters are known to undergo core collapse or mass segregation, causing more-massive stars to sink to the core as less-massive stars are evaporated outward.
– Super-Earth: (See Hybrid Accretion)
– TNO (trans-Neptunian object):
TNOs encompass multiple reservoirs, primary-debris-disk hot classical KBOs, secondary-debris-disk cold classical KBOs, protoplanetary SDOs, and Oort cloud comets.
– Wide Binary:
‘Soft’ wide-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) are defined as binary pairs that tend to spiral out due to external perturbation, with wide-binary orbits tending to become progressively softer over time until the components ultimately dissociate. Wide-binary components may themselves be comprised of close-binary pairs, such as our former (close)-binary-Sun and former (close)-binary-Companion in a wide-binary separation.
“Starless cores are possibly transient concentrations of molecular gas and dust
without embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), typically observed in tracers
such as C18O (e.g. Onishi et al. 1998), NH3 (e.g. Jijina, Myers, & Adams 1999),
or dust extinction (e.g. Alves et al. 2007), and which do not show evidence of
infall. Prestellar cores are also starless (M⋆ = 0) but represent a somewhat denser
and more centrally-concentrated population of cores which are self-gravitating,
hence unlikely to be transient.”
(Andre et al. 2008)
Star formation stages:
1) Starless core: May be a transient phase or may progress to gravitational instability infall
2) Prestellar core: A gravitating prestellar core ends with the formation of the second hydrostatic core when hydrogen gas endothermically dissociates into atomic hydrogen at around 2000 K.
3) Protostar (Class 0, I, II, III): Begins with the formation of the second hydrostatic core.
4) Pre-main-sequence star: A T Tauri, FU Orionis, or larger (unnamed) pre-main-sequence star powered by gravitational contraction
5) Main-sequence star: Powered by hydrogen fusion
In Jeans instability, the cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the center become optically thick at ~10-13 g/cm3 after 105 yr (Larson 1969), at which point when the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Supersonically infalling gas in the envelope is decelerated and thermalized at the surface of the first core (Masunaga et al. 1998).
When the temperature reaches about 2000 K, the hydrogen begins to dissociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’, the birth of a protostar. The protostar grows in mass by accreting the infalling material from the circumstellar envelope, while the protostar keeps its radius at ~4 Rsun during the main accretion phase. (Masunaga et al. 1998)
“Enoch et al. (2009a)
discovered a massive circumstellar disk of ∼1 Ms comparable
to a central protostar around a Class 0 object, indicating that
(1) the disk already exists in the main accretion phase and
(2) the disk mass is significantly larger than the theoretical
prediction.” (Machida et al. 2011)
“However, if the
evolution is followed to the higher density regime where the gas becomes adiabatic,
a disk-like structure forms which allows another mode of binary formation
to develop, i.e., disk fragmentation around the central protostar. For example,
calculations based on a piecewise polytropic equation of state show that the central
portion of a collapsing core becomes adiabatic and forms a disc-like structure
around the central object, which subsequently fragments into “satellite” objects
(Matsumoto & Hanawa 2003).” (Andre et al. 2008)
“The size of the first core was found to vary somewhat in the different simulations (more unstable clouds form smaller first cores) while the size, mass, and temperature of the second cores are independent of initial cloud mass, size, and temperature.
Conclusions. Our simulations support the idea of a standard (universal) initial second core size of ~ 3 × 10−3 AU and mass ~ 1.4×10−3 M⊙.”
(Vaytet et al. 2013)
“Class 0 objects are the youngest accreting protostars observed right after point mass formation, when most of the mass of the system is still in the surrounding dense core/envelope (Andre et al. 2000).”
(Chen et al. 2012)
“The compact components
around the Class 0 protostars could be the precursors to
these Keplerian disks. However, it is unlikely that such
massive rotationally supported disks could be stably supported
given the expected low stellar mass for the Class 0
protostars: they should be prone to fragmentation”.
(Zhi-Yun Li et al. 2014)
Solar system evolution:
Massive prestellar envelopes (accretion disks) surrounding diminutive cores in early prestellar objects are suggested to be vulnerable to disk instability that breaks the radial symmetry. In a prestellar object with excess angular momentum (before the formation of the first hydrostatic core), the bulk of the mass is contained in a doughnut-shaped envelope, partially supported by angular momentum, which surrounds a comparatively diminutive core undergoing freefall collapse. The combination of a greater inertial mass in a radially-symmetrical envelope partially disconnected from its core by freefall conditions is suggested to promote disk instability, causing the envelope to clump and inertially displace the former gravitationally-bound core to a satellite status. Then the newly clumped envelope begins to precipitate a new, younger core. This process by which a prestellar object spins off its core by disk instability is designated, ‘flip-flop fragmentation’ (FFF), with the core and envelope flip-flopping in position, when the former core becomes the satellite of the former envelope.
‘Flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation’ is suggested to occur in prestellar objects with high specific angular momentum, which distorts the envelope into a bar shape, with a resulting ‘bar instability’, fragmenting the bar envelope into a similar-sized binary pair, which inertially displaces an oversized core into a circumbinary orbit. Thus an oversized satellite (oversized moon around a gas-giant planet or red/brown dwarf around a solar-sized star) may indicate FFF w/bifurcation, spinning off an oversized core, and an oversized object around a solitary star may point to an in-spiral merger of a former similar-sized binary pair. The prototype of FFF with bifurcation is the Alpha Centauri system, with the former oversized core Proxima inertially displaced (‘spun off’) into a circumbinary orbit around the similar-sized (bifurcated) Alpha Centauri A and B stars. Titan is suggested to be the oversized FFF w/bifurcation spin-off core in the Saturnian system, but Jupiter seems to be missing an oversized ‘Titan moon’, pointing to Mars as the likely former oversized bifurcation spin-off moon in the Jovian system. This would indicate that Mars was stripped from Jupiter when Jupiter transitioned from a circumprimary orbit (around the larger A star binary-Sun component) into a circumbinary orbit as the binary-Sun components in-spiraled. (Not all FFF w/bifurcation may form and displace a core, however, since circumbinary objects are less common than binary stars.)
Not only may prestellar objects undergo FFF, spinning off pre-gas-giant planet cores (designated gas-giant proto planets), but the spun off proto gas-giant planets will themselves typically undergo FFF, and usually with bifurcation in the first ‘molt’. After bifurcating, the twin bifurcated gas-giant objects typically undergo another molt to without bifurcation (to rid themselves of excess angular momentum), spinning off moons into a circumprimary and a circumsecondary orbits around the slightly larger and slightly smaller similar-sized binary pair, respectively. Then core collapse of the gas-giant system typically causes the bifurcated gas-giant binary pair to in-spiral, injecting the circumprimary and circumsecondary moons into circumbinary orbits before ultimately merging to form a solitary gas-giant planet.
Binary in-spiral mergers of stars and gas-giant planets are suggested to undergo a similar process to FFF. When the cores reach a ‘common envelope’ stage of in-spiral, they are suggested to spin off their twin cores, shed of most of their former mass, in a process designated, ‘merger fragmentation’. While a contact binary configuration, in which the stellar atmospheres touch one another, can be stable over millions or even billions of years, the common envelope configuration is understood to be short lived, either expelling the stellar envelope or merging the binary pair in a ‘timescale of months to years’. So the difference between contact-binary stability and common-envelope instability is suggested to require a catastrophic mechanism of outward angular momentum projection, since a solar wind of increasing intensity (or some such) does not to qualify as a (runaway) catastrophic mechanism, since a solar wind only expels average angular momentum.
Within a common envelope, tidal and centrifugal forces radially elongate the in-spiraling objects into bars, with the centrifugally splayed bars bending into trailing tails. Continued inspiraling, is suggested to cause the cores to shed mass into the trailing tails, projecting angular momentum outward until the tails meet to form a doughnut, with the twin cores projecting inward like broken spokes on a wheel. Than if the cores shed sufficient mass that the envelope becomes significantly more massive than the cores, the envelope becomes susceptible to disk (envelope) instability, which breaks the radial symmetry and inertially hurls the twin cores into high orbits, projecting sufficient angular momentum outward to allow the newly-clumping envelope to form a solitary star or solitary gas-giant planet. Venus and Earth are suggested to be merger planets formed by the in-spiral merger of former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma.
Proto-Venus and proto-Earth briefly orbited inside the greatly-expanded red giant phase of the Sun during the stellar-merger luminous red nova (LRN). And outward diffusion of proto-planet volatility along with inward diffusion of helium-burning, stellar-merger, nucleosynthesis metallicity enrichment (notably carbon-12 and oxygen-16), resulted in the ‘terrestrial fractionation line’, below that of presolar Mars, where Mars was presumably a rocky planet by 4,567 Ma and thus vastly less susceptible to stellar-merger nucleosynthesis contamination than proto Venus and proto Earth in their pithy proto-planet phase.
A third planet formation mechanism was proposed by Thayne Curie in 2005, designated ‘hybrid accretion’, which suggests the formation of planets by core accretion from planetesimals condensed by gravitational instability, hence hybrid accretion, resulting in a much more rapid process. The most common hybrid planets are suggested here to be super-Earths, formed by core accretion of planetesimals presumably condensed by GI against the pressure dam at the host star’s magnetic corotation radius, at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk. Hybrid accretion planets are also suggested to form at the resonance-sculpted inner edge of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk, as in Neptune beyond former binary-Sun. Hybrid-accretion super-Earths often form in cascades in low hot orbits, with the innermost super-Earth presumably forming first, followed by orbit clearing etc. The definition of ‘super-Earth’ is redefined here to describe any planet formed by hybrid accretion, regardless of orbital location, size or composition, so Neptune is defined as a hybrid-accretion planet which cleared its orbit of leftover planetesimals into the scattered disc, presumably prior to 4,567 Ma. So Neptune’s composition may give an indication of the original composition of scattered disc objects (SDOs), prior to the presumed sublimation of their most volatile components by perturbation by the former Sun-Companion solar system barycenter.
So some time prior to 4,567 Ma, our collapsing prestellar object is suggested to have undergone FFF with bifurcation, forming twin prestellar objects orbited by the former brown-dwarf–mass core (‘Companion’) in a circumbinary orbit. Companion itself underwent FFF with bifurcation, forming a binary brown dwarf, which likely spun off a gas-giant-planet-sized core into a circumbinary orbit. The two close binary systems, binary-Companion and binary-Sun, orbited the solar system barycenter (SSB) in a wide-binary separation. And resonant feedback between the close-binary pairs is suggested to have promoted core collapse, transferring potential energy and angular momentum from the close-binary orbits to the wide-binary orbits, causing binary-Companion and binary-Sun to in-spiral.
Following FFF w/bifurcation into similar-sized binary-Sun components, the binary prestellar components still had far too much angular momentum to collapse into protostars, requiring two additional generations of FFF (without bifurcation) to catastrophically rid themselves of sufficient angular momentum to finally become protostars. The first generation FFF spun off preplanetary Uranus & Neptune into circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits respectively, with the continued in-spiral of binary-Sun leaving Uranus and Neptune behind in circumbinary orbits. The second generation FFF spun off preplanetary Jupiter and Saturn into into circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits which likewise also transitioned into circumbinary orbits with the continued in-spiral of binary-Sun components. Finally, binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma, spinning off twin merger planets, proto-Venus & proto-Earth.
And each of the four spin off planets underwent FFF w/bifurcation themselves to spin off a oversized ‘Titan moon’ beyond similar-sized binary-planet components. And each binary-planet underwent one or two generations of FFF (without bifurcation) to spin off FFF moons. And each of the binary giant planets likewise spiraled in to merge and spin off twin merger moons. Uranus and Jupiter, however, lost their oversized ‘Titan moons’ in bypassing the smaller ‘B star’ component of binary-Sun, with the Jupiter ‘Titan moon’ likely becoming Mars(?) and the Uranus ‘Titan moon’ likely becoming Eris(?).
Giant planet resonances are suggested to create pressure dams which promote GI condensation of planetesimals, but only Jupiter’s inner resonances and Neptune’s outer resonances may have been sufficiently unperturbed by overlapping giant planet resonances to have condensed objects from the primary debris disk, with chondrites condensing against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances and hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances, principally against Neptune’s 2:3 resonance. The inner edge of the primary debris disk was likely sculpted by the super-intense stellar-merger corotation radius of the Sun, efficiently condensing asteroids, containing live short-lived stellar-merger radionuclides (most importantly, aluminum-26 and iron-60), near the present orbit of Mercury. Mercury is suggested to be a hybrid accretion super-Earth, formed by core accretion of asteroids locally condensed by GI. Then many of the leftover asteroids were apparently evaporated into the asteroid belt by orbit clearing by the 4 terrestrial planets.
The binary-Companion (presumably brown-dwarf) components are suggested to have continued to spiral in for another 4 billion years, presumably increasing the Sun-Companion apoapsis (greatest separation) at an exponential rate over time. The binary-Companion components contained a significant amount of potential energy compared to the Sun-Companion wide-binary gravitational potential well, but a negligible amount of angular momentum compared to the Sun-Companion wide-binary angular momentum, so while the apoapsis (which is energy sensitive) is suggested to have increased at an exponential rate over time, the Sun-Companion periapsis (which is angular momentum sensitive) remained relatively unchanged over time.
The solar system barycenter (SSB) was the gravitational balance point around which Sun-Companion orbited for 4 billion years, and by Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun, the SSB can be said to have cycled through the Kuiper belt and into the scattered disk with the exponentially increasing Sun-Companion apoapsis over time, while retreating to below Neptune’s orbit at periapsis with each Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB. As the SSB apoapsis spiraled out over time, it caught up with the semimajor axes of progressively more distant planetesimals over time, and the semimajor axis is suggested to be the inflection point between being gravitationally attracted toward the Companion and being centrifugally slung 180° away from it, causing aphelia precession perturbation, designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’.
So planetesimal would only undergo flip-flop perturbation for the first time when the SSB caught up with their semimajor axes, which caused the late heavy bombardment when the SSB encountered KBO cubewanos (between the 2:3 and 1:2 resonance with Neptune) from about 4.1 to 3.8 Ga. While this establishes the location of the SSB in time, it allows a wide Companion mass range if the Sun-Companion period increase around the SSB can’t be pinned down at at-least one point in time. So as a placeholder, the binary-Companion mass is suggested to be 1/2 the mass of Proxima Centauri, since the mass of Alpha Centauri A and B stars combined is almost exactly twice the mass of our Sun. If the LHB was caused by cubewano perturbation into the inner solar system, the Proterozoic Eon is suggested to have been dominated by the perturbation of SDOs into the inner solar system, with the SSB crossing the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, which is suggested to be the nominal beginning of scattered disc semimajor axes.
Then brown dwarf components of binary-Companion are suggested to have in-spiraled to merge at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. The merger is suggested to have created a ‘secondary debris disk’ which is suggested to have condensed ‘cold classical KBOs’ in situ in low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits, many in binary pairs, including binary Pluto. The suggested solitary (not binary) ‘hot classical KBO’ population in high-inclination high-eccentricity ‘hot’ orbits presumably resembled the present cold classical KBO population prior to their perturbation by the SSB during the LHB. The recent New Horizons flyby of Pluto revealed a geologically-young surface on a tidally-locked (synchronous orbit) binary planet, having no tidal heating contributed by rotation, but a young origin might explain the geological activity, particularly if a former binary-Pluto in-spiraled to merge and form solitary Pluto some time after 542 Ma.
A number of Phanerozoic events may be correlated with the suggested binary brown-dwarf merger, as well as the loss of the solar system barycenter, even though Earth would likely have accreted only a thin veneer of material directly from the secondary debris disk. The bright-line event that comes to mind at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, of course, is the Cambrian Explosion of new lifeform phyla. The Cambrian Explosion is suggested to result from the disbursal of free-swimming brown-dwarf lifeforms, likely from a water vapor layer on a room-temperature spectral class Y brown dwarf, perhaps with lightening creating free oxygen. If so, then free-swimming lifeforms like the anomalocaridids should predate benthic lifeforms like the trilobites. The large negative δ13C excursion at the Cambrian boundary is suggested to represent an accretionary veneer of presolar brown-dwarf material, lacking solar-merger Carbon-12 enrichment.
The loss of Companion implies the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former SSB, causing all heliocentric objects to fall into slightly lower shorter-period orbits, which is suggested to have been responsible for Venus’ slight retrograde rotation, if Venus had previously been in a synchronous orbit where its day equaled its year. Venus also apparently underwent a global resurfacing event, some 300–500 million years ago. Earth’s upheaval at dropping into a lower orbit may have caused the global erosion known as the ‘Great Unconformity’, where in the Grand Canyon area eroded as much as a billion years’ worth of continental rock.
Oort cloud comets may have condensed in circum-quaternary obits beyond binary-Companion from a circum-quaternary protoplanetary disk, or they may be SDOs condensed in a circumbinary protoplanetary disk near the orbit of Neptune which were evaporated outward by Neptune and binary-Companion and then progressively shepherded outward by the exponentially-increasing Sun-Companion apoapsis for 4 billion years, from > 4,567 Ma until 542 Ma.
Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF):
FFF provides a suggested mechanism allowing for the formation of smaller objects by GI than could otherwise be condensed without the assistance of a resonant pressure dam in an accretion disk. The suggested mechanism employs radial symmetry to precipitate a core, with gravitationally-bound stability, and then suggests an instability occurring in a massive radially-symmetrical envelope around a comparatively diminutive core, in an envelope with the necessary mass and density to undergo gravitationally-mediated disk instability. So radial symmetry precipitation of a core followed by disk instability of a much more massive overlying envelope which clumps and inertially displaces the former core to a satellite status is suggested as an alternative to a resonant pressure dam in an accretion disk for forming relatively diminutive objects by GI.
Imagine a Slinky made into a doughnut ‘envelope’ by bringing the two ends together around a golf ball ‘core’ in the center. Releasing the ends of the Slinky breaks the radial symmetry of the envelope, simulating envelope instability, causing the envelope to gravitationally (catastrophically) clump on one side of the golf ball core, and greater inertial mass of the clumping envelope injects the smaller core goes into a satellite orbit, catastrophically projecting angular momentum outward.
FFF disk instability in prestellar objects is suggested to require excess angular momentum, which creates a large metastable mass disparity between a massive envelope largely supported by angular momentum overlying a relatively diminutive core, in which the increase of mass with radial distance ‘a’ is unknown. But envelope instability may require the additional element of a physical disconnect between an angular momentum supported envelope and a core in freefall for the amplification of inhomogeneities by positive feedback into full-fledged disk instability. The distinct, bimodal orbital distance gap between hot Jupiters (with average semimajor axes below about .1 AU) and ‘cold Jupiters’ (with a median semimajor axes around 2 AU), however, suggests a FFF hiatus, with the higher specific-angular-momentum prestellar objects spinning off cold Jupiters and lower specific-angular-momentum prestellar objects spinning off hot Jupiters.
So if the suggested freefall discontinuity necessary for envelope instability disappears with the formation of a Class 0 protostar with the first appearance of a’ second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC), then FFF can only occur during the earlier prestellar phase. Then the bimodal hiatus between cold Jupiters and hot Jupiters is suggested to be caused to the brief duration of a ‘first hydrostatic core’ (FHSC) or ‘first core’, which is suggested to briefly reconnect the prestellar core with its envelope, damping down instabilities rather than permitting amplification. This suggests that cold Jupiters are spun off during the first collapse and hot Jupiters are spun off during the second collapse, with the first hydrostatic core as a brief hiatus between the two, creating the bimodal grouping.
“When the central density exceeds 10−13 g cm−3
the radiative cooling ceases to be efficient and an opaque, adiabatic
core forms at the centre. The rise in temperature results in
an increase of the thermal pressure, and finally, when the pressure
balances the gravitational force the collapse ceases and the
first hydrostatic core is formed. The initial central temperature of
the FHSC is estimated to be around 170 K with an initial central
density of 2×10−10 g cm−3
. The so-called second, more compact
(protostellar) core is formed after the dissociation of H2 and subsequent
collapse, when the central temperature and density reach
2 × 104 K and 2 × 10−2 g cm−3, respectively (Larson 1969).”
(Tsitali et al. 2013)
So in the ‘first collapse’ of a Jeans instability, nearly-isothermal freefall conditions prevail as long as the cloud remains nearly transparent to infrared radiation, which is suggested to promote the FFF spin off of ‘cold Jupiters’. When the core temperature reaches about 170 K, at a density of 2×10−10 g cm−3, the thermal pressure balances the gravitational force, forming a FHSC, which is suggested to shut down the FFF process due to a physical hydrostatic connection between the core and its overlying envelope, which is suggested to damp down instabilities rather than amplifying them.
Prior to the formation of the FHSC, radiative cooling allows infalling gas to radiate away its potential energy in the form of infrared radiation, but when the density reaches around 10-13 g/cm-3, the gas becomes opaque to infrared radiation, rendering the gas nearly adiabatic, causing the temperature to rise. This temperature rise creates an outward gas pressure which balances the inward force of gravity. The FHSC is thought to last a few hundred years to a few thousand years until the temperature reaches about 2000 K when molecular hydrogen dissociates endothermically, causing a second collapse lasting less than a year and ending in the formation of a second hydrostatic core (SHSC).
“First cores are characterized by radii and masses of the order of ~ 5 AU – 10 AU and 0.05 Ms – 0.1 Ms, respectively (Masunaga et al. 1998; Saigo et al. 2008). Their lifetimes range from a few 100 yr to a few 1000 yr, increasing with the rate of rotation.”
(Tsitali et al. 2013)
The brief 100 to 1000 year hiatus of the FHSC is suggested to create the bimodal gap between ‘hot Jupiters’ and ‘cold Jupiters’.
When the core temperature reaches about 2000 K, molecular hydrogen begins to dissociate into atomic hydrogen endothermically, promoting a very brief nearly-isothermal ‘second collapse’,
The dynamical timescale of the second collapse is of the same order as the free-fall time corresponding to density = 10-7 g cm-3, which is 0.1 yr.
(Masunaga and Inutuka, 2000)
Pebble accretion essentially requires all-or-nothing planetary migration to explain the extent of the bimodal grouping of hot Jupiter and cold Jupiter exoplanets, but without having a present-or-absent mechanism like a FHSC.
Assuming FFF with a FHSC hiatus, the brief duration of the FHSC and the far-shorter second collapse (~ 0.1 yr) suggests astonishing rapidity and efficiency of the proposed FFF process, so the endothermic mediated second-collapse shockwave must act as an exceedingly-efficient trigger of disk instability in an envelope with excess angular momentum.
The triple-star Alpha Centauri system suggests an alternate FFF pathway when envelope instability occurs with high specific angular momentum. Similar-sized binary pairs with a large circumbinary satellite, such as Proxima Centauri in a circumbinary orbit around the similar-sized binary pair of Alpha Centauri A & B stars, suggests binary fragmentation (‘bifurcation’) of envelopes with particularly-high specific angular momentum. High angular momentum system may require fragmentation into a triple system to conserve both energy and angular momentum, displacing a generally oversized core into a circumbinary orbit around a much-larger similar-sized binary pair, in a process designated, ‘flip-flop fragmentation with bifurcation’, or ‘FFF w/bifurcation’ for short, with ‘bifurcation’ indicating envelope fragmentation into a similar-sized binary pair. In our own solar system the following FFF w/bifurcation systems are suggested: oversized Companion around binary-Sun, oversized Mars(?) around binary-Jupiter, oversized Titan around binary-Saturn, oversized Eris(?) around binary-Uranus, and oversized Triton around binary-Neptune. And the conservation principles may only undergo FFF w/bifurcation when the core becomes oversized, compared to FFF without bifurcation. In recognition of the giant (oversized) cores suggested to be spun off in the process of FFF w/bifurcation, the the Saturnian moon ‘Titan’ is chosen as the prototypical FFF w/bifurcation spin-off core, due to its namesake as a mythical race of (oversized) giants, so a Titan Companion or Titan moon predicts a (former) similar-sized binary pair.
Solar system rundown:
Prestellar object—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Sun + Companion
— Binary-Sun—FFF x 2—Binary-Sun + Uranus & Neptune + Jupiter & Saturn
—— Neptune—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Neptune + Triton
——— Binary-Neptune—FFF x 2—Binary-Neptune + perhaps Makemake(?), Haumea(?), 2007 OR10(?) & Quaoar(?)
———— Binary-Neptune—Merger fragmentation—Neptune + Proteus & Nereid
—— Uranus—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Uranus + Eris(?)
——— Binary-Uranus—FFF x 2—Binary-Uranus + Oberon & Titania + Umbriel & Ariel
———— Binary-Uranus—Merger fragmentation—Uranus + Miranda & Puck(?)
—— Saturn—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Saturn + Titan
——— Binary-Saturn—FFF x 2—Binary-Saturn + Iapetus & Rhea + Dione & Tethys
———— Binary-Saturn—Merger fragmentation—Saturn + Enceladus & Mimas
—— Jupiter—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Jupiter + Mars(?)
——— Binary-Jupiter—FFF x 1—Binary-Jupiter + Ganymede & Callisto
———— Binary-Jupiter—Merger fragmentation—Jupiter + Io & Europa
— Companion—FFF w/bifuration—Binary-Companion + circumbinary gas-giant planet
The Pluto system appears to have a ‘Titan moon’, Charon, suggesting FFF w/bifurcation, requiring a former binary-Pluto which spun off 4 smaller moons in either 2 generations of FFF or 1 generation of FFF + twin merger moons, depending on whether or not terrestrial objects can spin off merger moons or not.
Finally, perhaps FFF w/without bifurcation is also the mechanism by which spiral galaxies attainted their characteristic specific angular momentum during the nearly-isothermal epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, with FFF w/bifurcation explaining the similar-sized Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies of the Local Group.
Binary in-spiral mergers of stars and binary gas-giant planets are suggested to undergo a catastrophic process for ridding themselves of angular momentum, designated, ‘merger fragmentation’, spinning off their former twin cores to become twin ‘merger planets’ or twin ‘merger moons’.
A binary spiral-in merger first becomes a ‘contact binary’ followed by a ‘common envelope’. Contact binaries, in which the stellar atmospheres are in contact, can be stable over millions or even billions of years, but the the common envelope configuration is understood to be short lived, either expelling the stellar envelope or merging the binary pair in a ‘timescale of months to years’.
Suggested merger fragmentation is an attempt to understand the catastrophic loss of angular momentum in the short-lived common-envelope phase of binary in-spiral mergers of gaseous objects. Merger fragmentation is not suggested to occur in icy or terrestrial objects, like ‘contact-binary’ asteroids and comets, which don’t go through a common-envelope phase (where ‘contact-binary’ asteroids and comets refers to their final post-merger (peanut-shaped) state, whereas contact-binary stars are far from their final state).
Suggested merger fragmentation is suggested to be analogous to flip-flop fragmentation with a slingshot mechanism to kick the former stellar cores into high heliocentric orbits, with Venus and Earth as twin ‘merger planets’ formed by the in-spiral merger of former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma.
Within a common envelope, inward tidal and outward centrifugal forces radially elongate in-spiraling objects. As the twin cores slowly spiral inward, the inward tidal component may be reflected outward into the outward centrifugal bulges. In spiraling within a common envelope may take the form of the cores sloughing off gas into their outward centrifugal bulges as a means of ridding the twin cores of angular momentum. This may continue until the overlying outward bulges become much more massive than the diminishing cores, whereupon the system becomes unstable.
The instability of the greater overlying mass creates a catastrophic flip-flop, wherein the centrifugal bulges presumably merge by centrifugally slinging the former twin cores outward into high orbit, ridding the merging bulges of excess angular momentum. And similar to the triple object formed by FFF w/bifurcation, merger fragmentation may also require the formation of a triple object to conserve both energy and angular momentum.
In the pithy ‘preplanetary’ phase of merger planets when their evaporating atmospheres filled their Roche spheres, preplanetary-Venus and preplanetary-Earth suffered heavy volatile losses, but the outward diffusion of volatiles necessarily included an inward diffusion of solar-merger metallicity, first from the enveloping red giant phase of the LRN (which lasted a few months), and then from the primary debris disk, injecting helium-burning stellar-merger nucleosynthesis stable isotopes, notably carbon-12 and oxygen-16 into the gravitationally-bound proto-planets. If Mars was an older FFF w/bifurcation moon of preplanetary-Jupiter, then it likely would have already had its present rocky form at the time of the 4,567 Ma solar merger, explaining why the terrestrial fractionation line of Earth is depressed below essentially presolar Mars on the 3-oxygen-isotope plot of ∆17O vs. δ18O, since Earth/Moon has a solar-merger 16O enrichment.
In the Jupiter system, Io and Europa are suggested to be merger planets, presumably with Mars as Jupiter’s former Titan moon, spun off during FFF with/fragmentation that formed binary Jupiter. And Ganymede and Callisto were presumably spun off from Jupiter’s two former binary components.
Finally, solar mergers of low metallicity stars may fail to condense merger planets from spun off cores, if the cores dissipate (evaporate).
Gravitational instability (GI) within accretion disks:
Pebble accretion does not appear to be borne out in chondrites, which do not appear to have an internal accretionary structure above that of chondrules and CAIs. If chondrules formed by melting accretionary dust clumps in super-intense solar flares from the 3 million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger, then inner solar system accretion, inside the snow line, appears to end at chondrule-sized masses.
Gravitational instability (GI) within accretion disks is suggested to require assistance, generally in the form of a pressure dams. Infalling dust and ice grains spiraling in due to gas drag may become concentrated against a planetary or stellar resonance to the point of GI. Pressure dams capable of promoting GI in solar systems with a heavy protoplanetary disk or a heavy debris disk, are suggested to form by three mechanisms:
1) Against the magnetic corotation radius of a solitary star, which sculpts the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk or subsequent debris disk into a pressure dam.
2) Against the strongest inner or outer orbital resonances of giant planets, but only when these resonances are not disrupted by overlapping giant-planet resonances, such as Jupiter’s inner resonances and Neptune’s outer resonances. (Jupiter’s outer resonances, all of Saturn’s and Uranus’ inner and outer resonances and Neptune’s inner resonances apparently experience disruptive interference from the nearest giant planet; however, just because planetary resonances are not stable reservoirs of planetesimals over a time span of 4-1/2 billion years doesn’t necessarily mean these overlapped resonances didn’t originally condense objects by GI, which subsequently migrated away.)
3) Against binary stellar resonances that sculpt the inner edge of a circumbinary accretion disk into a pressure dam.
A massive protoplanetary disk may condense large numbers of small kilometer-scale planetesimals by GI, such as comets, whereas less-massive and more volatilely depleted debris disks may tend to condense fewer larger planetesimals, such as asteroids or Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), many over 100 km, with an occasional outlier like Pluto.
Primary debris disk at 4,567 Ma:
Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI from the ‘primary debris disk’, against the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun at about the orbit of Mercury. The super-intense stellar-merger magnetic field created a greatly-expanded magnetic corotation radius which is suggested to have condensed asteroids near the orbit of Mercury. Secondly, carbonaceous chondrites are suggested to have condensed in situ against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances, and finally, Plutinos and hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are suggested to have condensed against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances.
Secondary debris disk at 542 Ma:
Cold classical KBOs (along with binary Pluto) are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance from the ‘secondary debris disk’ ashes of the suggested binary-Companion merger at 542 Ma. Low inclination, low eccentricity cold classical KBOs, typically occurring in binary pairs, are suggestive of young, in situ condensation following the cessation of perturbation by the solar system barycenter, whereas the solitary nature of the old hot classical population is suggested to have been perturbed to in-spiral merger and subsequently perturbed into higher-inclination, higher-eccentricity orbits by the former solar system barycenter. It’s unclear whether the secondary debris disk condensed any planetesimals in the inner solar system.
The Pluto system appears to have a ‘Titan moon’, Charon, suggesting FFF w/bifurcation, requiring a former binary-Pluto which created 4 smaller Galilean moons: presumably FFF moons Nix & Hydra, and merger moons Styx & Kerberos. And many of the much-smaller cold-classical KBOs have similar-sized binary pairs as well, including kilometer-scale comets as well, from their peanut-shaped contact-binary shapes.
Hybrid accretion (super-Earths):
When planetesimals are condensed by GI in sufficient quantity and density from a protoplanetary disk (or subsequent debris disk), gravitational accretion may form planets by ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005). Planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius around a solitary young stellar object (YSO), at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, may hybrid accrete to form a cascade of super-Earths from the inside out, with the super-Earth in the lowest orbit forming first, followed by orbit clearing etc. (Hybrid accretion planets may also form at the inner edge of circumbinary protoplanetary disks around binary stars. ‘Super-Earth’ is defined here as any planet formed by hybrid accretion, regardless of size or location. By this definition, Mercury is also a (diminutive) super-Earth, which is suggested to have formed by the hybrid accretion of asteroids condensed against the super-intense magnetic field of the Sun immediately following its binary spiral-in merger from the primary debris disk. See section, CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS.
‘Flip-flop perturbation’ mechanism of the solar system barycenter (SSB) on trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs):
Secular perturbation of our former binary-Companion’s brown-dwarf components caused them to spiral in for 4 billion years, translating close-binary potential energy into wide-binary potential energy, increasing the Sun-Companion eccentricity over time, presumably increasing the maximum wide-binary Sun-Companion separation (at apoapsis) at an exponential rate over time. By Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun, the solar system barycenter (SSB) could be said to have spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and into the scattered disk at an exponential rate for 4 billion years, fueled by the orbital potential energy of the binary-Companion brown-dwarf components.
(Negative) gravitational binding energy is an inverse square function with distance, such that an orbit 100 times further away will have 1/10,000 the binding energy. Angular momentum, by comparison, is an inverse square root function of the semimajor axis, such that an orbit 100 times further away will have 10 times the angular momentum. Since the binding energy function is much steeper than the angular momentum function with respect to distance, the brown-dwarf components of binary-Companion could dramatically reduce the negative Sun-Companion binding energy of the system without materially affecting its angular momentum. Periapsis of an orbit is a good measure of its relative angular momentum while apoapsis is a good measure of its relative binding energy, so the 4 billion year spiral-in of the binary components of binary-Companion effectively increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis at an exponential rate, (by Galilean relativity) causing the SSB apoapsis to spiral out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time, perturbing planetesimals with progressively greater semi-major axes over time.
In addition, the exponential spiral out of the SSB apoapsis (with respect to the Sun), the increasingly-eccentric Sun-Companion orbits around the SSB caused SSB to sweep through the Kuiper belt with a period corresponding the the Sun-Companion period around the SSB, with an exponentially-increasing reach over time.
The periapsis of the SSB (with respect to the Sun) is suggested to have been below the perihelia of Neptune (accounting for the suggested loss of Neptune’s 4 former Galilean moons), and thus below the perihelia of all KBOs and SDOs, but its actual value is largely irrelevant. Collectively KBOs and SDOs can be grouped as trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs).
When the SSB was closer to the Sun than TNOs at periapsis, those TNOs in eccentric orbits would have had their aphelia gravitationally attracted toward binary-Companion, thus having their semimajor axes aligned with the Sun-SSB-Companion axis. As the SSB spiraled out through the Kuiper belt toward Sun-Companion apoapsis, the SSB would have caught up with the semimajor axes of TNOs.
When the SSB nominally crossed the semi-major axis of a TNO (neglecting the orbital position of the TNO by assuming the Sun-Companion period is much much greater than the TNO period), the centrifugal force away from the Companion became greater than the gravitational attraction toward it, causing TNOs aphelia to flip-flop from pointing toward the Companion to pointing 180° away from it by a process of aphelia precession. Then as the SSB moved back toward periapsis, the aphelia would flip-flop back toward the Companion. This double TNO aphelia flip-flop with each Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’ (not to be confused with flip-flop fragmentation).
Earth ocean tide analogy of flip-flop perturbation ‘aphelia precession’:
On Earth, ‘high tide’ aligns itself with the Earth Moon axis (with a slight time lag), with the tide on the Moon side created by gravitational attraction toward the Moon and with the tide on the far side of the Earth, away from the Moon, due to the centrifugal force of the Earth’s rotation around the Earth-Moon barycenter, where the barycenter lies inside the Earth. Similarly, when the SSB nominally reached the semimajor axis of TNOs, the tidal effect would switch from gravitational attraction toward to centrifugal acceleration away from the Companion, causing TNO aphelia to flip-flop or precess back and forth. Thus flip-flop perturbation is nothing more than periodic ‘aphelia precession’. Note, the semi-major axis [half way between perihelion and aphelion] is stated as the ‘nominal’ crossover point for gravitational vs. centrifugal acceleration without proof in this conceptual approach. Also note that this greatly simplified approach ignores the the position of the SDO in its orbit around the Sun, so the actual precession might have reversed itself repeatedly with each Sun-Companion period.
Since gravitational perturbation is proportional to the inverse cube of the distance, it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system, with a suspected separation of 100s of AU. But aphelia precession of KBOs and SDOs may have caused a low-level persistent torque which over 4 billion years had a significant cumulative effect, so perhaps minor planets were a significant contributor to the secular perturbation which caused the binary in-spiral merger of our former brown-dwarf binary-Companion.
Beat patterns between TNO orbits and the Sun-Companion orbit may have robbed some planetesimals of heliocentric energy and angular momentum, causing their perihelia to spiral in to the planetary realm, where the giant planets decided their ultimate fate. Planetesimals with different orbital periods may have experienced the opposite affect, having their orbits pumped with energy, perhaps explaining the origin of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP-113, with their relative major-axis alignment as a fossil Sun-Companion alignment.
SSB-mediated aphelia precession is suggested to have initiated the in-spiral merger of binary Kuiper belt objects during the Hadean and Early Archean Eons, as the exponentially-increasing reach of the SSB at apoapsis caught up with the semimajor axes of cubewano KBOs for the first time. In-spiral mergers of KBOs formed ‘contact binaries’, which initiated aqueous differentiation in KBO cores. ‘Aqueous differentiation’ melts saltwater oceans in KBOs which is suggested to precipitate authigenic mineral grains, forming sedimentary cores which lithify into rock and metamorphose into gneiss domes when the ocean freezes solid, due to the pressure caused by the expansion of freezing water ice. And the asymmetrical explosion of binary in-spiral mergers of binary planetesimals may jounce the heliocentric orbit, bringing the newly merged KBO in the way of Neptune, which may perturb it further out or further in.
In addition to suggested catastrophic jouncing of in-spiral merging KBOs in-spiral asymmetrical merger explosions, TNOs are also suggested to experience gradual pumping by the SSB, which may either increase or decrease their orbital energy and angular momentum over time, depending on orbital resonances with the Sun-Companion, and possibly depending on other orbital parameter effects. If and when a TNO comes under the influence of Neptune, orbit clearing will typically evaporate the planetesimal into a higher orbit, but alternatively, the former TNO’s orbit may be further degraded, causing it to descend into the inner solar system.
The SSB is suggested to have crossed through the Plutinos at 4.22 Ga in the first pulse of a bimodal LHB, and passed through the broader band of cubewanos, between the 2:3 and 1:2 resonance with Neptune, from 4.1 to 3.8 Ga in the second, broader main pulse of the bimodal LHB. With an exponentially-increasing reach over time, the SSB is suggested to have arrived at the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon by nominally reaching the inner edge of the scattered disc, populated by SDOs. SDOs are suggested to be internally riddled with voids due to sublimation of highly-volatile ices by SSB perturbation, whereas more volatilely-depleted KBOs are suggested to be predominantly water worlds, by comparison. When SDO-quake subsidence events collapse internal voids, ideal gas law compression of the trapped sublimed gas is suggested to concentrate the energy, causing localized (plutonic) melting and boiling of water ice, creating the necessary conditions for the precipitation of authigenic S-type granitic rock. So SDOs are suggested to have cores composed of granitic plutons and batholiths, accompanied by volcanic and sedimentary ‘country rock’. And their perturbation into the inner solar system and occasional collisions with Earth is suggested to characterize and define the Phanerozoic Eon.
So the largest terrestrial impacts, which are suggested to have contributed the TNO core rock which constitute the continental tectonic plates on Earth, largely ended with the loss of the Companion at 542 Ma.
Exponential rate of increase in the wide-binary (Sun-Companion) period:
The actual mass of our former binary Companion is unknown and relatively insignificant for the suggested perturbation of KBOs and SDOs by the solar system barycenter (SSB) between the Sun and the Companion, so the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB, and our former binary-Companion corresponding to Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri completes the symmetry: suggesting a former .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) binary-Companion.
Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
– Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separates the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting the date of the first of a bimodal pulse late heavy bombardment (LHB). (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
– Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in Far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
– In addition to lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
– The proceeding evidence suggests an a sharply-defined early pulse of a bimodal LHB occurring around 4.22 Ga, when the SSB is suggested to have crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune harboring the Plutino population. The later main pulse of the LHB is suggested to have occurred as the SSB traveled through the KBO ‘cubewanos’, between the 2:3 resonance with Neptune and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.
Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation r = 10at+b,
linearized as, log(r) = at + b
‘r’ is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
‘t’ is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
‘a’ is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
‘b’ is the y-intercept, corresponding to the present (0.0 Ma)
Solve for ‘a’ and ‘b’:
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 Ma):
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at the classical Kuiper belt spike (43 AU):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b
1.5955 = log(39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
1.6335 = log(43 AU)
1.2370 = log(1 + 16.26) This scales the Sun-SSB distance to the Sun-Companion distance. With the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is ‘16.26’, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26. And adding log(17.26)=1.2370 is the same as multiplying the distance in AU by 17.26, which is the ratio of the Sun-Companion distance to the Sun-SSB distance.
Solving for ‘a’ and ‘b’, yields:
r = -t/8421 + 3.334
t = 4,567 Ma, r = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
t = 4,220 Ma, r = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutinos, 1st bimodal LHB spike)
t = 3,900 Ma, r = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (Cubewanos, 2nd bimodal LHB spike)
t = 2,500 Ma, r = 1088 AU, SSB = 63 AU (Archean to Proterozoic, TTG to granite transition)
t = 542 Ma, r = 1859 AU, SSB = 108 AU
The orbital period of Neptune, 164.8 yr. Orbital period of 1:3 resonance with Neptune, 3 x 164.8 = 494.4 yr. Distance to 1:3 resonance to Neptune by Kepler’s Law, s = (494.4^2)^(1/3) = 62.525 AU.
r = -t/8421 + 3.334,
log(62.525) + 1.2370 = -t/8421 + 3.334
t = 2,534 Ma ~ 2,500 Ma
The SSB crossed the 1:3 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2534 Ma at the Archean to Proterozoic boundary, when when Tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) gneiss domes transition to granite in continental basement rock.
(The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, 2006).
So the bimodal timing of the LHB may be amenable to calculation and thus falsifiable (double pulse), whereas Grand Tack does not predict a double pulse LHB.
1) The Sun-Companion solar-system barycenter (SSB) crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The SSB reaches 43 AU in the classical Kuiper belt Cubewanos at 3.9 Ga, causing the second and extended pulse of the LHB, ending around 3.8 Ga and ushering in the Archean Eon.
3) The SSB reaches the 3:1 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2.5 Ga, which is suggested to be the beginning of the scattered disc, composed of protoplanetary SDOs scattered by Neptune, presumably prior to 4,567 Ma.
Kuiper cliff and the Inner Oort cloud:
The rapid decline in objects larger than 100 km is known as the ‘Kuiper cliff’, which may be mostly attributable to the in situ condensation of KBOs by GI against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from the primary debris disk at 4,567 Ma and from the secondary debris disk at 542 Ma, principally against the 2:3 resonance with Neptune, at 39.4 AU. Smaller SDOs of the scattered disc orbit well beyond 50 AU, but their smaller size (< 100 km) is part of the Kuiper cliff conundrum. The conundrum is resolved by assuming multiple TNO reservoirs, with the smaller, more scattered and more distant SDOs as originating from the earlier protoplanetary reservoir, formed and scattered to the scattered disc prior to 4,567 Ma by the orbit clearing of Neptune. The inner edge of the inner Oort cloud (IOC) is presumed to have been sculpted by the former binary-Companion orbit around the SSB, which presumably shepherded the Oort cloud comets outward (by orbit clearing) as the Sun-Companion eccentricity increased over time. The Oort cloud is thought to begin between 2,000 and 5,000 AU from the Sun, which is in line with a .0615 solar mass binary-Companion (1/2 the mass of Proxima Centauri) reaching apapsis distance of the 1859 AU from the Sun by 542 Ma, having shepherded the comets outward for 4 billion years by progressive orbit clearing. Binary-Companion may have also populated the spherically-symmetrical outer Oort cloud (OOC), perhaps by close encounters with one of the binary brown-dwarf components of former binary-Companion.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune as FFF planets, with Mars as a former ‘Titan moon’ stripped from Jupiter:
The moons of Neptune don’t resemble the typical 4+ Galilean moons typically formed by FFF w/bifurcation, followed by 2 generations of FFF; however, this may be due to perturbation by the solar system barycenter during Neptune’s vulnerable binary-planet phase, when the moons would likely have been more susceptible to external perturbation. Additionally, the retrograde orbit of the Titan moon, Triton, indicates severe perturbation. But with the binary-planet merger, the system became more stable, allowing Neptune to hold onto its twin merger moons, presumably, Proteus and Nereid.
Uranus’s severe axial tilt suggests severe perturbation when transitioning from a circumprimary orbit to a circumbinary orbit, stripping its Titan moon. A brief examination of the Kuiper belt immediately suggests Eris, with its high eccentricity (.44), high inclination (44°) orbit. Then as a first-generation FFF planet of binary-Sun, Uranus presumably underwent 2 generations of FFF, spinning off Oberon & Titania in the first generation and Umbriel & Ariel in the second generation, presumably with Miranda & Puck(?) as diminutive merger moons.
Puck (162 km, ~1.3 g/cm³ (assumed))
Miranda (472 km, 1.20 +/- 0.15 g/ml)
Ariel (1158 km, 1.592 +/- 0.15 g/ml)
Umbriel (1169 km, 1.39 +/- 0.16 g/ml)
Titania (1577 km, 1.711 +/- 0.005 g/ml)
Oberon (1523 km, 1.63 +/- 0.05 g/ml)
Eris (2326 km, 2.52±0.07 g/ml)
The 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter with high-density Io and Europa, suggest FFF w/bifurcation followed by only one generation of FFF, with the notable absence of a ‘Titan moon’. Like Uranus, Jupiter may have had its Titan moon stripped during its transition from a circumprimary orbit around the former binary-Sun A star to a circumbinary orbit. Mars immediately suggests itself as the former Titan moon of Jupiter. Then Ganymede and Callisto are first generation FFF moons, with high-density Io (3.5 g/ml) and Europa (3.0 g/ml) as (oversized) merger moons (following the rule of large merger moons in the case of only one FFF generation following FFF w/bifurcation).
The smaller binary-Sun ‘B star’ component had greater angular momentum than its larger ‘A star’ twin, apparently resulting in two generations of FFF, following FFF w/bifurcation that bifurcated preplanetary Saturn and spun off Titan.
Planemo moons of Saturn (diameter, density):
Mimas (396 km, 1.14 g/ml),
Enceladus (504 km, 1.61 g/ml),
Tethys (1062 km, .98 g/ml),
Dione (1122 km, 1.48 g/ml),
Rhea (1527 km, 1.24 g/ml),
Titan (5150 km, 1.88 g/ml)
Iapetus (1468 km, 1.09 g/ml)
Two generations of FFF presumably coupled cousin moons Iapetus & Rhea in the first generation, with Dione & Tethys in the second generation, with Enceladus & Mimas as presumed merger moons, with the relatively-low density of Mimas as the only disconcerting element.
If both Jupiter and Uranus spun off from the larger ‘A star’ binary-Sun component, it makes sense that they both lost their oversized ‘Titan moons’, since they both would have had to get past the smaller ‘B star’ to pass into circumbinary orbits, unlike spin-off planets Saturn and Neptune which presumably spun off from the smaller B star itself.
Earth and Venus as merger planets:
The case for a merger-planet origin of Venus and Earth was made in the merger fragmentation section, so this section will concentrate on the subsequent evolution of preplanetary Earth, with excess angular momentum.
Preplanetary Earth apparently underwent FFF w/bifurcation, spinning off our oversized Titan moon (Luna) into a circumbinary orbit around binary-Earth. Earth then presumably underwent one or two generations of FFF, followed by possibly spinning off twin merger moons when binary-Earth in-spiraled to merge, some 50 to 60 million years later. If the Earth system evolved like the Pluto system, then Earth originally formed had 2 cousin FFF moons, corresponding to Nix & Hydra at Pluto, and perhaps 2 twin merger moons, corresponding to Styx & Kerberos at Pluto. (Alternatively, if terrestrial planets do not spin off merger moons, then Styx & Kerberos may be second-generation FFF moons.) But apparently the smaller sibling moons to Luna were evaporated out of the Earth-Moon system by perturbations with Luna.
The asteroid, 16 Psyche, is thought to have an enstatite chondrite composition, and enstatite chondrites lie on the terrestrial fractionation line, like Earth and Moon, so 16 Psyche could be the battered core of one of Earth’s former diminutive moons, and a younger sibling to Luna.
If Venus went through the same FFF w/bifurcation process as Earth, spinning off a Titan moon comparable in size to Earth’s Moon, tidal slowing of Venus’ rotation may have caused the Titan moon to spiral out until it was lost to the Sun; however, if so, it was apparently thrown well beyond 100 AU, or fell into the Sun, since there’s no anomalous object of the right size in the inner or outer solar system. But if so, Venus apparently lost its Titan moon sufficiently long ago to allow it to assume a synchronous orbit around the Sun, in which a Venusian day equaled a Venusian year. Then, presumably, Venus assumed its present retrograde rotation when the asymmetrical in-spiral merger of former binary-Companion gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun, causing all objects in heliocentric orbits to fall into slightly lower orbits with higher orbital periods with the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter. (Note: a conserved retrograde rotation rate of Venus may permit the direct calculation of the mass of our former binary-Companion.)
The red giant phase of (presumed solar-merger) luminous red nova LRN M85OT2006-1 would have reached the Kuiper Belt and perhaps well into it with a size estimated as R = 2.0 +.6-.4 x 10^4 solar radii with a peak luminosity of about 5 x 10^6 solar mass. (Rau et. al. 2007) “Previously published line indices suggest that M85 has a mean stellar age of 1.6+/-0.3 Gyr. If this mean age is representative of the progenitor of M85 OT 2006-1, then we can further constrain its mass to be less than 2 Msolar.” (Ofek et al. 2007) So the red-giant phase of the solar LRN of half the mass likely have enveloped at least the terrestrial planets along with Jupiter and Saturn, and would have contributed to the volatilization of preplanetary Venus and Earth across the enormous surface area of their Roche spheres, even though the red-giant phase of LRNe only lasts a few months.
Venus has no current FFF moons, so its former history is unknown, but its current slight retrograde rotation is suggestive. If Venus had formerly been in a synchronous orbit around the Sun (in which a Venusian day equaled a Venusian year) prior to the suggested loss of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma, then the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the solar system barycenter may be responsible for Venus’ slight retrograde rotation. The loss of the Companion eliminated the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former SSB, slightly reducing the semi-major axes of all heliocentric orbits, commensurately increasing their orbital periods, perhaps causing its rotational rate to lag its newly sped up period, resulting in retrograde rotation.
Asteroids, chondrites and Mercury:
CAIs are suggested to have condensed from polar jets blasting from the core of the in-spiral merger of binary-Sun, explaining their canonical enrichment of stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis aluminum-26 from the core. If the flare-star phase of the Sun following the LRN melted dust accretions to form chondrules, then the flare-star phase must have lasted for the 3 million-year duration of chondrule formation. The 1 slope of chondrules and CAIs of the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line indicates complete mixing, whereas the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line indicates complete fractionation (not mass-independent fractionation as is commonly supposed). Ordinary chondrites, however, have a greatly-elevated ∆17O bulk-matrix lying above presolar Mars 3-oxygen-isotope fractionation line, which may indeed be due to photochemical-induced mass-independent fractionation due to extended solar radiation exposure of small dust grains with high surface-to-volume ratios over some 5 million years prior to their condensation by GI into ordinary chondrites, where mass-independent fractionation may be “occurring mainly in photochemical and spin-forbidden reactions” (Wikipedia–Mass-independent fractionation).
Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI at the inner edge of the solar-merger ‘primary debris disk’, sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun, which was greatly-expanded by the super-intense magnetic field of the stellar merger. And Mercury is suggested to be a hybrid accretion planet (super-Earth) accreted from primary debris disk asteroids. Then the leftover asteroids were injected into Jupiter’s inner resonances by the orbit clearing of the terrestrial planets. Rocky-iron asteroids may have ‘thermally differentiated’ by radioactive decay of LRN r-process radionuclides, whereas chondrites may have condensed by GI in situ against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances after the extinction of most short-lived radionuclides.
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos:
“We have searched 101 Classical trans-Neptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical trans-Neptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)
“The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits (Stevenson et al. 1986).”
“The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI.”
“We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical
composition (and colors) of the binary components”
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)
The high frequency of binary KBOs in the cold population with similar-size and similar-color binary components argue for (in situ) condensation of cold classical KBOs by gravitational instability following the perturbation of the LHB, and thus are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance from a ‘secondary debris disk’ created by the binary spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma. The geologically active surfaces of Pluto and its moon Charon, with Charon in a (nontidal) synchronous orbit around Pluto, appears to be telegraphing their young age.
Young, cold classical KBOs:
– Low inclination
– Low eccentricity
– Reddish coloration
– Typically binary objects, with similar size and color components
The hot classical KBOs also are suggested to have condensed in situ from the 4,567 Ma ‘primary debris disk’, but the old KBOs were are suggested to have been perturbed into hotter orbits by 4 billion years of flip-flop perturbation by the former solar system barycenter.
Old, hot classical KBOs:
– Higher inclination
– Higher eccentricity
– Bluish coloration
– Typically solitary objects
The Pluto system:
The Pluto system is suggested to have condensed in situ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance from the secondary debris disk created by the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion at 542 Ma.
The Pluto system may be a good analog to the Earth system, with FFF w/bifurcation spinning off the former oversized core, Charon, into a circumbinary orbit around binary-Pluto, with similar sized binary components. Binary-Pluto may have undergone one or two generations of FFF (without bifurcation), spinning off one or two generations of ‘cousin’ moons. The binary in-spiral merger of former binary-Pluto may or may not have spun off twin merger moons, depending on whether terrestrial (minor) planets spin off merger moons. Either way Nix and Hydra would be first-generation FFF moons, with Styx and Kerberos as either second-generation FFF moons or merger moons.
The Pluto system analogy with Earth suggests that Earth should have 4 additional moons in two size ranges from two higher-generation FFFs, which were apparently evaporated from the system by Lunar perturbations.
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THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs):
Protoplanetary comets and scattered disk objects (SDOs) are suggested to have condensed by gravitational instability (GI) from highly volatile ices, along with less volatile water ice and refractory silicate dust to form the low density comets and scattered disc objects (SDOs) of the outer solar system. Orbital perturbation of comets by tidal gravity is suggested to torque the nuclei, causing internal heating, along with subsidence events (comet quakes). Internal heating causes sublimation of the most volatile ices which largely vent to outer space, lowering the internal density and strength of the core. During comet-quake ceiling-collapse, trapped sublimed gas is catastrophically compressed, which spikes the temperature by Charles law heating and melts and boils water ice, creating the boiling water conditions which are suggested to precipitate authigenic S-type granite in localized plutons.
“Hornblende is common in the more mafic I-types and is generally present in the felsic varieties, whereas hornblende is absent, but muscovite is common, in the more felsic S-types;”
“Apatite inclusions are common in biotite and hornblende of I-types, but occur in larger individual crystals in S-types. Thus, I-types characteristically contain biotite+hornblende plus/minus sphene plus/minus monazite. S-types contain biotite plus/minus muscovite plus/minus cordierite plus/minus garnet plus/minus ilmenite plus/minus monazite.”
“One important compositional difference between the two types, not noted in 1974,
is that as a group, the S-type granites are more reduced with respect to oxygen fugacity”: lower Fe3/Fe2 in S-type granites.
Compositionally distinct with respect to Na2O vs. K2O, CaO vs. Total FeO, and Aluminium Saturation Index (for the most mafic 10% of I-type and S-type).
I-type granites lack enclaves of supracrustal origin, whereas more mafic rocks of S-type granites invariably contain a rich assemblage of supracrustal enclaves (White et al. 1999).
“The K-feldspar in S-type granites is always white in colour, never pink, provided the rock is not weathered or hydrothermally altered. However, in I-type granites the K-feldspar crystals are frequently pale pink in colour, but sometimes white.”
“However, the amount of zircon showing such inheritance is vastly different between
the I- and S-types. Williams et al. (1992 p. 503) noted that ‘Zircons with inherited cores are rare in I-type granites, but virtually every zircon in the S-types contains an older core’. Chappell et al. (1999 p. 829) pointed out that this implies that ‘the sediment component in the I-type granites, at least as indicated by the amount of inherited zircon, is trivial, a conclusion sustained by the observation that zircon was saturated in all of the low-temperature I-type magmas’.”
“The statement by Chappell and White (1974) that S-type granites are generally older than I-type granites occurring in the same batholith, is substantiated by later investigations. It is also the case that the earlier S-type granites may have a strong secondary foliation, truncated by I-type
granites that are either unfoliated or have a primary foliation.”
Above quotes from:
Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001.
SDO and KBO formation and composition:
The Jeans instability that formed our solar system apparently had considerable angular momentum which caused the ‘flip-flop fragmentation’ formation of a quadruple system, composed of two close binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, in a wide binary separation which orbited the solar system barycenter (SSB).
Scattered disc objects (SDOs) are suggested to have condensed by gravitational instability (GI) from the circumbinary protoplanetary disk around binary-Sun, condensing planetesimals in situ against the pressure dam of the primary binary resonance.
Secular perturbation caused the close binary pairs (binary-Sun and binary-Companion) to spiral in, transferring their orbital energy and angular momentum into the Sun-Companion wide-binary system, increasing the wide-binary Sun-Companion separation over time, more specifically, increasing the eccentricity of the Sun-Companion orbits around the SSB by increasing the maximum Sun-Companion separation (apoapsis) over time, presumably at an exponential rate.
Comets presumably condensed from a circumquaternary protoplanetary disk beyond our former binary-Companion, and binary-Companion shepherded them out into the Oort cloud (by Companion orbit clearing) over the next 4 billion years, caused by the ever increasing Sun-Companion eccentricity. So Oort cloud comets are presumably closely related to SDOs, with both being condensed from the same protoplanetary reservoir, although comets may have condensed further out in circumquaternary orbits, compared to circumbinary orbits for SDOs.
Binary-Sun components spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma in a luminous red nova (LRN), which created a brief red giant phase of the Sun from which at least three primary debris rings formed; one just beyond the magnetic corotation radius of the newly-merged Sun (near the orbit of Mercury), a second set of debris rings between Jupiter’s inner resonances and a third set of debris rings between Neptune’s outer resonances. Each of the debris rings condensed planetesimals by gravitational instability (GI) against resonant pressure dams; condensing chondrites against Jupiter’s inner resonances, condensing Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos against Neptune’s outer resonances, and condensing rocky-iron asteroids against the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius.
As the red giant phase of the Sun retreated from its maximum extent beyond Neptune to its present diameter, the giant planets and the Sun’s magnetic field imparted the angular momentum necessary to form the various debris rings.
In the binary-stellar-merger the Sun is suggested to have expanded into a red giant star in its brief LRN phase in which the most refractory elements condensed into dust (mineral grains) in the inner solar system, generally depleting the Kuiper belt debris ring of refractory elements such as iridium and platinum-group elements, except for those refractory elements predisposed to forming hydrides, such as calcium hydride (CaH2), since hydrides have considerably-lower condensation temperatures than their comparable oxides. Additionally, the red giant phase of the Sun presumably drove off the most volatile elements and compounds, leaving KBOs depleted in the most volatile ices (as well as many of the most refractory elements), making KBOs into ‘water worlds’, composed largely of water ice, whereas protoplanetary SDOs and comets presumably condensed with a large component of more volatile ices, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen. By comparison, inner solar system debris rings were enriched in refractories like iridium, particularly the innermost rocky-iron asteroids that condensed near the orbit of Mercury, where Mercury is suggested to be a ‘hybrid accretion’ of asteroids formed by GI (hence hybrid).
Thus by comparison, SDOs condensed from the protoplanetary disk with a solar abundance of elements (less volatile than the noble gases) compared to the various primary debris rings, and thus SDOs were less depleted in both volatiles and refractories than KBOs and Plutinos; however, SDOs may have lost a considerable amount of volatiles from SSB perturbation, and those that were perturbed into the inner solar system presumably lost more volatiles from perturbation by Neptune and the other giant planets, and perhaps finally from solar exposure and from low Sun-grazing orbits, and finally, perhaps, fragmentation inside the Roche limit, significantly raising the chance of Earth impact.
See section STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS for greater detail.
Solar system dynamics:
Following the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma, the binary brown-dwarf components of binary-Companion continued spiraling in for the next 4 billion years, but at a slower rate than the in spiral of the binary-Sun components. While a presumed Sun-Companion separation of 100s of AU did not cause direct perturbation of the binary-Companion brown-dwarf components by the Sun itself, the heavy lift of raising trillions of comets into the Oort cloud (by Companion orbit clearing), as well as perturbing Plutinos, KBOs and SDOs by way of the SSB may have caused the small persistent perturbation.
The binary-brown dwarf components are suggested to have in spiraled to merge at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun and formed a ‘secondary debris ring’ against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. The secondary debris ring presumably condensed, in situ, a younger generation of Plutinos and cold classical KBOs in their low-inclination low-eccentricity formational (unperturbed) orbits, including binary-Pluto, explaining its geologically-young surface.
The 4 billion year in spiral of the binary-Companion components translated to increasing the Sun-Companion eccentricity over time by increasing the maximum Sun-Companion separation (apoapsis), presumably at an exponential rate over time. As the maximum Sun-Companion separation from the SSB spiraled out exponentially over time, by Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun, the SSB apoapsis (the most distant eccentric Sun-SSB separation) can be said to have spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc at an exponential rate over time.
Binary-Companion created tidal forces in the solar system, aligning the major axes of eccentric orbits with the Sun-Companion axis. When the SSB was beyond the semimajor axis of a planetesimal orbit, the aphelion was attracted toward the Companion, but when the SSB crossed beyond the semimajor axis, the centrifugal force away from the Companion exceeded the gravitational attraction toward the Companion, causing the aphelion to precess 180° away from the Companion. Thus as the SSB spiraled out from the Sun and caught up with the semimajor axes of KBOs and SDOs, it caused orbital perturbation in the form of aphelia precession. Then as the eccentric Sun-SSB separation decreased toward periapsis and the SSB moved closer to the Sun than the orbital aphelion, the aphelion precession reverted to pointing toward the Companion. This flip-flop aphelia precession which occurred with every Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’.
So flip-flop perturbation was initiated when the exponentially-increasing reach of the SSB caught up with the semimajor axes of KBOs and SDOs for the first time. The SSB passed through the Kuiper belt (cubewanos), between the 2:3 and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune, between 4.1–3.8 Ga, causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the inner solar system by cubewanos.
The SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, which is suggested to be the official beginning of the scattered disc SDOs, initiating a gradual transition from KBO gneiss to SDO granite in the cores of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) perturbed into the inner solar system by the SSB.
So nominally, granite plutons on Earth should begin to appear around the close of the Archean, and indeed there’s some evidence this transition from Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrain to granodiorite-granite (GG) (Frost et al. 2006), with TTG suggested to have formed in binary spiral-in mergers of binary KBOs from the Kuiper belt.
S-type vs. I-type granites:
Within mixed S-type and I-type batholiths, S-types tend to be older, more chemically reduced, formed at lower temperature, surrounded by metasomatic skarns and pegmatites, with muscovite rather than hornblende mafic minerals, and often containing inherited zircons and supracrustal enclaves. I-types, by comparison, tend to be younger, lower temperature, surrounded by contact-metamorphic hornfels and aureoles, and sometimes associated economic mineralization, with hornblende common. (Chappell and White 2001)
These differences are suggested to point to an authigenic aqueous origin for S-type granites and, perhaps, a molten (plutonic) origin for I-type granites, with S-type granites, presumably of SDO origin, and with I-type granites of, perhaps, either SDO or terrestrial tectonic origin.
Using S-type granites to attempt to determine the timing of an SDO impact with Earth may help in determining whether associated I-type granites may be terrestrial or extraterrestrial. Thus if Sierra Nevada granites are part of the ‘North American Cordillera SDO’ that is suggested to have impacted at 65 Ma, causing the K-Pg extinction event, then I-type Eocene granites would be terrestrial in origin.
Suggested energy concentration mechanism in SDOs for forming granite plutons:
Boiling saltwater in the void-ridden interiors of SDOs is suggested to be the distinctive setting for the formation of authigenic S-type granite, and catastrophic subsidence events (SDO quakes), typically caused by orbital perturbation, are suggested to be the cause of melting and boiling of saltwater pockets which form authigenic S-type granitoid sediments which lithify into S-type granitoid rock, nominally called granite.
Boiling greatly increases circulation, percolating sedimentary grains that would otherwise fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, so boiling increases the average authigenic mineral grain size, within the ambient micro-gravity acceleration, and percolation tends to disrupt sedimentary layering, creating the typical massive appearance of granite which masks its suggested authigenic sedimentary origin.
The suggested volatile ices in SDOs, with lower melting points than water ice, will tend to clamp the internal temperature below the melting point of water ice until all the more-volatile ice has sublimed, so gradual tidal torquing will tend to gradually raise the internal temperature, subliming the most volatile ices, while lowering the density and the strength of the interior. The lowered density and strength of the interior, however, will intermittently promote catastrophic SDO-quake subsidence events that locally compact the material.
The potential energy released in these subsidence event compactions may be concentrated by Charles’s Law heating of compressed sublimed gases in the compacted region. So gases catastrophically compressed by ceiling collapse may instantaneously spike the temperature, causing localized heating which melts water ice and raises its temperature to the boiling point. By this mechanism, potential energy conversion to heat may be concentrated into a small area which might otherwise merely raise the temperature of billions of tons of subsided material by a few degrees or fractions of a degree.
By this alternative mechanism there is no granite space problem if authigenic S-type granite forms in situ in low-density SDO cores in the scattered disc, rather than within solid rock on Earth.
Felsic segregation in authigenic granite:
The relative molecular simplicity of felsic quartz and the feldspars is suggested to promote crystallization on existing mineral grains in aquatic suspension, whereas the relative complexity of mafic mineral grains may promote precipitation of new mineral grains, resulting in fewer, larger felsic mineral grains and greater numbers of smaller mafic mineral grains in authigenic S-type granite.
Increasing mineral complexity may decrease the probability of crystallizing on existing mineral grains, due the greater probability of local depletion of one or more of the necessary reagents. Mafic biotite, containing K, (Mg, Fe), Al, Si and F + hydrogen & oxygen, need only be locally depleted in one of 5 components (with an allowable either/or substitution in the iron/magnesium mafic component) to retard mineral-grain growth by crystallization in an aqueous setting, whereas feldspar only requires 3 components, (Na, K, Ca), Al, Si + oxygen, with an allowable 3-way substitution in the alkali/alkaline metal component, making felsic feldspar crystallization more flexible than mafic biotite. So mafic species may be more likely to precipitate new mineral grains, whereas felsic species may be more likely to crystallize onto existing mineral grains, resulting in larger, felsic mineral grains and more-numerous, smaller, mafic mineral grains.
In the rapid percolation of boiling saltwater in the microgravity core of an SDO, only the largest (felsic) mineral grains fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, while smaller, more-numerous, mafic mineral grains remain thermally suspended, except for the occasional mafic grains that become wedged between larger felsic grains or diffuse into interstitial spaces between larger felsic mineral grains that have fallen out of aqueous suspension.
Over time, authigenic S-type plutons should tend to skew toward a more mafic composition as the aqueous reservoir becomes increasingly depleted of felsic mineral grains and clouded with mafic mineral grains, and felsic mineral grain size should fine upward as the aqueous reservoir cools down and boils less violently over time, while mafic mineral grain size should tend to coarsen upward, from longer longer aqueous suspension. So authigenic S-type granite plutons should exhibit upward fining and ‘upward maficing’, along with upward mafic coarsening.
Finally, the percolation accompanying boiling will tend to jostle sediments that have fallen out of suspension on the pluton floor, tending to create a massive structure, helping to obscure the authigenic sedimentary origin. Percolation jostling also creates a tighter structure by ‘evaporating’ voids between mineral grains, promoting the interlocking puzzle-like structure for which granite is well known.
Mafic xenoliths in S-type granite:
S-type granite frequently contains apparent ‘magma mixing’ or ‘country-rock enclaves’, with magma mixing apparently composed of the same type of felsic and mafic mineral-grains as the granite matrix itself, but skewed toward the mafic end of the spectrum. Smaller mafic mineral grains with higher mobility may tend to ‘plate out’ on pluton walls and ceilings and then catastrophically slough off to become the apparent mafic country-rock enclaves (xenoliths) or apparent instances of magma mixing within S-type plutons. ………………..
Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001.
Currie, Thayne, 2005, HYBRID MECHANISMS FOR GAS/ ICE GIANT PLANET FORMATION, The Astrophysical Journal, 629:549–555, 2005 August 10.
Frost, Carol D.; Frost, B Ronald; Kirkwood, Robert; Chamberlain, Kevin R., (2006), The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, October 1, 2006.
CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS:
Thayne Currie suggests a compelling hybrid mechanism for forming (giant) planets by accretion from a population of 1 km planetesimals, in which the planetesimals have been formed by gravitational instability (GI). (Currie, 2005)
Suggested alterations to Thayne Currie’s hybrid accretion model:
1) Planet types formed by hybrid accretion:
This hybrid mechanism may be limited to forming terrestrial super-Earth–type planets like Mars and ice giants like Uranus and Neptune, but not gas-giant planets which are posited to form by GI from outer stellar layers isolated by their excess angular momentum.
2) Hybrid-accretion planetesimal size:
Presolar planetesimals forming super-Earths may be vastly larger than the 1 km planetesimal size envisioned if circa 100 km trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were formed by GI as the evidence of similar size and color of TNO binaries suggests. Secondary debris disks, however, may ‘condense’ smaller planetesimals, perhaps down to 1 km, due to elevated dust-to-gas ratios, forming Mercury as a hybrid accretion planet from asteroids ‘condensed’ from the spiral-in binary solar merger (4,567 Ma) debris disk.
3) Location, location, location:
The formation of planetesimals by GI may require,
1) elevated dust-to-gas ratios, and
both of which may most typically occur in the pressure dam at the inside edge of accretion disks. The inner edge of accretion disks around solitary stars may be governed by the magnetic corotation radius of the star, whereas the inner edge of circumbinary accretion disks may be governed by binary stellar resonances. Finally, a limited degree of planetesimal formation by GI may occur in giant planet resonances, such as chondrite formation which may have occurred in situ in Jupiter’s inner resonances at highly-elevated dust-to-gas ratios.
Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune may be ‘super-Earth’ type planets formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals in 3 separate planet-formation episodes.
Uranus and Neptune:
The super-Earth cascade of Uranus and Neptune first super-Earth formation episode at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond our former binary Sun, where the binary solar-component separation at the time may have been on the order of the combined semi-major axes of Jupiter and Saturn. When Uranus reached its current size by hybrid accretion of TNOs, it was able to clear its orbit by ‘evaporating’ most of the planetesimals outward. But the effort of clearing its orbit of more than its own mass of TNOs and larger dwarf-planet–sized hybrid accretions lowered Uranus’ orbit, perhaps resulting in its 98° axial tilt due to closed-system conservation of orbital and rotational angular momentum. Neptune formed after Uranus and then similarly cleared its orbit of the remaining TNOs and dwarf planets, most of which were evaporated into the Kuiper belt beyond.
If Jupiter and Saturn are spin-off planets (see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS) that spiraled out from the binary solar components as the solar components spiraled during stellar core collapse, Jupiter and Saturn may have disrupted the circumbinary protoplanetary disk from condensing protoplanets until the binary separation of our former binary Sun was considerably less than 1 AU. So the hybrid accretion of Mars occurred prior to the ultimate binary solar merger at 4,567 Ma. Orbit clearing by Mars of remaining planetesimals and larger dwarf-planet hybrid accretions may have wound up in Jupiter’s inner resonances, with 1 Ceres as the largest surviving hybrid-accretion dwarf-planet.
Mercury’s high density and proportionately-large iron core size suggests a hybrid accretion of highly volatilely-depleted asteroids ‘condensed’ by GI from the solar-merger debris disk with its inner edge at the (super-intense) magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the solar merger, but we won’t know for certain until we get samples from Mercury to see if it corresponds to the stellar-merger–nucleosynthesis stable-isotope enrichment of ∆17O with rocky-iron asteroids like 4 Vesta. The terrestrial planets in turn cleared their orbits of the left-over asteroids, evaporating them into Jupiter’s inner resonances.
The size of super-Earth planets may be governed by the separation distance from the star or from the stellar barycenter in the case of circumbinary disks around binary stars, with larger super-Earths potentially forming further out in circumbinary accretion disks. The term ‘super-Earth’ implies a planet size larger than Earth, and indeed, super-Earths are more abundant in the exoplanet surveys than smaller terrestrial planets. Super-Earth size may also be constrained by lack of sufficient planetesimals, as may be the case in the diminutive size of Mars and Mercury. In cascades of Super-Earths, all but the outermost planet should have reached its target mass for dynamic orbit clearing, so only Uranus should be typical in size for its formation conditions.
In super-Earth cascades of 3 or more planets, the separation between the outermost two planets will typically be wider than inner separations since only the outermost planet has not sunk in orbit by clearing its orbit of one or more planet’s worth of planetesimals. Cascades of super-Earths tend to exhibit adjacent orbital-period ratios of 1:3 to 2:3 except for the outermost separation. This of course assumes no subsequent planetary dynamics which frequently may be a poor assumption.
The inner edge of circumbinary disks may be governed by corotation resonances and outer Lindblad resonances in the range of 1.8a to 2.6a, where ‘a’ designates the binary-stellar semi-major axis. (Artymowicz and Lubow 1994)
In cascades of super-Earths, do all the planetesimals form first? Can super-Earths push out the inner edge of circumbinary disks, creating renewed spates of planetesimal formation further out? A close examination of planet size and planetesimals separations may provide the answer.
In binary systems, spin-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn may interrupt the formation of super-Earths as our solar system seems to indicate. Around solitary stars, spin-off planets would presumably form before super Earths and may push out the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, causing super-Earths to form further out at more temperate separations. Merger planets hurled to circa 1 AU separations from their merged stars like Venus and Earth may merely jostle a super-Earth cascade where it can squeeze in, confusing the sequence and thus confusing planetary origins. Indeed Earth may have edged Mars into a slightly higher orbit in Earth’s earliest protoplanet phase when it may have originally had the mass of Saturn or greater before becoming severely volatilely depleted.
Tau Ceti and HD 40307 are apparently five and six super-Earth exoplanet star systems, respectively, without the complication of spin-off planets or merger planets.
Finally, aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores may be visible on Mars in a number of chasmas and impact basins (Melas Chasma, Hellas Planitia, the central uplift in Becquerel Crater and etc.) where prevailing winds have removed sand dunes, revealing Mars’ internal composition.
LUMINOUS RED NOVA (LRN) ISOTOPES:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating the r-process radionuclides of the early solar system (aluminum-26, iron-60 et al.) and its helium-burning stable-isotope enrichment (carbon-12 and oxygen-16 et al.).
Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope toward the lower left corner of the graph 3-isotope oxygen graph (δ17O vs. δ18O), with a 1 slope representing complete mixing due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase. (The anhydrous modifier is significant since any subsequent aqueous alteration, forming hydrous minerals, would occur slowly, allowing mass fractionation which would move the altered material off the 1 slope line.) By comparison, complete fractionation of oxygen isotopes plot as a 1/2 slope, since 17O – 16O = 1 unit of atomic weight and 18O – 16O = 2 units of atomic weight. The terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) plots with a slope of .52, nominally 1/2. The low cooling rate from a molten magma state on Earth and the similarly slow rate of authigenic precipitation from an aqueous state provides a significant opportunity for chemical reactions to occur within the temperature window in which mass fractionation is significant. So the 1 slope of CCAM merely represents complete mixing while the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) merely represents complete fractionation.
When comparing completely fractionated materials such as terrestrial basalt and Mars meteorite basalt, it can be convenient to force force the nominal 1/2 slope (.52 slope for the TFL) to zero, making it a horizontal line, with the conversion:
∆17O = δ17O – .52 δ18O
∆17O vs. δ18O plots the TFL horizontally with igneous Mars rock on a horizontal rock above.
The degree of 16O enrichment can be be obscured by isotope fractionation when only δ17O (17O/16O) or δ18O (18O/16O) are measured isolation, but the measurement of all three oxygen isotopes and their graphing on a 3-isotope oxygen plot will cause mass-dependent fractionation to wash out, by aligning along a ‘fractionation line’ which is 16O-enrichment dependent. Comparing δ17O or ∆17O to δ18O on a 3-isotope oxygen plot, however, is generally reserved for meteorites, since continental Earth rock is assumedly terrestrial, but if the continental tectonic plates are aqueously and thermally differentiated planetesimal cores from two separate reservoirs (presolar protoplanetary and variably-enriched secondary debris disk) then comparison of all three isotopes becomes significant.
Plotting sufficient terrestrial basalt samples along side Mars meteorite basalt samples shows the two materials lie near fractionation lines, regardless of the extent of mass-dependent fractionation of individual samples. If only that were the end of the story, but ordinary chondrites plot above suggested presolar Mars which makes no sense if they condensed from the secondary debris-disk created by the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma and thus were enriched in 16O. Without subsequent aqueous alteration, ordinary chondrites would plot below the TFL due to their suggested greater 16O contamination than Earth rock.
Secondary aqueous alteration may be responsible for forming secondary magnetite with high ∆17O, which raise ordinary chondrites above assumedly presolar Mars on the 3-isotope oxygen plot. “The maximum fractionation between magnetite and liquid H2O is -13.6‰ at 390 K . In the UOC parent asteroid, H2O probably existed as a gaseous phase when magnetite formed. The maximum fractionation between magnetite and gaseous H2O is -10.5‰ at 500 K .” (Choi et al., 1997, Magnetite in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: evidence for an 17O-rich reservoir in the solar nebula) But rather than a “17O-rich reservoir”, if the mechanism had been a matter of mass-dependent fractionation of gaseous H2O in the crust followed by the escape of the 17O-depleted remainder into interplanetary space, would not the result be the same?
During thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites, if the temperature had reached the boiling point of water, the lightest-weight H2O molecules containing 16O would be the first to sublime or boil, and the least likely to condense or deposit (the opposite of sublimation), and the fastest to diffuse outward in a vapor phase. And outward mass-dependent fractionation may have been the result of repeated episodes of sublimation and deposition during the warming phase of thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites which progressively expelled water ice from the core, then the mantle and finally the crust, increasing the degree of fractionation with each cycle. Then oxidation into magnetite selected the most mobile of the remaining oxygen isotopes, preferentially incorporating 17O into magnetite.
The flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in stellar merger may be recorded in the 3 million year period of chondrule formation by super-intense solar-flare melting of debris-disk dust accretions, spiraling in toward the Sun by Poynting–Robertson drag.
If stellar-merger nucleosynthesis enriched the Sun in the stable isotopes 12C, 16O, and 20Ne by helium burning, then the stellar-merger core temperatures may have been in the neighborhood of 100-200 million Kelvins, with r-process nucleosynthesis forming the neutron-rich short-lived radionuclides (SRs) of our early solar system:
7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 44Ti, 53Mn, 54Mn, 60Fe, 63Ni, 91Nb, 92Nb, 107Pd, 129I, 146Sm, 182Hf and 244Pu.
The high velocities necessary to create spallation nuclides in LRNe may have been observed in LRN PTF10fqs from a spiral arm of Messier 99. The breadth of the Ca II emission line may indicate two divergent flows, a high-velocity polar flow (~ 10,000 km/s) and a high-volume, but slower equatorial flow. (Kasliwal, Kulkarni et al. 2011) Some of the SRs may have been created by spallation in the high-velocity polar outflow of the LRNe, particularly 7Be and 10Be, since beryllium is known to be consumed rather than produced within stars.
The solar wind is ~40% poorer in 15N than earth’s atmosphere, as discovered by the Genesis mission. (Marty, Chaussidon, Wiens et al. 2011) The same mission discovered that the Sun is depleted in deuterium, 17O and 18O by ~7% compared to all rocky materials in the inner solar system. (McKeegan, Kallio, Heber et al. 2011) “[T]he 13C/12C ratio of the Earth and meteorites may be considerably enriched in 13C compared to the ratio observed in the solar wind.” (Nuth, J. A. et al., 2011)
The most apparent deficit in the Sun and in debris-disk material, however, may be the δ15N differences between presolar protoplanetary comets and CAIs condensed from solar-merger polar jets from the core, with canonical 26Al.
Most oxygen isotopes variations are only a few per mill (‰), but δ15N departures from terrestrial values are often measured in hundreds of per mille (tens of percent), with a solar difference of δ15N = -386 ‰ and cometary difference of δ15N ≈+800 ‰ for CN and HCN (Chaussidon et al. 2003). So 15N destruction must have been particularly efficient by way of two mechanisms, 15N(p,α)12C and 15N(p,γ)16O, known as the CN and the NO cycles respectively (Caciolli et al. 2011).
Deuterium will also have been destroyed in the solar merger, dramatically lowering the D/H ratio in the Sun and in debris-disk condensates, but the 2:1 difference in mass between H and D often makes fractionation more significant than the degree of depletion, making the D/H ratio a poor measure of the reservoir depletion.
AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs):
This section presents an alternative extraterrestrial formation ideology for the authigenic sedimentary formation of gneiss domes in the cores of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). Binary in-spiral merger of binary KBOs precipitates authigenic gneissic sediments in salt-water oceans under an icy crust which is subsequently lithified and metamorphosed as the ocean freezes solid, building pressure on the core. Perturbation of KBOs into the inner solar system cause extinction event impacts on Earth, with highly-compressible KBO ices clamping the Earth-impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of silicates, preserving KBO core rock and masking the impact signature as such.
In conventional geology, the supposed segregation of felsic and mafic minerals into leucosome, melanosome and mesosome layers by metamorphism of protolith rock to form migmatite gneiss is explained by the partial melting (anatexis) of lower-melting-point (primarily felsic) minerals and the extrusion of this melt down a “potential force gradient.” “The consensus today is that both in situ melt and externally derived melt are present in most migmatites (Kriegsman, 2001).” (Urtson, 2005) This means that adjacent layers alone can not explain the local enrichments and depletions of felsic and mafic layering, and so non-local externally-derived melt is needed for mass balance. In an aqueous planetesimal setting, adjacent felsic and mafic leucosomes and melanosomes have the entire Kuiper belt object (KBO) ocean to draw from. “Comingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas” is also suggested as an explanation for alternating felsic/mafic layers. (Sandeman et al., 2000)
Conventionally, gneiss domes are divided into two classes: fault related and fault unrelated. Larger gneiss-dome systems are divided into evenly spaced and unevenly spaced. Evenly spaced dome systems are considered to be instabilities caused by vertical-density or -viscosity contrast and horizontal loads, leading to buckling. Unevenly spaced dome systems are associated with fault development or “superposition of multiple deformational phases.” “In nature, gneiss domes are often produced by superposition of several dome-forming mechanisms. This has made determination of the dynamic cause of individual domes and dome systems exceedingly challenging.” (Yin, 2004)
Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability is a favored explanation for the formation of evenly-spaced gneiss domes which is sometimes called a fingering instability where a finger is theorized to spread into a mushroom cap to explain concentric layering in ellipsoid gneiss domes. RT instabilities, however, fail to explain the typical sedimentary basements: “In some, the lowest horizon of the mantle consists of basal conglomerate with boulders of the same gneiss that forms the dome; in others, the basement stratum is a layer of quartzite, above which follow dolomite and mica schist; and in still others, dolomite forms the basement.” (Eskola, 1948)
“The mantled domes apparently represent earlier granite intrusions related to a orogenic period. The plutonic mass was later eroded and levelled, and thereafter followed a period of sedimentation. During a subsequent orogenic cycle the pluton was mobilized anew and new granite magma was injected into the plutonic rock at the same time as it was deformed into gneiss, causing its migmatization and granitization, or palingenesis.”
Alternative solar system formation ideology:
The problem of planetesimal formation is a major unsolved problem in astronomy since meter-sized “boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a ‘head wind’ from the slower rotating gas” (Johansen et al., 2007).
This alternative ideology rejects pebble accretion in favor of gravitational instability (GI) for the formation of planetesimals. In protoplanetary disks or secondary debris disks GI is suggested to occur in the pressure dam at the inner edge of accretion disks around solitary or binary stars. Around solitary stars, the inner edge of the accretion disk is assumed to be sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius, while the inner edge of accretion disks around binary stars may be sculpted by the binary resonances. Heliocentric resonances associated with giant planets also form pressure dams which condense planetesimals, such as chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances.
The Jeans instability which formed our solar system is suggested to have undergone ‘flip-flop fragmentation’ w/bifurcation due to excess angular momentum, forming a quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, composed of binary-Sun and binary-Companion in a wide-binary separation orbiting the solar system barycenter (SSB). Secular perturbation caused binary-Sun to in-spiral and merge at 4,567 Ma, creating a ‘primary debris disk’ which condensed asteroids against the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius, near the orbit of Mercury, chondrites against Jupiter’s inner resonances and Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances, principally the 2:3 resonance. Continued secular perturbation caused binary-Companion to spiral in over the next 4 billion years until the binary brown-dwarf components merged at 542 Ma, in an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. Cold classical KBOs condensed from this ‘secondary debris disk’, including the geologically-young Pluto system. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
Alternative Kuiper belt formation ideology:
This section focuses on the aqueous differentiation of the old (4,567 Ma) hot classical KBO population which condensed from the primary debris disk.
Following the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma, the Sun–binary-brown-dwarf triple system progressively perturbed KBOs by way of the SSB, which effectively spiraled out through the Kuiper belt (by Galilean relativity wrt the Sun) over the next 4 billion years. The potential energy of the in-spiraling binary brown-dwarf components of binary-Companion translated to increasing the wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation at apoapsis, causing the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB to become increasingly eccentric over time.
As the maximum Sun-Companion separation (at apoapsis) increased exponentially over time, the SSB can be said to have spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc by Galilean relativity over time, passing through the cubewanos from 3.8 – 4.1 Ga, causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and perturbing binary KBOs to spiral in and merge.
As the exponentially-increasing reach of the SSB at apoapsis nominally reached the semimajor axis of a KBO for the first time, it caused aphelion precession. While the SSB was closer to the Sun than the semimajor axis of a KBO, the aphelion of a KBO was pulled toward binary-Companion, but when the SSB nominally crossed the semimajor axis for the first time, the centrifugal force away from binary-Companion overcame the gravitational attraction toward binary-Companion, causing aphelia precession 180° away from binary-Companion in a process designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’. And once initiated, the eccentric Sun-Companion eccentricity around the SSB caused KBO aphelia precession twice per Sun-Companion period around the SSB until 542 Ma.
Binary KBOs resisted aphelia precession with the angular momentum (gyroscopic stability) of their binary orbits, but at the price of orbital angular mometum (transfer), causing binary KBO orbits to in-spiral until they merged, melting saltwater oceans in their cores in a process designated, ‘aqueous differentiation’.
In addition to causing in-spiral merger, the SSB perturbed primary debris disk KBOs from their ‘cold’ low-inclination low-eccentricity formational (in situ) orbits into ‘hot’, high-inclination, high-eccentricy peturbed orbits, some of which came under the influence of Neptune for the first time, allowing Neptune to either kick them into higher orbits or to cause them to spiral down into the inner solar system where they came under the influence of the other giant planets.
Finally, the loss of the Companion caused orbital upheaval in the solar system. With the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB at 542 Ma, all heliocentric objects fell into slightly shorter-period orbits with slightly-lower semimajor axes. Ironically, the former binary-Companion may have largely prevented the hot classical KBO popultion from coming under the gravitational influence of Neptune, due to the greater influence of the Companion and centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB, so with the loss of the Companion, the number of KBOs perturbed into the inner solar system in the Phanerozoic Eon by Neptune may have increased to levels not seen since the LHB. Our former binary-Companion may indeed have stabilized the KBOs prior to its hypothesized loss at 542 Ma. “Culler et al.  studied 179 spherules from 1 g of soil collected by the Apollo 14 astronauts, and found evidence for a decline in the meteoroid flux to the Moon from 3000 million years ago (Ma) to 500 Ma, followed by a fourfold increase in the cratering rate over the last 400 Ma.” (Levine et al., 2005) And the 400 Ma figure (vs. 542 Ma) may derive from the 400 million-year bin size used in the study.
Cold classical KBOs condensed from the young secondary debris disk, and are still in their cold, unperturbed, formational, (in situ) low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits. Presumably, only the old hot classical KBOs have been perturbed into the inner solar system to impact Earth, causing extinction events, so presumably no secondary debris disk KBOs have impacted Earth.
Aqueous differentiation of KBOs:
When binary planetesimals are induced to spiral in and merge, potential and kinetic energy is converted to heat, melting saltwater oceans in their cores. Dissolved nebular dust precipitates authigenic mineral grains that grow through crystallization until falling out of suspension at a characteristic mineral-grain size for the microgravity environment, forming authigenic sedimentary cores. Additionally, microbes may catalyze chemical reactions, greatly increasing the number and complexity of precipitated minerals.
The gravitational acceleration, and thus buoyancy in KBO saltwater oceans is also dependent on location within the planetesimal, ranging from zero at the gravitational center to a peak value some 2/3 of the way to the surface, so aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores should have the largest authigenic mineral-grain size in the center in migmatite, decreasing outward through gneissic sediments to the smallest mineral grains in the mantling rock covering authigenic gneiss-dome cores.
Leucosome/melanosome layering in migmatite/gneiss/schist:
The partial pressure of CO2 in trapped gas pockets between the saltwater ocean of the mantle and the overlying icy ceiling of the crust forces carbon dioxide into solution where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, lowering the pH.
A tectonic fracture in the icy crust, venting trapped gas to the surface would cause carbonic acid to flash into gaseous CO2, by nucleating on suspended mineral grains which the bubbles would float to the surface, creating a froth of CO2 foam at the ice-water boundary, like the effect of adding a spoonful of sugar to a carbonated drink. And the repetition of gradually rising CO2 partial pressure followed by its sudden venting would cause ‘sawtooth’ pH fluctuations over time.
The solubility of aluminum salts is particularly pH sensitive, so pressure overlying planetesimal oceans could indirectly control the reservoir of dissolved aluminous species in solution. Aluminous species solubility is U-shaped with respect to pH with an inflection point at about 6-1/2 pH (Driscoll and Schecher, 1990). A rise in pH from 3.5 to 6.5 would decrease the aluminous species solubility by a factor of more than 100,000, effectively dumping the entire reservoir of dissolved aluminous species, presumably precipitating out of solution in the form of feldspar mineral grains.
Silica solubility, by comparison, is particularly temperature sensitive, so quartz grains preferentially precipitate at the cold ice-water boundary where silica solubility is at a minimum. So with quartz precipitation at the ice-water boundary and catastrophically precipitated feldspar mineral grains floated to the surface by nucleating CO2 bubbles, the floating mass buoyed up by CO2 foam is suggested to have a felsic composition. And mineral grains would continue to grow by crystallization as long as they remain buoyantly trapped at the surface.
A frothy felsic mass at the ice-water ceiling, perhaps partially cemented by (slime) bacteria, may have a degree of mechanical competency, forming a cohesive floating mat. When the mat eventually becomes waterlogged by negative buoyancy, it sags and then finally sinks onto the more-mafic sedimentary core below. And the larger surface area at the ice-water boundary forces the felsic mat to crumple as it maps onto the smaller surface area of the core below, causing the felsic mat to bunch into disharmonic convolute folds (ptygmatic folds), forming ptygmatic folds in migmatite that often double back on themselves like alpine hairpin turns or layers of ribbon candy.
Authigenic Mineral-grain size:
A major difference between authigenic terrestrial sediments and authigenic planetesimal sediments is mineral grain size. On the surface of our high-gravity planet, precipitated authigenic mineral grains fall out of aqueous suspension at clay size to become sequestered in sedimentary layers which lithify into mudstone, but in the microgravity deep inside planetesimal oceans, microgravity dispersion apparently allow mineral grains to grow by crystallization to the size typically found in migmatite and gneiss before falling out of aqueous suspension (although in the case of granulite metamorphism, the mineral grains have typically recrystallized to that size during metamorphism). Felsic leucosome mineral grains can be significantly larger than the typical mafic mineral grain size, which indicate entrapment in buoyant flotsam at the ice-water ceiling where felsic grains can grow by crystallization out of proportion to their negative buoyancy. Gravitational acceleration increases from zero at the gravitational center to a maximum value part way between the core and the surface, so mineral grain sizes would tend to decrease over time from the inside out in sedimentary planetesimal cores, except for leucosomes and metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to prodigious size on surfaces exposed to hydrothermal fluids but protected from sedimentation.
‘Circumferential folding’ in metamorphic rock:
Lithification of gneissic sedimentary cores is the process of porosity destruction, forcing out the saltwater, shrinking the precipitated volume of the authigenic sedimentary core, forcing it to crumple in the process. This volume compaction dehydration of the sedimentary core undergoing lithification, decreases its volume and circumference of the core, causing ‘circumferential folding’ at all scales, like grapes dehydrating to form raisins.
Conventional geology suggests that metamorphism is caused by elevated pressure and temperature at great depth below Earth’s surface, with folding caused by shear forces. Actual folding of incompressible rock requires a void to fold into, which is essentially unavailable 10s of kilometers below the surface, which is why geologists may have a tendency to misrepresent sharp isoclinal folds in metamorphic rock as sheath folds, caused by shear forces they can rationalize. In a sedimentary setting, however, sediments surrounded by water can indeed fold by slumping, which densifies the sediments, effectively folding into the void of the water matrix by displacing the water.
An extraterrestrial KBO explanation of metamorphic folding suggests that folding primarily occurs prior to cementation of the mineral grains, as the hydrothermal fluids are forced out during the earliest ‘destruction of voids’ phase of lithification, so sharp isoclinal folds are generally caused by slumping of loose sediments not folding of lithified rock. But if so, then why does (metamorphic) folding only appear in metamorphic rock? The in-spiral merger which precipitates gneiss-dome sedimentary cores results in a lithifying sedimentary core surrounded by a saltwater ocean, which begins to freeze solid as the binary-merged KBO cools off, and the volume increase of the expansive freezing solid of the saltwater ocean supplies the tremendous pressure which ultimately metamorphoses the core.
Terrestrial tectonic folding:
Large-scale folding due to plate tectonics on Earth, typically forming orogenic synclines and anticlines, is easily explained by folding up into the void of the atmosphere, but tectonic folding on Earth’s surface can not create the sharp isoclinal folds seen in hand samples at a centimeter scale, so metamorphic folding at depth on a centimeter scale is problematic for conventional geology.
Millimeter-scale crenellation often seen in phyllite, sometimes called ‘overprinting’, is a very likely a secondary process which does indeed occur following lithification, presumably caused by a small degree of densification during progressive/regressive metamorphism. While overprinting in phyllite et al is likely mostly extraterrestrial, subsequent terrestrial overprinting during impact or in terrestrial tectonic events such as orogeny is not ruled out, but metamorphic overprinting does not create centimeter-scale isoclinal folds.
Gneiss-dome mantling rock; quartzite, carbonate rock and schist:
Gneiss domes are typically covered in mantling rock in a specific sequence of layers, with carbonate rock sandwiched between quartzite and schist, where the quartzite is in contact with basement gneiss, followed by carbonate rock (limestone, dolomite and/or marble), followed by schist.
Authigenic quartzite mantling rock often lies in direct contact with older underlying gneiss and this form of quartzite is assumed to be primarily composed of authigenic sand grains, which rain down in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents from the core. Silica solubility is strongly temperature dependent, so as the hot hydrothermal fluids pour into the cooler saltwater ocean, the plumes quickly become (super)saturated with silica, precipitating quartz mineral grains and crystallizing on grains in aqueous suspension that fall out of suspension in the vicinity of the hydrothermal vents at a characteristic sand-grain size. Phanerozoic quartzite is often riddled with Skolithos trace fossils, which are assumed to extraterrestrial tube worms which live off chemoautotroph bacterial plumes growing on the rich hydrothermal fluids gushing from the core.
Carbonate rock is presumed to precipitate during densification contraction of the KBO caused by warming expansion of the underlying saltwater ocean, which causes subduction of carbonate ice tectonic plates on the surface. Melting of carbon dioxide (dry) ice, carbon monoxide ice (and perhaps methane ice) supercharges the saltwater ocean with carbonates which precipitate calcium carbonates and magnesium carbonates, forming limestone, dolostone and marble.
Finally, schist forms as the ocean freezes solid as the freezing saltwater tends to exclude most solutes from the ice crystals, raising the solubility of the remaining dissolved mineral species to the (super)saturation point. So the dumping of the ocean solute load explains the high degree of variability of rock and mineral types in schist compared to other rock types.
Clastic conglomerate frosting over authigenic gneiss-dome:
The basement horizon of quartzite, carbonate rock and conglomerate in gneiss-dome mantles can only be explained in conventional geology with secondary ad hoc mechanisms, but in aqueous differentiation, the concentric layering of gneiss domes are merely sedimentary growth rings transitioning to hydrothermal sedimentation in the matling rock, putting authigenic sedimentary migmatite and gneiss on a similar footing as authigenic sedimentary quartzite, carbonate rock and schist mantling rock. And a conglomerate or graywacke cover over gneiss domes may merely represent grinding of the rocky core against the ice ceiling as the freezing saltwater ocean closes in on the core, creating a clastic frosting on authigenic sedimentary core. Often the conglomerate pebbles, cobbles and boulders in the frosting conglomerate are highly polished with an indurated (case-hardened) surface as freezing tends to reject dissolved minerals, creating a final spike in dissolved mineral species that deposit (plate out) on cobbles and pebbles, creating the case-hardening.
Terrestrial Grenville orogeny vs. extraterrestrial Appalachian KBO:
The supposed terrestrial Grenville orogeny is instead suggested to be a Mid Proterozoic spiral-in merger of the Appalachian KBO in the Kuiper belt, forming circa 1.3 Ga Baltimore gneiss dome, covered with Franklin Marble and Cockeysville Marble mantling rock. So the supposed 1250-980 Ma Grenville orogeny would have been caused by a Late Proterozoic freezing solid of the saltwater ocean. Then following the loss of the Companion at 542 Ma, Phanerozoic Cambrian perturbation by Neptune remelted the saltwater ocean, precipitating Phanerozoic (Cambrian and Ordovician) secondary mantling rock over the Proterozoic core, including Cambrian Chickies quartzite with Skolithos trace fossils, Ordovician carbonate rock of the Great (Appalachian) Limestone Valley, and presumed Ordovician Wissahickon schist.
Phanerozoic Eon gneiss domes:
Small Eocene age gneiss domes of the Aegean Sea (Greek islands) and Himalayan Gneiss Domes of Tajikistan and Nepal are suggested to be secondary Phanerozoic gneiss domes, formed during perturbation of the End-Eocene KBO, which impacted Southern Asia/Indian Ocean 33.9 million years ago, causing the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event.
Ice-compression clamping of shock-wave pressure in KBO-Earth impacts:
Work = force times change in distance, and similarly, Work = pressure times change in volume (W = PdV), so volatile ices that are significantly more compressible than silicates will absorb the vast majority of icy-body impact energy. With compressible ices clamping the impact shock-wave pressure clamped below the melting point of silicates, and perhaps also largely below shock-wave pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, perhaps only the perfectly-circular outline of icy-body impact basins telegraphs their impact origin.
The relative compressibility of ices is suggested to lower the specific impact power by extending the shock-wave duration through the rebound period of the compressed ices. If a rocky-iron impacts resemble the sharp blow of a ball peen hammer, forming bowl-shaped craters with melt rock and overturned target rock, icy-body impacts may resemble the compressive thud of a dead blow hammer, whose sustained rebound pressure depresses Earth’s crust into a perfectly-circular basin, but without blasting out a crater and melting and overturning the target rock, such as the perfectly-circular Nastapoka arc of Lower Hudson Bay. Additionally, terrestrial oceans or the 2-3 kilometer thick Laurentide ice sheet (in the case of a Nastapoka arc impact basin at the end of the last ice age) would provide an additional cushion.
So while rocky-iron impacts form impact craters, with melt rock, shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs, icy-body impacts are suggested to merely form perfectly-circular impact basins, with their circular impact signature susceptible to erasure over time on geologically-active Earth, particularly by tectonic distortion during the formation of supercontinents.
Eskola, Pentti Eelis, (1948), The problem of mantled gneiss, Feb. 1948 Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 104, 461-457
Sandeman, Clark, Scott and Malpas, (2000), The Kennack Gneiss of the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, SW England: commingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas accompanying Givetian continental incorporation of the Lizard ophiolite, Journal of the Geological Society; November 2000; v. 157; no. 6; p. 1227-1242
Yin, An, (2004), Gneiss domes and gneiss dome systems, Geological Society of America Special Paper 380
GNEISS-DOME QUARTZITE, CARBONATE ROCK, AND SCHIST MANTLING ROCK:
When external perturbation causes binary Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) to spiral in and merge, the merged KBOs undergo ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting saltwater oceans in their cores which precipitates primary authigenic gneissic sediments. This section examines the nature of the secondary authigenic mantling sediments overlying gneiss domes, typically quartzite, carbonate rock and schist.
Gneiss-dome mantling rock:
Gneiss domes are suggested to be the metamorphosed sedimentary cores of KBOs from the Kuiper belt, with aqueous differentiation generally initiated by binary in-spiral mergers of former binary KBOs. The binary in-spiral merger, in turn, is suggested to have been initiated by orbital perturbation of our former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun, chiefly by way of the solar system barycenter (SSB). (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
Primary gneiss-domes are typically mantled with authigenic sedimentary rock, typically laid down in the following order, gneiss>>quartzite>>carbonate rock>>schist. This order presumes a temporal as well as a spacial sequence; however, renewed orbital perturbation during the Phanerozoic Eon may have precipitated younger sequences, including Pherozoic gneiss domes, such as in the Eocene gneiss domes of Europe and Asia from the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea to Tajikistan and Nepal.
The brown-dwarf components of our former binary-Companion spiraled in to merge at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun, and its fossil imprint is still evident in the relative major-axis alignment of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP113, whose relative alignment is otherwise attributed to Planet Nine.
While the binary-Companion is suggested to have caused binary in-spiral mergers of binary KBOs by way of the SSB and their orbital perturbation into the inner solar system in the Precambrian Era, the uncoupling of KBOs from gravitational influence by the Companion has allowed many KBOs to fall under the influence of Neptune for the first time, boosting the bombardment of the inner solar system to levels, perhaps not seen since the end of the late heavy bombardment, around 3,800 Ma.
And subsequent perturbation by the giant planets beginning with Neptune causes tidal melting which at least forms secondary Phanerozoic mantling rock over a Precambrian basement rock, if not secondary Phanerozoic gneiss domes.
Quartzite mantling rock:
Primary quartzite mantling rock is often in contact with its gneiss-dome core, although secondary Phanerozoic quartzite may form over earlier primary mantling rock. The aqueous solubility of silica is particularly temperature sensitive, so authigenic sand grains are suggested to rain down in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents during lithification of the gneissic core, as hot hydrothermal plumes cool down in the overlying saltwater ocean, lowering the solubility of silica to (super)saturation. Authigenic quartz grains grow by crystallization until their negative buoyancy causes them to fall out of aqueous suspension, typically at sand grain size in the microgravity of internal KBO saltwater oceans. On Earth, authigenic mineral grains fall out of aqueous suspension at clay size, which is why larger mineral grain sizes haven’t been examined for an authigenic origin by conventional geology. Secondary Phanerozoic quartzite often contains Skolithos trace fossils, such as Cambrian Chickies Quartzite. Extraterrestrial Skolithos trace fossils are presumed to be related to the tube worm colonies that form around hydrothermal vents on Earth, presumably feeding on blooms of chemoautotroph bacteria fed by chemically-reduced hydrothermal fluids.
Carbonate mantling rock:
The middle layer of a typical gneiss-dome mantling sandwich is composed of carbonate rock in the form of limestone, dolostone or marble. Primary Proterozoic mantling rock is likely to been metamorphosed into marble, such as Franklin Marble and Cockeysville Marble in the Appalachian region, whereas secondary Phanerozoic carbonate rock is more likely to be limestone or dolostone. Carbonate rock is suggested to form during contractive densification phase of KBO differentiation, causing subduction of crustal tectonic ice plates. Subduction of carbonate ices supersaturates the saltwater ocean with carbonates, precipitating calcium and magnesium carbonates onto the core below in the form of limestone and dolostone. If the limestone is layered with schist, then the carbonate rock is presumed to be extraterrestrial, since limestone and dolostone can also form form on Earth, as in the Grand Canyon formations. The Ordovician limestone of the Great Limestone Valley in the Appalachian region is presumed to be extraterrestrial, with the Appalachian KBO presumably impacting around 443 Ma, causing the Ordovician-Silurian extinction event.
‘KBO-meteorwrongs’ in carbonate rock:
Orbital perturbation of large binary KBOs prior to their binary in-spiral merger may have ‘thermally differentiated’ their cores to form molten-iron inner cores with molten-basalt outer cores. Then during in-spiral merger, molten core material, designated ‘KBO meteorwrong’ material, may squirt into zero-gravity trajectories where it hardens in zero gravity and rains down onto the surface of the merged KBO. Subsequent ice tectonic subduction of surface ice during contractive densification of the KBO may spill KBO-meteorwrong material from the surface into carbonate sediments below. (See section, SIDEROPHILE-DEPLETED ‘KBO-METEORWRONGS’)
Schist mantling rock:
Authigenic schistose sediments are suggested to precipitate as the saltwater ocean freezes solid, forming the topmost and youngest mantling layer of gneiss domes. And again, Phanerozoic perturbation by the giant planets may precipitate secondary Phanerozoic schist. Freezing ice crystals tend to exclude dissolved solutes, raising the solubility of dissolved mineral species to their saturation point, precipitatiing authigenic schistic sediments. Schist can have felsic bands, similar to gneiss or migmatite, which presumably form during intermittent venting of trapped gas to outer space. Venting of trapped gas that lowers the partial pressure of CO2 over the saltwater ocean, causes carbonic acid to bubble out of solution as CO2, raising the pH toward neutral. And since dissolved aluminous mineral species have a trough shaped solubility wrt pH with a minimum solubility near 6-1/2, a rise in pH from acidic toward neutral would dump aluminous mineral species, typically as (aluminous) feldspars (see section, AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs)), tending to form intermittent light-colored bands of felsic leucosomes, within the darker-colored mafic mesosome, in the same way as banding in migmatite forms. Peter’s Creek Schist and Wissahickon Schist of the Appalachian region is mapped to be “Lower Paleozoic”, probably Ordovician, and presumably slightly younger than Ordovician carbonate rock of the Great Limestone Valley. The Mesozoic Newark Basin in New Jersey and Pennsylvania may be largely composed of eroded Ordovician schist, with smoky quartz in the Triassic/Jurassic Newark Basin conglomerate similar to the smoky quartz found in Wissahickon schist along Wissahickon Creek in Philadelphia.
Cap conglomerate mantling rock:
As the ice ceiling finally closes in on the sedimentary KBO core, the icy ceiling ice may grind on the core rock, forming a clastic ‘cap conglomerate’, over the authigenic sedimentary mantling rock. And cobbles may be ground to a smoother finish than occur in terrestrial streams on Earth.
Highly indurated quartzite cobbles, some with Skolithos trace fossils:
Some gneiss domes are capped with conglomerate, composed of polished cobbles, often composed of quartzite or clastic greywacke in the Appalachian region. And highly-indurated rind on cobble surfaces often take a higher polish than the underlying matrix would indicate. Cracking open an indurated quartzite cobble from the Appalachian region reveals a tough, hard, indurated (as though case-hardened) surface, with little or no porosity that takes a high polish and may or may not be considerably darker in coloration than the quartzite matrix. As the ocean freezes solid and the icy ceiling grinds on the core, forming sediments, pebbles, cobbles and boulders, polished with long tumbling and with surfaces indurated with saturated-mineral-species crystallization. So highly-polished cobbles, particularly with indurated surfaces are indicative of polishing in a microgravity environment, whereas long tumbling in terrestrial streams creates a rougher surface with coarser abrasions. On quartzite cobbles exhibiting Skolithos trace fossils, the traces are often dimpled inward, indicating the reduced matrix strength of faunal organic contamination. Finally the ocean freezes solid, trapping indurated, polished cobbles in a clastic matrix, sometimes forming a clastic (conglomerate) outer layer on mantled gneiss-dome cores.
Euhedral garnets in schist:
Euhedral almandine garnets in schist often exhibit a round dodecahedron crystal shape and are often many order of magnitude larger than the next-largest authigenic mineral grains. Their distinctly rounded shapes suggest authigenic crystallization while trapped by the Bernoulli effect of hydrothermal vent plumes in the low gravity saltwater oceans of KBOs, like the phenomena of a balloon stably trapped in the vertical air column over a fan blowing straight up. Many euhedral mineral crystals are flat, needle like, blade like or elongated–all shapes which might not remain trapped for long by the Bernoulli effect due to their asymmetries, although large cross-shaped staurolite crystals are not uncommon in schist.
Hydrothermal vent chimney structure?:
Northwest Philadelphia in the Wissahickon schist terrain is notable for its striated quartz rocks in the Wissahickon schist terrain, where the lengthwise exterior striations are often ropy or sinewy, resembling petrified wood.
Striated quartz tends to fracture longitudinally, parallel to the striations, unlike massive quartzite, suggesting a different formation mechanism from quartzite mantling rock. If quartzite mantling rock is deposited by precipitation in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents, then a similar formation mechanism may be invoked in subsequent schist mantling rock, with, perhaps, the striated difference attributable to a chimney structure growing up around the hydrothermal vent, similar to more mafic chimney structures that grow around hydrothermal vents on Earth. And indeed, euhedral garnets often adorn striated quartz, tying in the hydrothermal connection.
So the growth of chimney structures above the sedimentary core, would provide a degree of protection from smothering by sedimentation, allowing for a degree of striated crystallization in addition to sand grain sedimentation, forming a hybrid structure somewhere between that of quartzite and microcrystalline chert.
The best exposure of striated quartz in the Philadelphia Area is in the creek bed that runs along the south side of W. Bells Mill Rd. in Philadelphia (40.078 -75.227).
Pegmatites in schist:
Pegmatites in schist often contain large sheets of common mica, sometimes with single crystal size of several square centimeters in area. Common mica (muscovite) clumps generally found ‘growing’ out of a bed of quartz crystals, and the quartz and mica pegmatation is often accompanied by still-larger masses of euhedral feldspar crystals. If pegmatite formation is primary, occurring at the same time as schistose sedimentation (rather than secondary as in metasomatism within protected fissures), then it requires protection from burial by sedimentation, perhaps such as crystallization on the icy ceiling or other protected areas. If chimney structures with euhedral garnets form around hydrothermal vents, as suggested, perhaps pegmatite crystallization without garnets occurs on the ceiling above hydrothermal vents. Tacony Creek at Rising Sun Ave. has a good exposure of pegmatite in the Wissahickon Formation in Philadelphia, where kilogram-scale blocks of feldspar crystals are common, along with sheets of muscovite up to 10’s of square centimeters in area, embedded in large masses of quartz crystals.
ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL:
This section suggests an icy-body impact origin for long-chain hydrocarbon reservoirs on Earth, formed in endothermic chemical reactions of carbon ices in impact shock waves.
Energy absorption of compressible ices in icy-body impacts:
Work = force times change in distance, and similarly, Work = pressure times change in volume (W = PdV), so ices that are significantly more compressible than silicates will absorb the vast majority of icy-body impact energy which may (largely) clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target rock and largely below pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, masking icy-body impact structures from identification as such. Thus the relative compressibility of ices is suggested to clamp the impact power of icy-body impacts by extending its duration through the rebound period of the compressed ices.
Super-high shock-wave pressures are suggested to endothermically convert short-chain hydrocarbons (ethane, methane ices and perhaps carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as well) into long-chain hydrocarbons. The high mobility of hydrogen ions may largely scavenge liberated chalcogens and halogens, helping to protect endothermic hydrocarbons from burning during shock-wave rebound. Experimentally, methane converts to long alkane chains and free hydrogen at 60 GPa and 4509 K (Li, Zhang et al., 2011).
Impact induced super-tsunami debris flows are suggested to bulldoze forests before it, forming debris mounds littered with floral debris that internally differentiates into a multiplicity of coal-seam cyclothems in which clastic sediments sink to form basement ‘ganister’ or ‘seatearth’. The lower-density hydrocarbons rise to form hydrocarbon deposits which may terrestrially metamorphose into coal seams. Subsequent slumping (reworking) of debris mounds may form coal seams of apparent younger age, blurring bright line nature of catastrophic impact events.
Rocky-iron impact craters vs. icy-body impact basins:
The clamped shock-wave pressure of icy body impacts, lowers the power by extending its duration during the subsequent rebound of the compressed ices, which may provide time for the deformation of the Earth’s crust into a basin, suggesting an impact origin for many round basins on Earth, such as the 450 km Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay. Additionally, an extended shock wave pressure may tend to clamp fractured target rock in place, largely preventing its (overturn) excavation into bowl-shaped craters, along with mixing to form polymict breccia. Icy-body impact basins may resemble the muted blow of a dead-blow hammer compared to rocky-iron impact craters which may resemble the sharp blow of a ball-peen hammer.
Li, Dafang, Zhang, Ping & Yan, Jun, (2011), Quantum molecular dynamics simulations for the nonmetal-metal transition in shocked methane, Condensed Matter Materials Science, 24 March 2011, arXiv:1012.4888v2
(‘KUIPER BELT OBJECT METEORWRONGS’ FORMED DURING IN-SPIRAL MERGERS OF BINARY KBOs)
This section discusses a common class of siderophile-depleted (low-nickel, lacking iridium) ‘Kuiper belt object meteorwrongs’ (KBO-meteorwrongs) that frequently contain metallic-iron inclusions within a formerly-molten basaltic matrix. In-spiral merger of binary KBO minor planets with siderophile-depleted molten-metallic-iron cores squirt molten iron and molten basaltic material from (presumably) polar jets emanating from the merging cores. The molten core material clumps by surface tension, forming millimeter-to-meter-scale metallic-iron inclusions in basaltic matrix that cools and hardens in zero-gravity trajectories. Additionally, the in-spiral merger of binary KBOs sublimes volatile ices, creating a temporary atmosphere that ablates KBO-meteorwrongs during high-velocity re-entry, imparting fusion crust, sometimes with flow lines. And in-spiral-merger causes ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting salt-water oceans that precipitate authigenic sediments, precipitating a sedimentary core composed of gneissic sediments. Ice tectonics at the surface causes (carbonate ice) iceberg subduction which precipitates carbonate sediments over authigenic gneissic sediments and dumps KBO-meteorwrongs from the surface into the carbonate sediments. Finally, schistic mantling sediments precipitate out of solution as the ocean freezes solid, while expansive freezing building pressure on the core, causing lithification, diagenesis and metamorphism, forming a gneiss dome core mantled with carbonate rock and schist. Finally, KBOs that subsequently come come under the influence of the giant planets may be induced to spiral in to the inner solar system where they may collide with Earth in extinction-level impacts, contributing their core rock to the continental tectonic plates.
Primary and secondary debris disks:
KBOs of the Kuiper belt are suggested to have ‘condensed’ in-situ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from two separate debris disks separated by 4 billion years:
1) from a 4,567 Ma old ‘primary debris disk’, and
2) from a 542 Ma young ‘secondary debris disk’.
The old primary debris disk formed from the ashes of the in-spiral merger of our former ‘binary-Sun’, and the young secondary debris disk formed from the ashes of the in-spiral merger of our former ‘binary-Companion’. (Where the asymmetrical nature of the in-spiral merger explosion of former binary-Companion gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun.)
The 4 billion year (4,567 Ma to 542 Ma) spiral in of the former binary-Companion brown-dwarf components caused an exponential increase in the Sun-Companion apoapsis over time, causing the ‘solar system barycenter’ (SSB) to effectively spiral out through the Kuiper belt over time (by Galilean relativity with respect to the Sun), perturbing KBOs it overtook their semimajor axes. Perturbation of binary KBOs by the SSB caused their binary components to spiral in and merge. Then the SSB perturbed merged KBOs from (cold) low-inclination low-eccentricity formational orbits into ‘hot classical KBOs’, with high-inclination high-eccentricity orbits. Finally, many KBOs were also perturbed into the inner solar system by the SSB, particularly as the SSB plowed through the densest concentration of classical KBOs, orbiting between the 2:3 resonance with Neptune and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune from 4.1 to 3.8 Ga, causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB).
After the SSB reached the 1:2 resonance with Neptune by about 3,800 Ma, early in the Archean Eon, the concentration of KBOs perturbed into the inner solar system fell off sharply; however, the rocky KBO cores from after the LHB are much better represented in the existing continental rock record on Earth.
With the loss of the Companion and the SSB at 542 Ma, the ‘young’ Plutinos (including Pluto) and ‘cold classical KBO’ population condensed in situ from the secondary debris disk where they remain to this day in their unperturbed low-inclination low-eccentricity formational orbits. Since the secondary-debris-disk cold classical KBOs remain unperturbed, few if any have been perturbed into the inner solar system, and presumably no secondary debris disk KBOs have impacted Earth.
(See section: STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
Siderophile depletion in KBOs:
The 4,567 Ma primary debris ring in the Kuiper belt formed from the stellar-merger luminous red nova (LRN), where the LRN was essentially a transitory red giant phase of the Sun. The spiral-in merger of binary stars is suggested to form a high angular momentum envelope as the cores shed mass into the envelope, enabling them to to spiral in within the ‘common envelope phase’ of the binary merger, but the cores never meet! Instead, the cores shed mass into the envelope until the envelope becomes more massive than the cores themselves, at which point the system becomes unstable, promoting disk (envelope) instability, breaking the radial symmetry of the disk. Disk instability causes the more massive envelope to clump, forming a new center which inertially hurls the former twin cores into high satellite orbits, forming the twin ‘merger planets’ proto-Venus and proto-Earth in our own solar system. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
So if the stellar cores never meet there’s no explosion. Instead, there’s an implosion (gravitational collapse) of the envelope which creates the red giant phase expansion, known as the LRN. So the LRN is an expansion of the stellar atmosphere into a red giant phase by a transient increase on the order of a million fold, which apparently reached beyond the orbit of Neptune. But because the merger was an expansion supported by a luminosity increase rather than an explosion driven by kinetic energy, the most reactive elements reacted and the most refractory elements and compounds condensed into dust before the expansion reached Neptune. And condensed refractory dust tended to infall (by sedimentation) halting its outward expansion, such that the red giant expansion became increasingly siderophile depleted with distance, where most of the tungsten, aluminum, iridium, platinum, gold etc. had condensed in the inner solar system and never reached Neptune.
In-spiral mergers of binary stars are thought to be the origin of ‘luminous red novae’ (LRNe), where LRNe typically exhibit luminosity between that of novae and supernovae. The red giant phase of the 2006 luminous red nova M85OT2006-1 would have reached the Kuiper Belt in our solar system, with a calculated radius of Rs = 2.0 +.6-.4 x 104 (solar radii), a peak luminosity of about 5 x 106 solar (5 million times the luminosity of the Sun) and a black body temperature of 950 +/- 150 K. (Rau et. al. 2007)
The ‘50% condensation temperature’ is the temperature at which 50% of an element will condense from a vapor state to a solid state at a pressure of 10−4 bar. The 50% condensation temperature of nickel and iron are nearly identical, with both considered moderately-refractory elements, nickel: 1348 K and iron: 1328 K (Lodders 2003 Table 8), so why are KBO-meteorwrongs nickel depleted? Perhaps in part because iron is more chemically reactive than nickel (as well as being 17 times more abundant), such that a much-larger percentage of iron had reacted to form iron oxide than nickel to form nickel oxide, with oxides having a lower condensation temperature, and indeed magnetite has a particularly-low condensation temperature of only 371 K, less than 200 K above that of water ice, at 182 K (Lodders 2003 Table 7).
But calcium is a particularly refractory element and also highly reactive, with calcium oxide also having a particularly-high condensation temperature, so how could KBO-meteorwrongs be so calcium enriched? Indeed, highly-refractory CAI (Calcium-aluminum) inclusions are well represented in the inner solar system chondrites, but what if a large percentage of the alkali and alkaline metals had reacted with hydrogen, such as calcium hydride (CaH2) with a melting point (not condensation temperature) of 1,089 K, which is far below the 2,886 K melting point of calcium oxide.
Debris ring formation from a red giant precursor with essentially zero specific angular momentum requires input from the giant planets, in the case of chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s inner resonance and KBOs condensed against Neptune’s outer resonances. Asteroids also condensed against the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius near the orbit of Mercury, with the Sun’s magnetic field supplying the angular momentum. The super-intense stellar-merger magnetic field is suggested to have temporarily pushed the Sun’s ‘magnetic corotation radius’ out as far as Mercury. And indeed, Mercury is suggested to have formed by ‘hybrid accretion’ of asteroids condensed by gravitational instability (hence hybrid) against that magnetic backstop.
KBO-meteorwrongs formed during in-spiral mergers of binary KBOs:
Large (binary) KBOs apparently succumbed to ‘thermal differentiation’ from perturbation by the former SSB catching up with their semimajor axes, forming molten-iron inner cores surrounded by lower-density molten basaltic outer cores. Presumably differential gravity of the Companion and the centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB (acting through the SSB) caused subsidence events (KBO quakes), which converted potential energy to heat.
Then during subsequent binary in-spiral merger, molten core material was forced out, presumably in high-velocity polar jets into suborbital trajectories. Surface tension dictated the scale of masses which hardened in zero-gravity trajectories, likely with a power law governing the distribution of sizes, presumably skewed toward low-mass granular material on a millimeter scale. Surface tension is generally greater between like objects, causing metallic-iron blebs to have tended to merge like droplets of mercury into larger blebs, even when surrounded on all sides by molten basaltic slag.
The hardened KBO-meteorwrong material rained back down on the newly-merged contact-binary KBO, initially spinning at a maximum-possible rotation rate through a transient sublimed-ice atmosphere. And the high-velocity re-entry added to the high-velocity rotation rate of the atmosphere itself created an ablative fusion crust on exposed surfaces of KBO-meteorwrongs, sometimes exhibiting flow lines typical of asteroid-origin meteorites having undergone ablation in Earth’s atmosphere.
While core material squirted from polar jets would have comparatively-little angular momentum, the equatorial explosion would carry significantly more angular momentum, perhaps explaining the rings around two large centaur minor planets (10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron), which orbit with semimajor axes between those of the outer planets. Centaurs have dynamic lifetimes of a few million years, since the giant planet resonances overlap, except for Neptune’s outer resonances and Jupiter’s inner resonances, so Centaurs are doomed to either spiral in to the inner solar system or be thrown out of the solar system in a relatively-short time frame. Presumably, KBO impacts that caused the major extinction events on Earth transitioned into the inner solar system by way of centaurs, and presumably some of the present centaur population will spiral down into the inner solar system as well.
Saturn-like rings around centaur minor planets suggests several things;
1) A history of binary in-spiral merger, throwing surface material into ring orbits,
2) Persistence of rings following binary merger suggests the presence of shepherd moons to protect the rings from rapid disbursal, and
3) Binary in-spiral merger itself may impart an asymmetrical kick to a merging binary KBO, throwing it into a disturbed orbit which comes under the influence of Neptune.
KBO-meteorwrongs in carbonate rock:
The in-spiral merger of binary KBOs is suggested to form authigenic gneiss dome cores mantled by;
2) carbonate rock (limestone, marble, and dolomite), and
in that order.
Typically, the first mantling layer over a gneiss dome is authigenic quartzite, which is assumed to form in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents during lithification of the underlying authigenic gneissic sediments, as the hot hydrothermal fluids gush into the cool overlying saltwater ocean, raising the dissolved silica concentration to (super)saturation. Saturated silica precipitates quartz crystals which continue to grow by crystallization until typically reaching sand grain size when they fall out of suspension in the vicinity of their hydrothermal vent. Mineral grain size is governed by the local circulation rate of the saltwater ocean as well as the local gravitational acceleration and the density of the mineral-laden saltwater, so while clay-size authigenic mineral grains typically fall out of suspension on Earth, sand grains are the most typical mineral grain size in KBO minor planet oceans. Skolithos trace fossils in [Chickies] quartzite are assumed to be the trace-fossil remains of tube worm structures, presumably living on chemoautotroph bacteria gushing from the hydrothermal vents.
2) Carbonate rock:
The middle mantling layer is carbonate rock. Carbonates have a negative temperature solubility curve, causing carbonates to become less soluble with increasing temperature; however, the overriding cause of carbonate sedimentation in gneiss-dome mantles may be sublimation of carbonate ices during ice-tectonic subduction, raising carbonic acid to (super)saturation. So ice tectonics at the surface may cause the transition from quartzite to carbonate rock sedimentation in gneiss-dome mantling rock. And tectonic subduction dumps KBO-meteorwrong material into the precipitating carbonate sediments, explaining why KBO-meteorwrongs are invariably found in (extraterrestrial) carbonate rock. Finally the dumping of KBO-meteorwrong material by ice-tectonic subduction into carbonate sediments is exceedingly variable, occasionally forming local super concentrations of KBO meteorwrong material.
Schist precipitates as the overlying ocean freezes solid and the freezing water excludes solutes, forcing dissolved mineral species to the saturation point, precipitating a striking range of mineral grains, rock types and pegmatite crystallization. And since water expands when freezing, the solidification of the saltwater ocean builds tremendous pressure on the core, causing prograde metamorphism, which can transform gneiss to granulite or eclogite, sandstone to quartzite and limestone to marble.
The Appalachian region is suggested to be a KBO core, with a Proterozoic gneiss dome basement and Paleozoic (Cambrian and Ordovician) quartzite and carbonate rock frosting. While carbonate rock can be terrestrial or extraterrestrial, schist is presumed to be entirely extraterrestrial, so a presumed Ordovician age for Wissahickon schist puts the likely Earth impact timing at End Ordovician, presumably causing the 443 Ma Ordovician-Silurian extinction event. Thus all the Ordovician rock of the Great Limestone Valley of the Appalachians should be extraterrestrial, and thus good hunting ground for KBO-meteorwrongs. And presumably terrestrial Silurian rock may blanket KBO-meteorwrong material from surface tectonic ice which survived the Earth impact at 443 Ma.
An End Ordovician impact ideology for Appalachian rock older than the Silurian Period runs afoul of the Grenville Orogeny, however. So alternatively, the metamorphism attributed to the Grenville Orogeny is suggested to have occurred during the Proterozoic freezing over of the Appalachian KBO saltwater ocean. Then the more recent addition of next-generation Proterozoic mantling rock occurred when the Appalachian KBO fell under the influence of Neptune, following the loss of the Companion at 542 Ma, initiating giant planet perturbation that caused internal melting that formed a new saltwater ocean and also caused the Appalachian KBO to spiral down into the inner solar system by way of becoming a centaur minor planet.
Physical characteristics of KBO-meteorwrongs:
The size of metallic iron ‘blebs’ suspended within basaltic matrix material in KBO-meteorwrongs suggests that the polar jets from the core were both molten and lumpy/clumpy, unlike the suggested plasma polar jets emanating from the suggested 4,567 Ma in-spiral merger of binary-Sun, which condensed calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs) from a vapor state (imparting canonical stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis aluminum-26 concentrations from the core). And since polar jets contain comparatively-little angular momentum, hardened rock and iron that failed to attain escape velocity would rain back onto their host KBO. And freefall conditions would create a zero-gravity environment, promoting the melding of molten metallic iron like blobs of mercury merging together. Rotation (angular momentum) of molten masses in freefall trajectories (like a spinning bullet out of a rifled gun barrel), however, would impart a degree of centrifugal buoyancy, tending to sling the denser metallic iron to the surface of rotating ‘pillow lava’ like masses, so rotational inertia may have caused a degree of density differentiation even in zero-gravity freefall.
The occurrence of millimeter- to centimeter-scale rounded metallic-iron blebs within a basaltic matrix with a density ratio approaching 2.5:1, apparently having cooled from a molten state, is the best argument against formation on the surface of our high-gravity planet, either naturally or in an industrial setting, such as blast-furnace slag. An examination of glassy slag from two historic iron furnaces in Pennsylvania reveals that the suspended metallic-iron spherule size is microscopic and thus many base-10 orders of magnitude smaller than those in KBO-meteorwrongs. And high-viscosity quasi-molten iron-furnace slag that barely melted can not explain the suspension of metallic iron blebs, since iron melts at several hundred Kelvins higher than basalt, and the suspended iron spherules and blebs are spherical or rounded from melting. Finally, terrestrial mafic gabbro (basaltic lava) is well known to have lower viscosity than felsic granite magma. Basalt melting point: 984 to 1200 °C, iron melting point: 1538 °C. Basalt density: 3.0 g/ml, iron density: 7.87 g/ml.
Centimeter-scale metallic-iron inclusions in basaltic matrix exhibit rounded perimeters, with smaller millimeter-scale inclusions tending to be perfectly round, pointing to cooling from a molten state, whereas the metallic iron inclusions in brecciated rocky-iron meteorites typically exhibit sharp edges, from having been shattered at high-energy in low-temperature asteroid collisions.
The metallic iron in KBO-meteorwrongs does not exhibit Widmanstätten patterns, typical of iron-nickel meteorites that cooled slowly in the cores of large asteroids. The absence of Widmanstätten patterns in KBO-meteorwrongs is due to both rapid cooling and an insufficient nickel concentration to form the iron-nickel solid-solution phases which create Widmanstätten patterns.
KBO-meteorwrongs frequently contain steam voids, like those in terrestrial basaltic rock, whereas voids are uncommon in inner solar system chondrites and asteroidal meteorites.
Carbonate rock cement-like coating and surface inclusions of carbonate rock:
A common characteristic feature of KBO-meteorwrongs is a whitish cement-like coating which fizzes on exposure to vinegar, revealing its carbonate mineral-grain composition and origin. This whitish cement-like coating was presumably inherited from KBO carbonate-rock sediments into which KBO-meteorwrong material fell from the surface during ice plate subduction caused by ice-plate tectonics. Alternatively, the whitish cement-like coating could be a form of electroplating on the surface caused by differing electronegativity, or a growth related to the decomposition (oxidation and hydrolysis) of basaltic minerals, but the brown/gray basaltic matrix material of KBO-meteorwrongs itself is highly inert and does not react with vinegar. While the whitish cement-like coating may be a somewhat suspect connection with its suggested carbonate-rock origin, a few KBO-meteorwrongs exhibit surface inclusions of carbonate-rock chips that also fizz on exposure to vinegar, but no internal inclusions of carbonate rock have been found to date. KBO-meteorwrongs naturally eroded from carbonate rock by rivers and streams often only exhibit cement-like coating in voids that are somewhat protected from abrasion. Regardless of its origin, whitish cement-like coating composed of carbonate mineral grains appears to be a positive indicator of KBO-meteorwrongs.
Fractured pie-shaped sections of pillow-lava-like masses:
In Phoenixville, PA, a surprising number of KBO-meteorwrongs (mined for their iron content) appear to be thick, fractured pie-shaped sections, possessing a single rounded unfractured surface, as though broken from larger rounded pillow-lava-like masses. The rounding is typically more pronounced in two dimensions, however, like a section of a cheese wheel, suggesting that the third dimension may be truncated by the centrifugal force of rotation in zero gravity. The ubiquitous fracturing into pie-shaped sections presumably occurred upon re-entry impact with its host KBO, presumably prior to cooling to its ultimate toughness.
Fusion crust, some with flow lines:
Fusion crust with flow lines points to high-velocity ablative re-entry through a transient atmosphere caused by the binary-in-spiral merger sublimation (out gassing) of volatile ices. Fusion crust may sometimes be difficult to discern from a glassy coating on a formerly molten exterior surface of KBO-meteorwrongs, but it shows up distinctly on rough fractured surfaces, presumably fractured by expansive steam voids along in combination with differential cooling rates, while still in their polar-jet trajectories prior to or during ablative re-entry. Rough brown fractured surfaces are glazed with a vanishingly-thin jet-black glassy fusion crust, as though exposed to a blow torch, whereas an industrial blast-furnace process has no comparable means of imparting a fusion-like crust to industrial slag. Additionally, some KBO-meteorwrong fusion crust is accompanied by flow lines imparted by supersonic ablation, which is common on asteroidal meteorites. And again, there’s no industrial blast-furnace counterpart for imparting flow lines. Additionally, exposed KBO-meteorwrong material on the surface of the Appalachian KBO (which was not subducted into carbonate rock) which traveled through Earth’s atmosphere at End Ordovician may have acquired a secondary terrestrial fusion crust, but these loose KBO-meteorwrongs would have been exposed to Earth’s elements prior to presumed burial beneath terrestrial Silurian rock, and so much of any terrestrial fusion crust would have had exposure to Earth’s elements prior to burial and would tend to be ‘one side only’, that is the outside surface exposed to Earth’s atmosphere during the several second ablation.
Secondary metasomatic magnetite:
Chunks of massive magnetite are often associated with super concentrations of commercially-mined KBO-meteorwrong material, presumably mined for its associated magnetite for smelting by the iron industry. The magnetite is assumed to be a secondary metasomatic byproduct of the primary KBO-meteorwrong material, formed either in the KBO carbonate sediments prior to lithification, or subsequently on Earth, presumably forming within fractures in lithified carbonate rock. Some of the more siliceous magnetite is riddled with unusual trace fossils that suggest formation on a KBO underwater surface, rather than deep within carbonate rock fissures and fractures on Earth, and if Cambrian Chickies quartzite Skolithos fossils are extraterrestrial, then perhaps the secondary magnetite trace fossils are extraterrestrial as well, perhaps feeding on chemoautotroph bacteria that thrived on the reduced oxidative state of metallic iron and other elements and minerals in reduced oxidative states. Additionally, much of the secondary magnetite has whitish, cement-like carbonate-mineral-grain coating like primary KBO-meteorwrongs, so presumably both acquired the coating at the same time by the same process. Secondary metasomatic magnetite is suggested to have been valuable to the early iron industry as a source of iron ore, whereas the primary basaltic matrix, along with its metallic-iron component, is suggested to have been too laced with embrittling contaminants for use by the iron industry. Thus the mining of secondary magnetite put primary KBO-meteorwrong material into the waste stream along with iron-furnace slag.
Centrifugal differentiation and/or ablative deceleration in zero-gravity trajectories:
Rotational acceleration during cooling in zero-gravity trajectory may have turned chunks of molten pillow lava (shaped like cheese wheels) into mini centrifuges, spinning denser metallic iron to the perimeter, perhaps causing a small degree of buoyancy differentiation (iron-basaltic matrix segregation) in zero-gravity trajectories. Additionally, ablative deceleration during re-entry through a transient KBO outgassing atmosphere might also impart a small degree of buoyancy in KBO-meteorwrong masses. And since the melting point of iron is at least several hundred Kelvins higher than the melting point of the basaltic matrix, the differentiation process could continue long after the iron had solidified, which may be responsible for creating the typical nodular composition of much of the metallic iron in KBO-meteorwrongs. The largest mass of metallic iron discovered to date must have been at least 100 kg, but much of the iron-basalt differentiation was likely due to the inherent lumpiness of the molten core material squirting from the in-spiral merger. And perhaps internal steam voids that increased the overall surface area also increased the cohesive surface tension holding large meter-scale masses together.
Natural KBO origin vs. Industrial iron-furnace origin:
Many properties of KBO-meteorwrongs are at odds with the well-understood properties of rocky-iron asteroids and carbonaceous chondrites from the asteroid belt, and these differences conspire against an extraterrestrial interpretation, despite the suspension of centimeter-scale metallic-iron blebs in a basaltic matrix that couldn’t have cooled from a molten state on the surface of a high-gravity planet.
Low nickel, low PGE:
Low nickel content is the death knoll of suspected meteorites, instantly halting further analysis that might support an extraterrestrial origin or at least preclude an industrial origin, such as date testing. A mass spec analysis of nickel in a KBO-meteorwrong sample (tested by Actlabs in Canada) measured only 2.1% nickel in a metallic iron bleb, with no iridium down to 2 ppb in the basaltic component.
Fusion crust with flow lines:
Pluto meteorwrongs often exhibit vanishingly-thin fusion crust, which is generally-glassy and often jet black. Iron furnace slag, by comparison, sometimes forms a thick layer of slag glass on the top surface, which is not easily mistaken for vanishingly-thin fusion crust. And the vanishingly-thin jet-black fusion crust often appears to smooth surfaces fractured in trajectory prior to ablative re-entry, which would require remelting (as with a blow torch) in an industrial setting after cooling and fracturing to expose a rough surface.
Relationship to the early iron industry:
The discovery of local super concentrations of KBO-meteorwrong material in carbonate rock formations may have been dismissed by mining engineers and geologists as inefficiently-processed colonial iron-furnace slag dumped into sink holes which filled large underground caverns. Once discovered, local super concentrations of KBO-meteorwrong material were likely mined for its associated, secondary metasomatic magnetite used in iron smelting in blast furnaces. Additionally, a small amount of KBO-meteorwrong native iron may have been melted (versus smelted) in secondary ad hoc furnaces for undemanding applications where embrittling contaminants are not a drawback, such as window sash counterweights, since melting native iron directly requires considerably less energy than chemically reducing iron oxide to its metallic form. Indeed broken pieces of window sash counterweights and broken chunks of cast iron plates are strewn along the West bank of the Schuylkill River in West Conshohocken, PA. The slag from ad hoc secondary furnaces, often infused with chunks of fire brick, were discarded in the waste stream along with KBO-meteorwrong material, muddying already murky waters in favor of a natural origin. Ruins of several small cottage-industry-sized iron furnaces can be found along the East shore of the Schuylkill River in Conshohocken (proper). In one small failed iron furnace, several cubic feet of iron froze solid before it could be extracted (40.0747, -75.2845), and a small 4 foot diameter Bessemer-style iron furnace is moldering nearby (40.0746, -75.283). Ruins of a third, larger furnace have been pushed into Plymouth Creek (40.077, -75.3125), about a mile due west of the other two furnaces. KBO-meteorwrong material is used as clean fill on paths in local parks in Conshohocken as well as in Valley Forge National Historical Park, and a small amount was used for railroad ‘track ballast’ in Conshohocken. Finally, the high calcium oxide percentage in the basaltic component of KBO-meteorwrong material (assayed at 20%) is similar to the calcium oxide percentage in limestone/dolomite-fluxed iron-furnace slag.
Carbonate rock inclusions:
Some basaltic and metallic-iron KBO-meteorwrong material contains surface inclusions of carbonate rock which fizz when subjected to vinegar, whereas carbonate rock used as a fluxing agent should have entirely melted into the slag component, rather than remaining pristine as observed. While iron furnace slag sometimes contains floating chunks of refractory coal or coke, it doesn’t contain carbonate rock chips, and conversely, KBO-meteorwrongs don’t contain floating chunks of coal or coke.
Bizarre 3-D shapes:
Small hand-sample-sized KBO-meteorwrongs with smooth rounded (formerly-molten) polished surfaces often exhibit 3-dimensional configurations that could only be formed by casting industrial slag into that shape in a polished mold. KBO-meteorwrong native iron also often exhibits a 3-dimensional shapes that could have only formed by casting in an industrial setting. Additionally, since manufacturing efficiency is enhanced through process and product uniformity, the wide variety of sizes and shapes (many fractal) of metallic iron and basaltic material argues for a natural origin.
Whitish cement-like coating:
The whitish cement-like (carbonate rock) coating covers many KBO-meteorwrongs and secondary metasomatic magnetite, but is not found on known industrial blast-furnace slag (devoid of macroscopic metallic-iron inclusions, and is also not found on even-older bloomery slag.
Economic argument against an industrial origin:
The significant percentage of metallic iron in KBO-meteorwrongs also argues against an industrial origin. In the years before charcoal was replaced by coke as a fuel for iron smelting, iron furnace fuel was particularly dear, heightening the rewards for efficiency prior to the introduction of lower priced coke derived from coal. A batch of iron-furnace charcoal required twenty-five to fifty cords of split hardwood (quickly denuding woods adjacent to iron furnaces), and the roasting hardwood batches had to be tended around the clock for 10 to 14 days by ‘colliers’ in large charcoal pits, making charcoal production for iron furnaces an industry unto itself. When coke arrived, it was as close as the nearest railroad; however, earlier charcoal had to be hauled in from the hills by horse cart from ever increasing distances as the lowlands quickly became denuded of lumber.
A Proterozoic Eon age finding would set suspected KBO-meteorwrongs apart from both the iron industry and from asteroidal material, but unfortunately, date testing is largely confined to academic labs and generally unavailable to laymen, and KBO-meteorwrongs never get beyond failing a nickel/iridium test.
Southeast Pennsylvania locations of Pluto meteorwrong super concentrations:
KBO-meteorwrong material has been used to level a triangle of land just off Light Street, Conshohocken, PA (40.0807, -75.3127), readily identifiable on Google satellite due to the herbicide properties of granulated KBO-meteorwrong material. A likely origin of the material is is Ivy Rock quarry from the Cambrian dolostone of the Ledger Formation (Cl) from about a mile due north along Conshohocken Road on the east bank of the Schuylkill River (40.095, -75.315). Alternatively, the material might have been excavated more recently when building the immediately adjacent ‘Blue Route’ (Rt. 476) , completed in 1991, but if so, the small admixture of industrial iron furnace slag with the natural KBO-meteorwrong material is difficult to explain, unless the iron furnace slag came from elsewhere.
In Phoenixville, PA, a significant quantity of pillow-lava-like fragments are mixed with industrial iron furnace slag from the nearby Phoenixville iron works. The material has been tumbled into French Creek ravine from the south bank, between N. Main St. and Ashland St. (40.135, -75.513), just east of Phoenixville Foundry. (Recent building construction has fenced off access to a majority of the material). Since Phoenixville is in the Mesozoic basin, the material was presumably brought in from elsewhere.
Doe Run, PA, in Cockeysville Marble:
Doe Run, PA area has a particularly-diverse range of native iron specimens, but the material is widely disbursed through the Cockeysville Marble terrain, rather than being super concentrated by human effort (39.915, -75.816).
Hayes Clark Covered Bridge
Coatesville, PA 19320
Harrisburg, PA quarry, in Ordovician limestone/dolostone of the St. Paul group (Osp):
Much of the KBO-meteorwrong material used as clean fill in the Harrisburg, PA area is thought to have been excavated from the former quarry in the 2200 block of Paxton St. Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 (40.256, -76.847). KBO-meteorwrong material has been used in an abandoned road spur off Paxton Ave. at Paxton Ministries (40.2545, -76.8505), barely a stone’s throw from the quarry itself. Basaltic chunks and magnetite can be found scattered around City Island in the Susquehanna River (with island access from Market Street Bridge). KBO-meteorwrongs have been used as clean fill on the East Shore of the Susquehanna River to extend residential parking on the river side of Front St. in Enola, PA, and the material has been spotted as far west as Wesley Dr. in Mechanicsburg, PA.
Terrestrial limonite and man-made meteorwrongs:
Ferric and ferrous cations, presumably leached from local super concentrations of KBO-meteorwrong material may have formed secondary limonite concretions on surrounding lowland. Like secondary magnetite, limonite likely contains fewer embrittling contaminants than KBO-meteorwrong material, making it desirable for iron smelting, but unlike secondary magnetite, limonite does not exhibit a whitish cement-like coating, so perhaps secondary magnetite is extraterrestrial, while secondary limonite is terrestrial.
“Bloomery smelting” is the earliest known form of iron smelting, which ushered in the iron age. It creates distinctive high-density ‘bloomery slag’ or ‘tap slag’ with distinct flow lines evident on the surface that can’t readily be confused with anything else. (In the U.K., it’s often called ‘Roman slag’.) Bloomery slag can be found throughout the Roman Empire and Medieval settlements, and bloomery smelting was apparently still practiced in colonial America, based based on the finding of small amounts of apparent bloomery slag in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Bloomery smelting requires a careful control of the temperature to keep it below the melting point of metallic iron but above the melting point of the iron ore, creating a small amount of spongy metallic iron after the high-density lower-melting-point slag flows out near the bottom of the furnace. The ropy flow lines on the surface of bloomery slag are evidence of its having trickled out of small ovens, typically on the order of a cubic meter in size. Larger and vastly more efficient blast furnaces quickly displaced bloomery smelting in colonial America. Finally, bloomery slag does not exhibit the cement-like coating on its outer surfaces, characteristic of KBO-meteorwrong material and secondary magnetite.
Microscopic examination of iron-furnace slag from historic Cornwall and Johanna furnaces reveals micron-scale metallic-iron spherule (requiring magnification) and nothing larger. The microscopic spherules are most apparent in thin chips of translucent, glassy slag with strong back lighting at 100X magnification. The spherules come into focus and disappear as one varies the depth of focus, revealing hundreds of spherules per cubic centimeter with a distinctive upper size limit dictated by the high negative buoyancy of metallic iron in molten glassy slag on the surface of our high-gravity planet. By comparison, millimeter- to centimeter-scale blebs of metallic iron are frequently suspended in basaltic matrix of KBO-meteorwrong material, many orders of magnitude larger than the microscopic spherules suspended in iron-furnace slag glass.
Silicides, Fe3Si, Cr3Si, Mn3Si, and particularly CaSi, may be components of chemically-reduced KBO-meteorwrong material; however, chunks of high-purity silicides with chrome-like brilliance on fractured surfaces are almost certainly manufactured products for the steel and alloy industry. Calcium silicide is used as a deoxidizer and for removing removing phosphorus in steel manufacturing, and specialty silicides and ferroalloys are often used to introduce carefully-controlled additives to make alloy steel and non-ferrous alloys.
Currie, Thayne, 2005, HYBRID MECHANISMS FOR GAS/ ICE GIANT PLANET FORMATION, The Astrophysical Journal, 629:549–555, 2005 August 10
Lodders, Katharina, 2003, SOLAR SYSTEM ABUNDANCES AND CONDENSATION TEMPERATURES OF THE ELEMENTS, The Astrophysical Journal, 591:1220–1247, 2003 July 10
Rau, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Yan, L., (2007), Spitzer Observations of the New Luminous Red Nova M85 OT2006-1, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 659, Issue 2, pp. 1536-1540
KBO-meteorwrong examples from elsewhere:
– “Strange Rock Reports”
(with cement-like coating)
– MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMENS OF A METEORWRONG “FALL” FROM NW IRAN
(with cement-like coating)
This section discusses a characteristic class of isolated ‘impact boulder fields’ with unusual surface features. This section suggests a catastrophic origin for ‘impact boulder fields’, formed in small secondary impacts from material sloughed off from the primary comet impact which formed the 450 km diameter Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay, 12.8 ± 0.15 ka. Secondary icy-body impacts are suggested to sometimes create impact boulder fields, with boulders having characteristic surface features, such as relatively-young and uniformly weathered surfaces, where some of the boulders will exhibit deep pits and striations scoured (sandblasted) by super-high-velocity extraterrestrial material.
Younger Dryas impact hypothesis:
Impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium are distributed across
four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB). Archeological material, charcoal and megafaunal remains is associated with a black mat in 5 locations, with fewer correlations at many more sites across 4 continents. (Wittke et al. 2013)
“Most Younger Dryas (YD) age black layers or “black mats” are dark gray to black because of increased organic carbon (0.05–8%) compared with strata above and below (6, 7). Although these layers are not all alike, they all represent relatively moist conditions unlike immediately before or after their time of deposition as a result of higher water tables.” (Haynes 2007)
“The spherules correlate with abundances of associated melt-glass, nanodiamonds,
carbon spherules, aciniform carbon, charcoal, and iridium” “across 4 continents”.
(Wittke et al. 2013)
“Bayesian chronological modeling was applied to 354 dates from 23 stratigraphic sections in 12 countries on four continents to establish a modeled YDB age range for this event of 12,835–12,735 Cal B.P. at 95% probability. This range overlaps that of a peak in extraterrestrial platinum in the Greenland Ice Sheet and of the earliest age of the Younger Dryas climate episode in six proxy records, suggesting a causal connection between the YDB impact event and the Younger Dryas.” (Kennett et al. 2015)
“The fact remains that the existence of mammoths, mastodons, horses, camels, dire wolves, American lions, short-faced bears, sloths, and tapirs terminated abruptly at the Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary.” The Quaternary megafaunal extinction is sometimes attributed to the ‘prehistoric overkill hypothesis’, although “The megafaunal extinction and the Clovis-Folsom transition appear to have occurred in <100 years, perhaps much less”. (Haynes 2007)
Many, most or perhaps all boulder fields worldwide of secondary impact origin may date to the ‘YD impact’, 12.8 ± 0.15 ka, which is suggested here to have formed the 450 km Nastapoka arc (impact basin) of lower Hudson Bay. But impact boulder fields and perhaps the associated Quaternary megafaunal extinction event itself may be mostly attributable to widely-disbursed secondary impacts from material sloughed off of the YD comet in its passage through Earth’s atmosphere. So while our atmosphere may protect us from most cosmic rays and small meteoroids, it may greatly exacerbate the harm to lifeforms in large icy-body impacts, due to widely-disbursed secondary impacts from comet material sloughed off in Earth’s atmosphere.
The vast 4 continent distribution of YD impact artifacts raises the question of whether fragmentation responsible for impact boulder fields et al. occurred in the atmosphere alone, or whether an earlier fragmentation occurred from a close encounter with one of the giant planets of the outer solar system.
The orientation of Carolina bays appear to point to two origins, lower Hudson Bay and Lake Michigan. (Firestone 2009) The orientation of elliptically-shaped Carolina bay appear to point back to two source locations, one in the lower Hudson Bay area (Nastapoka arc) and the second one pointing to circa Lake Michigan. Firestone et al. suggest the bays were formed by chunks of the Laurentide ice sheet, lofted into 100s to 1000s of kilometer trajectories by a dual impact (or airburst) on or over the ice sheet at those two locations. While dating the Carolina bays is difficult and controversial, the bays contain elevated levels of spherules common in the YD-impact black mat. Dual impacts on the ice sheet suggests that at least one chunk of the comet fragmentation was sufficiently sizable to loft sizable icebergs into trajectories of 100s of kilometers, but the Lake Michigan impact was apparently of insufficient size to create a Nastapoka arc counterpart.
Icy-body comet impacts are suggested here to form impact basins, whereas rocky-iron meteorites are known to form impact craters. Relatively-compressible ices are suggested to clamp the impact shock wave pressure below the melting point of silicates, largely precluding impact melt rock. PdV compression of ices may also clamp the shock wave pressure below the pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, masking icy-body impact structures from identification as such. For instance, ices that undergo 10 times the dV compression of silicates will absorb 10 times the work energy from the impact shock wave, instantly soaring to 1000s of Kelvins which quickly melt embedded nebular dust and terrestrial sediments into molten microscopic silicate spherules. If ice compression lowers the impact power, then conservation of energy dictates that the impulse duration is commensurately extended. And a blunted but extended impact impulse may distort Earth’s crust into basins (in large impacts) rather than excavating craters, as rocky-iron meteorites are known to do. So while rocky-iron impacts may act like the sharp blow of a ball peen hammer, forming distinctive impact craters with distinctive overturned target rock, icy-body impacts may act more like the dull thud of a dead blow hammer, depressing the ground into a spherical impact basins, like Nastapoka arc. And the sustained shock wave duration of icy-body impacts (during the compression and rebound decompression of compressible ices) may tend to clamp the target rock in place, largely preventing the signature overturned rock of crater rims and the central peak rebound of complex craters.
Secondary impact boulder fields:
A number of boulder fields in the Appalachians are attributed to the suggested exaggerated freeze and thaw cycle toward the end of the last glacial period, but this gradualism approach can not account for unusual surface features in suggested impact boulder fields, nor the ability of ability of 2 diabase (Ringing Rock) boulder fields to resonate or ‘ring’ when struck sharply.
Impact boulder fields concentrated by downhill debris flows require a degree of incline to concentrate the boulders and to drain the boulder field to prevent burial by sedimentation over the intervening millennia; however, catastrophic impact boulder fields should be capable of flow down a much shallower grade than ‘talus-slope boulder fields’ formed by more gradual processes. The shear-thinning properties of phyllosilicate slurries in catastrophic impacts may lubricate a downhill pyroclastic flow or debris flow, stacking boulders many boulders deep.
Eastern Pennsylvania is suggested to have at least 3 impact boulder fields, with two Ringing Rock boulder fields composed of diabase and the Hickory Run boulder field, in Hickory Run State Park, composed of sandstone/quartzite. The sandstone boulders that compose Blue Rocks boulder field (near Hawk Mountain, Berks County Park) are too eroded to show surface scouring, which may indicate softer boulders, and/or boulders older than End Pleistocene, so the Blue Rocks boulder field can not be positively attributed to an impact origin. Talus-slope boulder fields are common along the ridges of the Appalachians. In general, boulder fields in rugged terrain and particularly along mountaintop ridge lines should be dismissed as unlikely impact boulder fields, and in any case, distinctive surface surface-feature scouring is necessary to affirm an impact origin.
The suggested Lake Michigan impact extrapolated from Carolina bay orientations likely had the protection of perhaps as much as a kilometer of the Laurentide ice sheet, whereas the three suggested impact boulder fields in Pennsylvania were presumably below the Late Wisconsinan extent of the ice sheet (although Hickory Run State Park is mapped as covered by the last substage of the Wisconsinan Stage of the ice sheet on the USGS geologic map of Pennsylvania). Could an impact have flash melted a thin tip of ice sheet, lubricating the resulting debris flow that formed Hickory Run boulder field, explaining its well-rounded boulders from extensive tumbling? The approach direction of the comet, however, is somewhat problematic, since the terrain falls away to the northwest in Ringing Rocks Park, Bucks County PA, whereas the terrain rises to the northwest of the Hickory Run boulder field.
Scoured surface features:
Pockmark, striation and pot hole surface features on boulders in impact boulder fields are suggestive of sandblasting or water-jet cutting in an industrial setting. So while a massive impulse may be necessary to fracture the bedrock into boulders, exposure to high-velocity streams of material are necessary to create the observed scoured surface features.
Impact boulder field boulders will exhibit more or less rounding of corners from a greater or lesser degree of downhill debris flow tumbling from their impact origin. The boulders in Hickory Run boulder field are significantly more rounded than those in the two Ringing Rocks boulder fields, suggesting more abrasive tumbling over a greater distance by a larger mass of boulders. The ‘terrain’ feature of Google maps is not sufficiently sensitive to positively identify secondary impact locations, even for the large Hickory Run boulder field, so it’s likely that impact fracturing by secondary impacts is only a few boulders deep at most. The size and width of 3 known impact boulder fields suggest an impact footprint on the order of 10s of meters across, as a working hypothesis. Similarly, secondary impacts on low ground may also be below the resolution of the terrain feature of Google maps. Even so, perfectly-round water-filled secondary-impact features on low ground should jump out on the satellite imagery of ‘Google Earth’, unless atmospheric fragmentation of sloughed off material typically distorts the impact footprint into non-circular shapes, and/or if secondary impacts on low ground on the order of 10s of meters will have filled in with sediment in the intervening 12,800 years.
Comet-spatter rock scale:
Additionally, the most erosion resistant of boulder-field boulders and stream cobbles may still retain secondary ‘comet spatter–’on one side only–in the form of rock scale, although boulder field boulders may exhibit more than 180° coverage due to being briefly airborne at some point. Most apparent rock scale is actually lichen, particularly if the apparent rock scale has a rounded perimeter, and most comet spatter appears to be orange or brown, whereas lichen is often white or jet black. And lichen like comet spatter will typically appear on one side only of a rock or boulder, since the algae or cyanobacteria component of lichen requires sunlight for photosynthesis. A weathering rind is another look alike, and weathered diabase boulders often exhibit a yellow or orange weathering rind that may simulate comet spatter. Ideally a cobble or boulder with a maple-leaf-shaped deficit, or some other recognizable shape which acted as a comet spatter mask, will reveal itself to a persistent or fortuitous observer.
Shoe stone with comet spatter:
A greywacke ‘shoe stone’ shaped like a human slipper was found in the Susquehanna River in Millersburg, PA. Most of the shoe stone is natural, but the sole has evidence of human modification, evidently to make it into a more-perfect slipper shape. And the stone has raised brown nodules on ‘one side only’, suggesting the stone was Clovis to have been exposed on the day of the comet, and indeed a small amount of suggested comet spatter overlays the tooled surface of the sole.
Cup marks in cairns in the British Isles:
In addition to North American boulder fields, cup marks in boulders from cairns in the British Isles are also suggested to be of secondary impact origin, where the associated boulder fields were presumably long ago scavenged for building materials
Ringing Rocks impact boulder fields:
Pennsylvania has two Ringing Rock boulder fields, Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Black Eddy, PA and Ringing Rocks Park in Pottstown, PA 40.270647, -75.605616. ‘Ringing Rocks’ refers to the propensity of diabase boulders within the two Ringing Rocks boulder fields to resonate or ‘ring’ at a characteristic frequency when struck sharply with a hard object, whereas diabase boulders elsewhere do not ring. Apparently, the super-high-pressure impact shock wave stressed the surface of diabase boulders, like prestressed glass, imparting the ability to resonate when struck. Additionally, Ringing Rock boulders variably exhibit scoured surface features, with uniformly ‘young’ subconchoidal fractured surfaces that exhibit very-shallow surface decomposition (exfoliation), indicating a relatively-young age. For Southeastern Pennsylvania to have two Ringing Rock impact boulder fields composed of diabase boulders, suggests that a large number of other boulder fields are also of impact origin, since diabase forms only a very small fraction of the terrain in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Firestone, Richard B., 2009, The Case for the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event: Mammoth, Megafauna, and Clovis Extinction, 12,900 Years Ago, Journal of Cosmology, 2009, Vol 2, pages 256-285
Haynes Jr., C. Vance, 2007, Younger Dryas “black mats” and the Rancholabrean termination in North America, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105 no. 18
Kennett, James P. et al., 2015, Bayesian chronological analyses consistent with synchronous age of 12,835–12,735 Cal B.P. for Younger Dryas boundary on four continents, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112 no. 32
Wittke, James H. et al., 2013, Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110 no. 23
SPECIFIC KINETIC ENERGY OF LONG-PERIOD IMPACTS:
The orbital velocity of the earth makes a dramatic difference in the kinetic energy of comet impacts. For a comet falling from infinity toward the sun at earth’s orbit, the ratio of kinetic energy between comets hitting earth head-on in its orbit around the sun and those catching up with earth is a factor of 19, but most fall somewhere in between. (This calculation factors in earth’s gravity.)
Earth escape velocity: 11.2 km/s
Earth, orbital velocity: 29.8 km/s
Body falling from infinity towards the sun to a distance of 1 AU: 42.2 km/s (calculated from gravitational potential energy and checked by comparing velocity falling from infinity to the diameter of the sun with the escape velocity of the sun)
Running into the earth head on in its orbit:
42.2 km/s + 29.78 km/s = 71.98 km/s
71.98 * 71.98 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 5181.12 + 125.21 = 5306.33 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Catching up with earth in its orbit:
42.2 km/s – 29.78 km/s = 12.42 km/s
12.42 * 12.42 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 154.26 + 125.21 = 279.47 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Specific kinetic energy ratio between hitting the earth head-on and catching up with earth in its orbit:
5306.33 / 279.47 = 18.99
Dwarf comets having fallen through Proxima’s 3:1 ‘resonant nursery’ resonance will orbit CCW in the Oort cloud like the planets. If the solar-system barycenter (SS-barycenter) acts as an aphelia attractor that pins Oort cloud orbits in its vicinity to the SS-barycenter, then the 73.6 Myr orbit of the Sun around the SS-barycenter will align these pinned orbits with the Galactic core twice per orbit, causing the tidal effect of the Galactic core to gradually reduce their perihelia by extracting angular momentum from the orbits until they dip into the planetary realm of the inner solar system. And the dwarf planets most likely to collide with Earth will have perihelia on the order of 1 AU. These objects would catch up with Earth in its CCW orbit and impact at almost the lowest possible speed.
Finally, comet ice may undergo endothermic chemical reactions (ECRs) in comet impacts, mostly clamping the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of rock.
SPIRAL GALAXY FORMATION BY CONDENSATION:
This section suggests that spiral galaxies ‘condensed’ during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by endothermic temperature clamping in early baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO).
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated ‘proto-galaxies’.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies; however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs. Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound. Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being. And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent ‘BBN-rebound’ of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.
Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle. Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole. (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.) Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes. Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.
And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum. So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse. Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase. So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum. The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.
And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies. Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found. Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.
DARK MATTER AND GALAXY FORMATION:
Two states of giant molecular clouds (GMCs):
A. Dark matter GMCs in ‘normal state’:
Gravitationally-bound giant molecular clouds (GMCs), generally composed of smaller gravitationally-bound entities (Bok globules), orbit the galactic core on disk-crossing halo orbits. GMCs are dark if their acquired stellar metallicity has ‘snowed out’ into the solid phase of icy chondrules, sequestering it from detection, since the remaining primordial molecular hydrogen and helium effectively don’t emit or absorb below (Lyman-alpha) UV frequencies. To avoid confusion, giant molecular clouds in their invisible dark matter state will be designated, ‘globule clusters’.
B. Opaque GMCs in ‘excited state’:
Giant molecular clouds on shallow orbits to the disk plane are exposed to significantly-more stellar radiation than their steep-orbit ‘halo’ counterparts, with stellar radiation subliming icy chondrules, creating opaque gaseous metallicity. And gaseous stellar metallicity lowers the ‘speed of sound’, increasing the ‘sound crossing time’ through dark clouds which promotes Jeans instability, causing excited Bok globules to tend to gravitationally collapse and condense stars.
Epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Endothermic condensation of proto-spiral-galaxies cored with direct-collapse supermassive black holds (SMBHs):
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by merger to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the cores of galaxies. Alternatively, perhaps SMBHs formed much earlier during the epoch of BBN in gravitational collapse mediated by endothermic photodisintegration of helium to form direct collapse SMBHs with gravitationally-bound halos of hydrogen and helium, constituting proto-spiral-galaxies.
While unassisted gravitational collapse can only occur after the universe becomes matter (vs. radiation) dominated around z = 2740 (and then only at the horizon size), this ideology suggests assisted (nearly-isothermal) collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission in the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), with supermassive black hole formation as a latching mechanism, preventing thermal rebound.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today still bears the imprint of BAO compressions and rarefactions from the epoch when electrons first combined with protons to form neutral hydrogen, removing the plasma fog from the universe about 378,000 years after the Big Bang. The epoch of recombination only marks the end of the era of baryon acoustic oscillations, so the process was in full swing 378,000 years earlier during Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). During the epoch of BBN (10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang), while hydrogen fusion was in thermal equilibrium with helium photodissociation (helium fission), BAO compressions of the plasma continuum are suggested to have initiated nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission which prevented thermal rebound. And the ambient temperature and pressure dictated the size of the the Bonnor–Ebert mass of fragmentation in BBN collapse, which is suggested to be the size range of spiral galaxies today, including their dark matter halos, designated ‘proto-spiral-galaxies’ prior to the formation of Population II stars. So runaway gravitational collapse during the epoch of BBN is suggested fragmented Bonnor–Ebert masses which drove BBN backwards, photodissociating helium into its constituent protons and neutrons and ending with direct-collapse supermassive black holes in the cores of gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxy ‘island universes’. And the Tully–Fisher relation, which relates the mass or intrinsic luminosity of (condensed) spiral galaxies with their rotation velocity–essentially their specific angular momentum–is suggested to be the result of asymmetrical fragmentation of spherically-symmetrical BAO compressions, perhaps with differential compression prior to fragmentation imparting a differential spin.
Intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, and sequestered, secondary, proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound’:
So the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum is suggested to have been condensed (sequestered) into warmer proto-spiral-galaxies during the BBN era, causing unsequestered intergalactic baryons to establish the effective baryon density of the universe in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, as measured by the survival ratio of fragile BBN isotopes, namely deuterium, helium-3 and lithium. Gravitational collapse fragmentation into proto-galaxies effectively reversed proto-galactic BBN, with endothermic photodisintegration of helium back into protons and neutrons. Thermal rebound from photodisintegration amounted to ‘BBN rebound’, reburning protons and neutrons to form helium-4, but if the nuclear reaction in the context of exponential cosmic expansion govern all the parameters (temperature, pressure, baryon density and photon-to-baryon ratio), then there are no variables in the process so the outcome of intergalactic primary BBN and secondary, proto-galactic BBN rebound should be identical to within boundary conditions, including the survival ratio of low binding energy isotopes, thus creating identical D/H and lithium to hydrogen ratios. Fine tuning of parameters by nuclear reactions can be seen in the cores of brown dwarfs and protostars in their deuterium burning phase, when the core temperature is clamped at 1 million Kelvins, regardless of size, causing .05 M⊙ brown dwarfs to 100+ M⊙ protostars burn deuterium at exactly 1 million Kelvins until it’s depleted. Boundary conditions during BBN rebound in proto-spiral-galaxy BBN rebound, however, might tweak conditions ever so slightly, showing up most prominently in the most fragile BBN isotope, lithium-6, perhaps accounting for the ‘strong lithium anomaly’ of lithium-6. The observed lithium isotope ratio, 7Li/6Li, is low by a factor of about 50 from the calculated value, which is known as the strong lithium anomaly (P. Bruskiewich 2007). If so, then the strong lithium anomaly may be more pronounced in spiral galaxies than in dwarf galaxies and intergalactic clouds.
Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies is similar to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then the baryon density calculated from BBN isotopes would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent coincidence of sequestered proto-galaxies at the epoch of BBN to the sequestered dark matter today may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM in today’s universe, wherein as much as half of the supposed baryons of the universe (based on baryon density) can not be found. The scale of the missing baryons in today’s universe suggests that the actual percent of dark matter to luminous matter may be closer to a ratio of 10:1 than the stated ratio of about 5:1.
So, assisted (nearly-isothermal) gravitational collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority (~ 4/5) of baryons into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, perhaps in the range of 10E9 M⊙ and larger, with each cored with a direct-collapse supermassive black hole. The proto-spiral-galaxies would have been hydrostatically supported between their outward-directed differential radiation pressure, compared to the intergalactic ambient pressure, and their inward-directed differential gravitational attraction, apparently causing proto-spiral-galaxies to expand and cool over time along with the universe as a whole.
Epoch of recombination:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, cored with Population III stars:
At the epoch of recombination, 378,000 years after the Big Bang at z = 1100, the proton and electron plasma reacted to form neutral hydrogen, decoupling photons from the Big Bang continuum. Decoupling photons eliminated a the most significant component of hydrostatic pressure in the universe, allowing local gravitational collapse. And once initiated, gravitational collapse was sustained by nearly-isothermal conditions mediated by endothermic ionization. The fragmentation scale at z = 1100 is suggested to have been on the order of 105 – 106 M⊙, condensing the universe into gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, first condensing the intergalactic medium and later moving into the warmer proto-spiral-galaxies. The scale of collapse, with 105 – 106 M⊙ piling on, easily bridged the transition from ionization to deuterium burning, which stabilized the collapsing core at 1 million Kelvins.
Additionally, a very few of the largest fragmenting nebulae may have continued collapsing to form direct-collapse black holes in their cores rather than Population III stars during gravitational-collapse formation, perhaps forming temporary quasi-stars.
Population III stars formed at recombination:
As suggested, when a circa 105 – 106 M⊙ collapsing nebulae fragmentation reached the 1 million Kelvin temperature of deuterium ignition, the core stabilized, even as overlying material continued to pile on. Deuterium burning is well known to clamp the core temperature in protostars and to cause circulation, refreshing the deuterium in the core. The limits of circulation in a 105 – 106 M⊙ object, however, likely caused the very center became deuterium depleted in time, allowing further contraction to ignite the proton-proton (pp) chain reaction to form a Population III star. Proton-proton hydrogen fusion caused the Population III star to exceed its Eddington luminosity, throwing off the vast majority of the overlying mass, which for the most part apparently remained gravitationally bound within the nebulae’s Roche sphere. If the final demise of Population III stars was predominantly pair-instability supernovae in the range of 130 to 250 solar masses, then most Population III stars would not have left stellar remnants, i.e., no white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes, only Population III star and pair-instability supernova nucleosynthesis product contamination in gravitationally-bound nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
So the universe is suggested to have undergone gravitational collapse induced by recombination which fragmented into 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound nebulae, cored with Population III stars. The intergalactic continuum presumably condensed first, before condensing warmer proto-spiral-galaxies as they reached recombination temperature. And the Population III stars formed by nebulae collapse contributed Population III star nucleosynthesis isotopes to their nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
Epoch of reionization:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into 100+ M⊙ ‘globules’:
The epoch of reionization is suggested to have occurred when sufficient intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae atomic hydrogen atoms had combined to form molecular hydrogen, allowing radiative cooling to the 200 K range, promoting nebulae to collapse and fragment into 100+ M⊙ globules. So the characteristic fragmentation size at the epoch of reionization is suggested to be that of circa 100 M⊙ (Bok) globules. And the largest globules continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which partially reionized the universe, beginning about 150 million years after the Big Bang. Because of the relative isolation of nebulae, even within densified proto-spiral-galaxies and accretionary dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies, intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae may have condensed nearly simultaneously. Instead of location, nebula size may have dictated the timing of condensation into globules, with small nebulae condensing first, while the largest globular-cluster-sized nebulae may have held out until around 2 billion years after the Big Bang, about a billion years after the official end of the epoch. Additionally, larger nebulae were more likely to create the Population II supergiant stars that induced smaller globules to collapse into stars as well.
Nebula condensation into globules (‘globule cluster’):
The state change of nebulae which underwent collapse into globules at reionization merits name change, so gravitationally-bound nebulae which have condensed into gravitationally-bound hydrostatic globules will be designated, ‘globule clusters’. Parenthetical (Bok) globules, will be defined as invisible dark matter globules with their stellar metallicity frozen into the solid state of icy chondrules, whereas the absence of parentheses will indicate the familiar opaque Bok globules of giant molecular clouds, which have a significant component of sublimed (gaseous) stellar metallicity.
Cosmic inflation and gravitational concentration of nebulae formed at recombination is suggested to have created a cosmic (sponge-like) web of baryonic nebulae, with accretionary concentrations along filaments, nodes and around proto-spiral-galaxies and galaxy clusters, with significant nodal concentrations forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, in the prescribed ΛCDM fashion, albeit with baryonic (globule-cluster) dark matter. So this alternative punctuated equilibrium ideology superimposes top-down proto-spiral-galaxy condensation onto bottom up ΛCDM accretionary formation of (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies.
Condensation of nebulae into globule clusters at reionization didn’t effect on the accretionary process into the cosmic web in the process of forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies at densified nodes, but condensation of nebulae into globules at reionization primed the globule clusters to induce Jeans instability gas collide, possibly causing globules to ‘go nuclear’ and condense stars. Suggested globule cluster accretion at nodes and in large-galaxy halos in the last 13 billion years resulted/results in wildly varying dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with some concentrations being almost-entirely dark (low-surface-brightness galaxies) while others have undergone episodes of intense star burst activity.
Gravitational accretions of nebulae at cosmic-web nodes are suggested to have formed (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, with widely-varying baryonic dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with the first Population II stars suggested to have formed in the epoch of reionization.
“The fraction of ionising radiation escaping into the intergalactic medium is inversely dependent on halo mass, decreasing from 50 to 5 per cent in the mass range log M/M⊙ = 7.0 – 8.5.” (Wise et al. 2014) So the vast majority of the ionizing radiation in the universe during reionization was apparently leaked from more numerous and vastly more-transparent dwarf galaxies, presumably by large, early Population II stars which ionized the loose intergalactic gas which gave the epoch its name. Later Population II stars presumably had a smaller initial mass function than early Population II stars, since the first Population II stars presumably collapsed the oversized globules, many into supergiant stars, during the globule condensation process.
If early Population II stars reionized the universe, as suggested here, then Population II stars in this ideology may be confused with Population III stars in ΛCDM cosmology, where ΛCDM cosmology suggests that Population III stars formed during reionization.
Following recombination, as the cosmic ambient temperature continued to decrease, an ever increasing ratio of the atomic hydrogen in gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’ reacted to form molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen allowed radiative cooling down to the 200 K, allowing nebulae to undergo gravitational collapse and fragmentation in the epoch of reionization to form circa 100 solar mass gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules within gravitationally-bound nebulae, thereafter designated ‘globule clusters’. And and the largest globules presumably continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which reionized the universe from 150 million years (z = 20) after the Big Bang to 1 billion years after the Big Bang (z = 6).
The ΛCDM tenets of non-baryonic dark matter:
1) “The primordial D/H ratio [from BBN] constrains the baryon density to Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002, assuming standard BBN.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
2) “Recently, CMB anisotropies have provided an entirely independent way to constrain the baryon density, yielding Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
1) Epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Canonical BBN isotope ratios:
The baryon density of the universe (Ωbh2) is adjusted for cosmic expansion by the Hubble constant, which makes the baryon density a universal constant for all time. A related parameter from the epoch BBN is the baryon-to-photon ratio, eta (η), which controlled the survival of the fragile nucleosynthesis isotopes deuterium, helium-3 and lithium following BBN. The baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratios are derived quantities, however, based on the observed deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio, and the D/H ratio is more reliable than the the lithium assessment because stars can only consume deuterium, whereas stars can both consume and create lithium. The apparent low degree of baryon density uncertainty (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002) from the epoch of BBN, however, should tempered by the ‘missing baryon problem’ today, since something like half the assumed baryon density in the universe can’t be accounted for, and ΛCDM ignores the possibility that baryon sequestration could artificially lower the effective (measured) baryon density.
Accounting for Ωbh2 and η with sequestered baryonic dark matter:
Endothermic assisted gravitational collapse with fragmentation during the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum from participation in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, by condensing these baryons into warmer gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, which is suggested to have split Big Bang nucleosynthesis into two subperiods, the intergalactic ‘primary BBN superiod’ and late proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, where late proto-galactic BBN rebound effectively extended the epoch of BBN, when cosmic expansion had cooled warmer proto-galaxies to the same temperature, pressure, local baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratio as in primary BBN, forming the same canonical BBN isotope ratios (D/H et al.) in proto-galaxies as in the intergalactic realm.
So nucleosynthesis with strong thermal equilibrium feedback (where hydrogen fusion is in thermal equilibrium with photodissociation helium fission) is suggested to control, conditions, removing BBN variables other than modest boundary effects, causing late BBN rebound in sequestered proto-spiral-galaxies to mirror primary BBN, allowing sequestered baryonic matter to pass for uncoupled (WIMP et al.) dark matter.
2) Epoch of recombination:
Cosmic microwave background CMB anisotropies:
The intergalactic baryon density at the epoch of ‘recombination’ is recorded in CMB anisotropies as a relic of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) of the epoch, and this number (Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001) is in close agreement with the intergalactic baryon density derived from BBN (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002); however, the missing baryon problem in today’s universe casts a shadow over the high degree of correlation in the two earlier epochs. So with something on the order of half the supposed baryons missing today, all we know with confidence is the the high degree of correlation of the effective baryon density at BBN and recombination, and the correlation is suggested to be consistent (~ 4/5) proto-galaxy baryon sequestration in the two epochs.
So in the same way that BBN may have splintered into two subperiods, the early, intergalactic ‘primary BBN subperiod’, and the late, secondary, proto-galaxy ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, recombination may have splintered into two subperiods as well,
1) the early, intergalactic ‘primary recombination subperiod’, and
2) the late, proto-galaxy ‘secondary recombination subperiod’,
with proto-galaxy sequestration effectively extending the epoch of recombination into warmer proto-galaxies.
The suggested ‘secondary recombination subperiod’ CMB photons would have diluted the primary BAO intergalactic signal and may have superimposed a low multipole proto-spiral-galaxy signal—perhaps the axis of evil—over the higher multipole signal from the epoch of recombination.
Finally, because there’s no correlation between the baryon-to-photon ratio at BBN and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon density in today’s universe, sequestered baryonic matter can not be ruled out based on the CMB photon density.
So if proto-galaxy condensation during the epoch of BBN could mask roughly 4/5 of the baryons in the universe from participating in primary intergalactic primary BBN and in intergalactic primary BAO, then the two tenets supporting non-baryonic dark matter might be greatly compromised.
“H2 may go unseen because its standard tracer, CO, is under-abundant (or frozen out) or because the gas is too cold for excitation to occur. Cold H2 is a candidate for hidden mass or ’dark matter’ in the universe, not at a level to change the global cosmological distribution of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, but as contribution to the galactic baryonic dark matter (Combes & Pfenninger 1997; Kalberla et al. 2001 p. 297ff).”
(Kroetz et al., 2009)
“Molecular hydrogen is very difficult to detect. None of its transitions lie in the visible part of the spectrum. It has no radio lines. The molecular hydrogen is a homo nuclear molecule and has no permanent dipole moment. Because of this it does not have rotation vibration spectrum.” (Detection Of Molecular Hydrogen In Interstellar Medium, 2013)
But with early sequestration into proto-spiral-galaxies, and with intermediate sequestration into globule clusters, and with late metallicity sequestration into icy chondrules, baryonic dark matter is indeed suggested to be the illusive dark matter of the universe.
Jeans instability in Bok globules:
Stellar radiation sublimation of icy chondrules in Bok globules creates gaseous stellar metallicity which raises the average molecular weight of the gas phase of Bok globules, decreasing the speed of sound which reduces their ability to rebound from positive pressure spikes. But if increasing stellar metallicity causes the sound crossing time to exceed the free-fall time, the region may undergo gravitational collapse to form a star. Radiative evaporation of volatile hydrogen by giant stars may supercharge the metallicity of dark clouds, promoting Jeans instability in sub-stellar-sized masses, enabling brown dwarfs and rogue (gas-giant) planets to condense directly.
The initial gravitational collapse in protostars is nearly isothermal as long as the contracting cloud remains transparent to infrared radiation. When the central density in protostars reaches about 10^-13 g/cm-3, a small region starts to become opaque, “and the compression become approximately adiabatic”. “The central temperature and pressure then begin to rise rapidly, soon becoming sufficient to decelerate and stop the collapse at the centre. There then arises a small central ‘core’ in which the material has stopped collapsing and is approaching hydrostatic equilibrium” [formation of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC)]. “The initial mass and radius of the core are about 10^31 g and 6×10^13 cm, respectively, and the central density and temperature at this time are about 2 x 10^-10 g/cm-3 and 170° K.”
Larson suggests the second hydrostatic core begins forming at about 2000 K when hydrogen molecules begin to dissociate. “This reduces the ratio of specific heats, gamma, below the critical value 4/3, with the result that the material at the center of the core becomes unstable and begins to collapse dynamically.” (Larson 1969) However, experimental testing suggests that molecular hydrogen dissociation occurs over a temperature range of around 6,000 K – 8,000 K (Magro et al. 1996) which may grade directly into hydrogen ionization, forming a mixture of molecular-hydrogen + atomic-hydrogen + plasma. Figure 3 in Magro shows the nearly-isothermal decrease in kinetic energy occurring in the dissociation/ionization temperature range, indicating an endothermic event which promotes run-away gravitational collapse to form the ‘second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC).
Dearth of dark matter in elliptical galaxy problem:
“Current thinking is that most if not all elliptical galaxies may be the result of a long process where two or more galaxies of comparable mass, of any type, collide and merge.” (Elliptical galaxy, Wikipedia)
“The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. The galaxies’ velocity dispersion profiles are found to decline with radius; dynamical modeling of the data indicates the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This surprising result conflicts with findings in other
galaxy types, and poses a challenge to current galaxy formation theories.”
(Romanowsky et al. 2003)
“Whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor, this is at odds with predictions from current ΛCDM cosmological simulations.”
(Lane et al. 2014)
Non-baryonic elementary-particle dark-matter hypotheses (WIMPs, axions, sterile neutrinos et al.) have trouble explaining the low dark matter to luminous matter ratios observed in elliptical galaxies, whereas the alternative dark-matter globule-cluster ideology predicts that galactic collisions will tend to convert dark-matter globule clusters to star clusters, reducing the dark matter to luminous matter ratio.
The cuspy halo problem:
Non-baryonic cold dark matter simulations predict cuspy distributions in galactic cores, that is a steep power-law mass-density distribution (like a y=1/x inverse function), predicting ever increasing dark matter concentrations down to the SMBH of the core. Instead, “The rotation velocity associated with dark matter in the inner parts of disk galaxies is found to rise approximately linearly with radius” (de Blok 2009), which is termed a ‘cored distribution.
Secondary solutions have been proposed to remedy the cuspy halo problem, such as its disbursal by supernovae, along fine tuning solutions, such as tuning the degree of self-interaction of dark matter, whereas baryonic dark matter globule clusters that convert to star clusters in regions of high stellar concentrations, such as in globular clusters and in galactic bulges, predict low to absent dark matter in galactic cores, making globular baryonic dark matter predictive rather than problematic.
– Endothermic collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have condensed a majority (~ 4/5) of the baryons of the universe into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies cored with supermassive black holes during the epoch of recombination.
– Toward the end of the epoch of recombination, radiative cooling is suggested to have condensed both the intergalactic continuum and proto-spiral galaxies into gravitationally-bound 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae, cored by Population III stars which infused the universe with Population III star nucleosynthesis. Intergalactic nebulae began clumping into a cosmic web, with densified nodes forming into proto-dwarf-galaxies.
– By the epoch of reionization, a sufficient quantity of hydrogen had reacted into its molecular form to allow radiative cooling to condense 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules, with the largest globules spontaneously collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars which partially reionized the universe, where nebulae composed of (Bok) globules are designated, ‘globule clusters’ or alternatively, ‘giant molecular clouds’.
– Continued cooling, caused stellar metallicity to ‘snow out’ into the solid state, forming nearly-invisible (Bok) globules composed of gaseous helium and molecular hydrogen with stellar metallicity sequestered into the solid state of icy chondrules, with globule clusters as the dark matter reservoirs of the universe.
– Spiral-galaxy globule clusters on steeply-inclined halo orbits pass through the disk plane relatively unaffected, but globule clusters on shallow inclination orbits to the disk plane receive vastly-higher doses of stellar radiation, which may sublime icy chondrules, increasing the gaseous molecular weight which promotes Jeans instability, converting formerly dark-matter globule clusters (giant molecular clouds) to gravitationally-bound star clusters.
– Finally, baryonic dark matter that converts to stars and luminous gas in shocked regions, such elliptical galaxies formed by galaxy mergers, and regions of high stellar concentrations, such as galactic bulges and globular clusters makes baryonic dark matter a primary predictive ideology.
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