This work in progress addresses unresolved and ‘problem’ areas in geology and astrophysics:
- Galaxy, star, planet, and planetesimal formation;
- The nature and formation of cold dark matter in galactic halos and its effect on the solar system;
- Aqueous differentiation of comets and dwarf planets due to planetesimal collisions or binary spiral-in mergers;
- Plate tectonics, the granite problem, the mantled gneiss-dome problem, and the dolomite problem; and
- Icy-body impacts vs. rocky-iron impacts, endothermic chemical reactions in impacts,
STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS:
– Aqueous Differentiation:
Melting of water ice, forming salt water oceans. Melting may be catastrophic as in the spiral-in merger of binary planetesimals or gradual, as orbital perturbation, torquing the planet sufficiently to melt water ice. And salt-water oceans are suggested to precipitate authigenic mineral grains which may form sedimentary cores with lithify and even undergo metamorphism when the ocean freezes solid, expanding and building pressure on the core. Spiral-in mergers typically melt oceans in the core, whereas, perturbative torquing may melt water near the surface may precipitate surficial supracrustal rock.
– Rocky-iron S-type and M-type asteroids:
High-density volatile-depleted planetesmials ‘condensed’ by gravitational instability (GI) from the primary debris disk formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Rocky-iron asteroids may have condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the stellar merger, near the orbit of Mercury, and indeed Mercury is assumed to be a ‘hybrid accretion’ planet (Thayne Curie 2005). Asteroids may have internally differentiated to form iron-nickel cores by radioactive decay of stellar-merger f-process radionuclides. Orbit clearing by the inner terrestrial planets injected asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances.
– C-type chondrites:
Chondrites condensed from the stellar-merger primary debris disk by GI against Jupiter’s inner resonances over a period of 5 million years. Chondrites typically contain chondrules which may be dust accretions melted in solar flares during the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger. CI chondrites without chondrules may be captured Oort cloud comets, condensed from the protoplanetary disk rather than from the primary debris disk like other chondrites with chondrules.
– Close Binary:
‘Hard’ close-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) tend to spiral in due to external perturbation, becoming progressively harder orbits over time, and sometimes merging to form ‘contact binaries’.
Circa 1–20 km planetesimals condensed by GI prior to 4,567 Ma from the protoplanetary disk, condensing a high percentage of highly-volatile ices which readily sublime to create internal voids, reducing the density of the nuclei. A suggested former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun spiraled outward for 4 billion years, shepherding the main body of inner Oort cloud comets outward beyond itself into the inner Oort cloud (IOC).
– Former Companion to the Sun:
Our protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times to form two close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion. Secular stellar core collapse is suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion to spiral in, causing their wide-binary separation to increase over time. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,568 Ma and binary Companion spiraled in to merge at 542 Ma. The asymmetrical binary-Companion merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun and ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon.
About 105 yr after the initiation of Jeans instability in a molecular cloud core, the core becomes optically dark and the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Excess angular momentum may cause the first core to fragment, forming a proto-gas-giant planet, typically around 1 AU from its progenitor protostar. Subsequent fragmentation may form proto-moons. (Also see SHSC-fragmentation.)
– Gravitational instability (GI):
The mechanism whereby gas, dust and ice gravitationally collapse to form planetesimals, planets, moons and stars. GI appears to require assistance, generally in the form of the gas-drag pressurization of dust and ice grains against a stellar or planetary resonance. So around a solitary star with no gas-giant planets, planetesimals may only ‘condense’ at the protoplanetary pressure dam which exists at the magnetic corotation zone (where ‘condense’ is shorthand for gravitational instability).
– Hybrid Accretion (Thayne Currie 2005):
Planetesimals condensed by GI may accrete to form planets (hence hybrid), typically in low orbits from planetesimals condensed at the magnetic corotation radius of solitary stars; however, binary stars may also condense planetesimals at inner edge of their circumbinary protoplanetary disk which may accrete to form more distant hybrid planets. Super-Earth are suggested to form by hybrid accretion, so the terms are used interchangeably, regardless of planet size, so in our own solar system Mars, Uranus and Neptune are all suggested to be super-Earths, formed beyond our former binary Sun. Hybrid accretion super-Earths tend to form in cascades from the inside out, with the innermost planet forming first followed by orbit clearing which paves the way for the next in the cascade.
(Inner Oort cloud), also known as the ‘Hills Cloud’: the doughnut-shaped comet cloud with its inner edge in the range of 2,000 – 5,000 AU and outer edge at perhaps 20,000 AU, suggested to have been shepherded outward by stellar evolution of our former quadruple star system beyond our former binary-Companion star.
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘hot classical’:
Planetesimals condensed in situ by GI from the 4,568 Ma primary debris disk against Neptune’s outer resonances. These included Plutinos, with semimajor axes similar to Neptune’s 2:3 resonance, and cubewanos between Neptune’s 2:3 and 1:2 resonance; however, solar system barycenter perturbation has greatly depleted the reservoir and turned a formerly ‘cold’ population into the present ‘hot’ population with high eccentricity and high inclination orbits. The spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma created a primary debris which was somewhat volatile depleted compared to the protoplanetary disc from which comets and scattered disc objects (SDOs) condensed. KBOs will be defined as a subset of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) (see TNO).
– KBO (Kuiper-belt object) ‘cold classical’:
Minor planets condensed by GI in situ from the 542 Ma secondary debris disk against Neptune’s outer resonances, principally the outer 2:3 resonance. These include typically binary Plutinos and ‘cold’ classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity oribts. The spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma created the ‘secondary debris disk’ from which binary Pluto and the cold classical KBOs condensed.
Binary spiral-in stellar mergers are suggested to undergo magnetic-reconnection merger-fragmentation which rids merging binary cores of excess angular momentum. Magnetic-reconnection pinch off of bar-mode instability tails gives the cores something to push backward against by inducing an opposing magnetic field in the twin pinched off tails, hurling the tails to circa 1 AU orbits. Our suggested former binary-Sun spiraled in and merged at 4,568 Ma, hurling off two symmetrical masses, that proto-Earth and proto-Venus. Binary spiral-in mergers of binary proto-gas-giant planets may also form merger-fragmentation moons, like Io and Europa at Jupiter.
(Outer Oort cloud), the spherical (isotropic) comet cloud, from perhaps 20,000 – 50,000 AU, assumedly perturbed from the IOC by various internal solar-system and external forms of perturbation.
– LRN (LRNe plural):
(Luminous red nova), a stellar explosion with a luminosity between that of a nova and a supernova, thought to be caused by the spiral-in merger of main-sequence binary stars. Stellar-merger LRNe may be the typical origin of debris disks which typically condense asteroids and less typically condense more-distant icy planetesimals in exoplanet systems. ‘Red transients’ are also thought to be caused by stellar mergers, and mergers of pre-main-sequence stars may cause significantly-less violent explosions.
A generic term for anything smaller than a planet, not specifically a moon (often minor planets). The term may apply to protoplanetary scattered disc objects (SDOs) and comets and to debris-disk asteroids, chondrites, and KBOs. The term also applies to larger dwarf planets formed by hybrid accretion of smaller planetesimals.
SDO (scattered disc object):
Objects condensed by GI at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun at about the orbit of Uranus slightly prior to 4,568 Ma. Subsequent hybrid accretion of Uranus and Neptune scattered the leftover SDOs to the scattered disc, which is suggested to officially begin at the 1:3 resonance with Neptune. SDOs and comets may be part of the same original population or from closely-related populations. SDOs originally condensed with highly-volatile ices, most of which have since sublimed due to internal torquing caused by orbital perturbation, creating an internal latticework of voids.
When a first hydrostatic core (FHSC) reaches about 2000 K, the molecular hydrogen begins to disassociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’ or second hydrostatic core (SHSC), with a steep increase in density. During the second (endothermic) collapse or afterward in the second core, the core may fragment due to excess angular momentum, which is suggested to form proto-gas-giant planets in a low hot orbits, typically hundredths of an AU from its progenitor protostar. (Also see FHSC-fragmentation.)
(Solar-system barycenter) The suggested gravitational balance point between the Sun and a former binary-Companion brown dwarf prior to its asymmetrical spiral-in merger at 542 Ma which gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. As the binary-Companion’s binary components spiraled in, the Companion spiraled out from the Sun for 4 billion years. The SSB perturbed TNOs by causing eccentric planetesimal orbits to flip flop from being gravitationally attracted toward the Companion to centrifugally slung away from it when the SSB crossed planetesimals’ semi-major axes. SSB perturbation caused the late heavy bombardment of KBOs during the Hadean Eon and perturbed SDOs during the Phanerozoic Eon.
– Stellar Core Collapse:
Orbit clearing may be viewed as a form of core collapse whereby high-mass planets clear their orbits of lower-mass planetesimals by tending to ‘evaporate’ them outward into higher orbits. Similarly, resonant coupling may cause close-binary stars to spiral in and evaporate smaller companion stars outward into higher wide-binary orbits, transferring energy and angular momentum from more-massive hard close-binary orbits to increasing the soft wide-binary separation.
– Super-Earth: (See Hybrid Accretion)
– TNO (trans-Neptunian object):
TNOs encompass multiple reservoirs, the primary-debris-disk hot classical KBOs, the secondary-debris-disk cold classical KBOs and the protoplanetary SDOs. Oort cloud comets comprise a third reservoir which may or may not be included as TNOs.
– Wide Binary:
‘Soft’ wide-binary pairs (planetesimals, planets, moons or stars) are defined as binary pairs that tend to spiral out due to external perturbation, becoming progressively softer over time. Wide-binary components may themselves be comprised of close-binary pairs, such as our former (close)-binary-Sun and (close)-binary-Companion in a wide-binary separation.
Solar system evolution:
Our protostar is suggested to have undergone Jeans instability inside a Bok globule within a giant molecular cloud followed by 3 successive generations of stellar FHSC-fragmentations to form a quadruple star system.
Secular resonant stellar perturbation is suggested to have evolved two ‘hard’ close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, with the two hard binaries in a ‘soft’ wide-binary separation. ‘Hard’ binary orbits tend to spiral-in (harden) over time due to perturbations, while ‘soft’ binary orbits tend to spiral out (soften). Hereafter, ‘close binaries’ are defined to be hard orbits that tend to spiral in, while ‘wide binaries’ are defined to be soft orbits that tend to spiral out, regardless of the separation distance. Stellar resonances are suggested to have caused binary-Sun and binary-Companion spiraled out from the solar system barycenter (SSB), opening up a wide-binary gap that allowed a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun.
Excess angular momentum of the binary-Sun components of the quadruple system caused SHSC-fragmentation of a hot Jupiter from each solar component, fragmenting proto-Jupiter around the larger binary solar component and ‘proto-Saturn’ around the smaller binary solar component. Continued core collapse caused binary-Sun to spiral in, leaving Jupiter and Saturn behind. From the evidence of Jupiter’s moons we see that proto-Jupiter apparently underwent FHSC-fragmentation to bifurcate into a binary pair, afterwhich each component underwent SHSC-fragmentation to form two hot proto-moons, Ganymede and Callisto. Then similar to the stellar core collapse, binary-Jupiter spiraled in to merge, leaving Ganymede and Callisto behind. Saturn apparently underwent two generations of FHSC-fragmentation to form binary proto-Saturn and a tertiary component, proto-Titan.
Stellar-evolution core collapse gradually opened up a wide-binary gap between binary-Sun and binary-Companion, allowing the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around binary-Sun. Binary-Sun resonances sculpted the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, creating a pressure dam against which dust and ice grains (slowed by ‘gas drag’) backed up until reaching sufficient mass and density to undergo gravitational instability (GI) and ‘condense’ planetesimals. And the bitterly-cold conditions within our birth Bok globule condensed highly-volatile ices, giving these protoplanetary planetesimals highly-volatile compositions.
The trillions of planetesimals condensed at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond binary-Sun collided to form larger accretionary masses by the process designated ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005). Thus hybrid accretion formed the planet Uranus followed by Neptune beyond binary Sun. We suggest expanding the term ‘super-Earth’ to designate any planet formed by hybrid accretion regardless its size or orbital distance in the star system. In our solar system, Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be super-Earths, with only Mercury formed from the primary debris disk. (See section, CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS) Uranus’ 98° axial tilt is assumed to be the result of having cleared its orbit of more than its own weight in planetesimals, lowering its orbit and creating the severe axial tilt. Once Uranus reached a critical size, planetesimals may have begun condensing against its outer resonances which were eventually cleared due to the growing strength of Neptune’s overlapping inner resonances. Leftover planetesimals from forming Uranus and Neptune became scattered disc objects (SDOs), with the 3:1 resonance with Neptune suggested to form the fuzzy edge of the scattered disc.
Oort cloud comets may have condensed in circum-quaternary obits beyond binary-Companion, or they may be circumbinary planetesimals that were scattered outward beyond former binary-Companion, perhaps largely through by perturbation by the former solar system barycenter (SSB). Either way, hypothesized inner Oort cloud (IOC) comets are suggested to have been progressovely shepherded out into barycentric orbits in the IOC by our former binary-Companion, essentially by the evaporative orbit clearing by our former binary-Companion as it spiraled out from the Sun for 4 billion years.
Resonant stellar ‘core-collapse’ is suggested to have progressively transferred energy and angular momentum from the two largest stellar components, comprising binary-Sun, to progressively increasing the wide-binary Sun-Companion separation. The resulting energy and angular-momentum transfer caused binary-Sun to spiral in and merge in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma. The resulting stellar-merger nucleosynthesis created the f-process short-lived radionuclides of our early solar system, namely 26Al and 60Fe, and also enriched the Sun and the primary debris disk with the helium-burning stable isotopes 12C and 16O. Canonical concentrations of 26Al in the form of Calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are suggested to have condensed from polar jets which emanated from the merging stellar cores. And chondrules may have condensed from dust accretions in the ‘primary debris disk’ which were periodically melted by solar flares from the suggested 3-million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger. (Note the 4,568 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun is suggested to have formed a ‘primary debris disk’, with the 542 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion forming a ‘secondary debris disk’.)
The primary debris disk created from the aftermath of the 4,568 Ma stellar merger condensed asteroids near the Sun and Kuiper belt objects in Neptune’s outer resonances. Highly volatile-depleted asteroids are suggested to have condensed at the recently-merged-super-energetic magnetic corotation radius of the Sun near the orbit of Mercury. And indeed, Mercury is suggested to be a hybrid-accretion super-Earth accreted from pimary-debris-disk asteroids. Then ‘evaporative’ orbit clearing by the terrestrial planets are suggested to have injected the asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Chondrites, by comparison, may have condensed in situ by GI against Jupiter’s inner resonances as late as 5 million years after the LRN, largely after the short-lived radionuclide radioactivity had greatly diminished, forming largely-undifferentiated chondrites. Finally, Kuiper (hot classical) belt objects (KBOs) are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptune’s outer resonances in warmer conditions than the condensation of the protoplanetary SDOs and thus with fewer volatile ices, so hot-classical KBOs may be largely water worlds.
After another 4 billion years of stellar core collapse, the binary components of binary-Companion similarly spiraled in to merge in an asymmetrical merger at 542 Ma which ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon, and the asymmetrical nature of the merger gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. The sudden appearance of most known phyla in the Cambrian Explosion is one of the major reasons for suggesting that one component of our former binary Companion was a cool Y dwarf, or still-smaller super Jupiter, which contaminated the solar system with free-swimming gas-giant lifeforms.
The 542 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion created a young ‘secondary debris disk’ which is suggested to have condensed a second round of (cold-classical) KBOs in situ against Neptun’s outer resonaces, principally against the 2:3 resonance. Most of the cold classical KBOs in low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits fragmented to form binary pairs. Binary Pluto with its geologically-young surface is also suggested to have condensed from the young secondary debris disk.
In the 4 billion year interim between the two spiral-in mergers, the wide-binary period increased at a presumably exponential rate, with the wide-binary Sun-Companion orbits becoming increasingly eccentric around the solar system barycenter (SSB). The angular momentum contributed by the spiral-in of the Companion’s binary pair would have made a negligible contribution to the wide-binary orbits around the SSB; however the potential energy contribution, by comparison, would have been considerable. An increase in orbital energy predominantly increases orbital periapsis while an increase in potential energy predominantly increases orbital apapsis, so the potential energy progressively increased the wide-binary apapsis approximately exponentially over time (which had the effect of making the Sun-Companion wide-binary orbits around the SSB more eccentric over time).
As the Sun’s apapsis spiraled out from the the SSB over time, by Galilean relativity the apapsis of the SSB could be said to have spiraled out into the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time. The SSB is suggested to have perturbed planetesimals as it crossed their semi-major axes, causing eccentric planetesimal orbits to flip-flop from having their aphelia pointing toward the Companion to being centrifugally slung away from it. And as the SSB caught up to the semi-major axes of KBOs in the Hadean and SDOs in the Proterozoic, it caused rhythmic flip-flopping of planetesimals with the Sun-Companion period around the SSB. The SSB is suggested to have crossed through the Kuiper belt from about 4.1 Ga to about 3.8 Ga, perturbing primary-debris-disk KBOs into the inner solar system, causing the late heavy bombardment (LHB). The SSB exited the Kuiper belt at 3,800 Ma, ushering in the relatively quiescent Archean Eon and reached the 3:1 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, entering the scattered disc which ushered in the Proterozoic Eon by perturbing protoplanetary SDOs into the inner solar system.
Finally, Apollo spherule counts suggest that the Moon (and by extension the Earth) has received significantly-more impacts in the Phanerozoic Eon than in the proceeding Eons since the LHB, suggesting that the Companion may have also had a protective effect more pronounced than the perturbative effect of the SSB.
First-hydrostatic-core fragmentation (FHSC-fragmentation) and second-hydrostatic-core fragmentation (SHSC-fragmentation) in collapsing molecular clouds:
FHSC-fragmentation is suggested to occur during collapse of a molecular cloud core (within Bok globules). The cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the central part of the cloud become optically thick at ~10-13 g/cm3 after 105 yr (Larson 1969), when the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC).
‘Fragmentation’ is the accepted term for forming companion stars in molecular cloud cores, which is also descriptive of the process of differentiating multiple stars from a solitary collapsing core. This section discusses a subset of the fragmentation process which is suggested to occur in gravitating prestellar cores, specifically in first cores that are distended into disk shapes by excess angular momentum.
FHSCs in collapsing prestellar cloud cores are on the order of 1 AU radius; however simulations indicate that angular momentum can distend first cores by an order of magnitude (Andre et al. 2008), so this suggested subset of the prestellar fragmentation process could not be responsible for forming solar-type binaries which were measured in two studies to have peak distributions of ∼30 AU or ∼50 AU (Reipurth et al. 2014). Instead, FHSC-fragmentation is suggested to be responsible for forming gas-giant planets with circa 1 AU orbits, along with some of their moons in subsequent fragmentations, but perhaps excluding hot Jupiters in low hot orbits which may result from protostar fragmentations of second hydrostatic cores (SHSCs).
When a first hydrostatic core (FHSC) reaches about 2000 K, the molecular hydrogen begins to disassociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’ or second hydrostatic core (SHSC), with a steep increase in density. During the second (endothermic) collapse or afterward in the second core, the core may fragment due to excess angular momentum, which is suggested to form proto-gas-giant planets in a low hot orbits, typically hundredths of an AU from its progenitor protostar. (Also see FHSC-fragmentation.)
Something smaller than a Bonnor–Ebert mass can not undergo Jeans instability from hydrostatic equilibrium on its own; however, once having exceeded the critical density for gravitational instability in a cloud core, additional compaction can allow smaller fragmented portions of a collapsing core to continue to collapse. So while a protoplanetary disk around T-Tauri stars does not have sufficient mass and density to undergo disk-instability fragmentation and self gravitate (i.e. protoplanetary disks do not undergo disk-instability fragmentation to form gas-giant planets), fragmentation is suggested to occur at an earlier prestellar stage when when the pressure and density are higher than they are subsequently in the protoplanetary disk around pre-main-sequence stars.
So if a FHSC-fragmentation or a SHSC-fragmentation is gravitationally bound within its own Roche sphere, the gas may continue collapsing to form a proto-(gas-giant)-planet, or possibly protostar. The Roche sphere of a fragmentation proto-planet is the boundary between the inward-directed force of gravity of the proto-planet and the outward-directed gravitational attraction toward the vastly-larger protostar. If hydrogen diffuses inward across the Roche sphere, the fragmented portion may ultimately accrete to brown dwarf or star size, but if hydrogen diffuses outward across the Roche sphere, volatile diffusion will progressively decrease the circumscribed mass, while increasing its metallicity, until ultimately the mass dissipates altogether or until inward flux of metallicity balances outward flux of volatility.
Continued gravitational contraction will cause the fragmented mass to ‘spin up’, where excess angular momentum may cause an additional fragmentation, possibly forming a binary proto-planet, where both of the binary components have their own Roche spheres with their own mass-dependent diffusion rates. So if fragmentation forms a binary proto-planet companion, the companion would be assigned a +1 generation number, compared to the hydrostatic mass from which it fragmented.
And each of the binary proto-star components may themselves undergo a next-generation fragmentation, due to excess angular momentum, forming still-smaller proto-moons. And each higher-generation fragmentation has a lower mass with a higher volatile depletion than the generation proceeding it. Final fragmentations due to excess angular momentum may be relatively ‘dry’, like fragmentations of binary asteroids and binary chondrites, largely devoid of hydrogen, helium and other volatiles.
Then dynamic resonant perturbation gives rise to hierarchy, causing the largest binary proto-planet components to spiral in until they merge to form a gas-giant planet, orbited by its higher-generation progeny within its gas-giant Roche sphere.
If a contracting mass has less angular momentum, it may fail to fragment until forming a second hydrostatic core, at a smaller diameter, at higher temperature and density. Thus hot Jupiter’s in low hot orbits with low specific angular momentum are suggested to form from by SHSC-fragmentation, without the aid of planet migration.
Merger-fragmentation in binary stellar mergers and in binary gas-giant planet mergers:
A suggested third type of stellar (and planetary) fragmentation may occur during the common envelope phase of binary spiral-in mergers, facilitated by electromagnetic repulsion. When Roche spheres touch in a stellar ‘contact binary’, the smaller stellar component may siphon material from the larger component until their masses are more-nearly balanced.
An actively-merging binary pair can rid itself of excess potential energy by radiation and a super-intense solar wind, but ridding itself of excess angular momentum is not as straightforward, since the solar wind only has average specific angular momentum such that merging cores would have to vaporize their entire cores to eliminate their remaining angular momentum.
While ‘contact binaries’ can be stable for millions to billions of years, the ‘common envelope’ phase is unstable, lasting only months to years. As stars the cores continue to spiral in within an enshrouding common (plasma) envelope, tidal gravity is suggested to distort the cores into a ‘bar-mode instability’, with a symmetrical pair of bars of higher angular momentum gas extending radially outward from the cores, attached gravitationally and electromagnetically. But the strain of a slower Keplerian rotation rate of the bars at a greater radial distance from the barycenter may cause them to smear into a tail. (To avoid the ambiguity of plurals, lets discuss one side of a bilateral bar-mode instability, having a core, bar and tail.) If or when the tail pinches off in a magnetic reconnection event, induced opposing magnetic fields between the pinched off tail and bar-mode arm attached to the stellar core may give the core something to magnetically push backward against to catastrophically give up sufficient angular momentum for the cores to merge. And the backward kick may give the pinched-off gravitationally-bound mass sufficient angular momentum to climb into a circa 1 AU orbit, with the bilateral symmetry forming two merger-fragmentation planets.
While FHSC-fragmentation and SHSC-fragmentation are suggested to form exactly one offspring, merger-fragmentation is suggested to form exactly two offspring, forming twin planets. When the stellar Roche spheres initially touch in the ‘contact binary’ phase, the smaller stellar component may siphon the atmosphere of the larger component until their masses are nearly balanced, perhaps tending to form twin planets with particularly-similar masses and densities like Venus and Earth. Indeed, Venus and Earth are suggested to be merger-fragmentation twin planets formed from the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma. Their severe volatile depletion occurred in their pithy proto-planet phase while orbiting inside the brief LRN (red-giant) phase of the Sun for a number of months following the merger. Stellar mergers of pre-main-sequence stars, however, may avoid a LRN, including a red-giant phase, resulting in significantly larger and more volatile twin merger-fragmentation planets, still, presumably, in circa 1 AU orbits.
In the Jovian system, Io and Europa are suggested to be merger-fragmentation moons formed during the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Jupiter, presumably prior the solar merger at 4,568 Ma.
Condensation of planetesimals by gravitational instability (GI) against stellar or giant-planet resonances in accretion disks:
Pebble accretion does not appear to be borne out by an examination of chondrites that appear to have no internal structure above that of chondrules and CAIs. If chondrules formed by melting accretionary dust clumps in super-intense solar flares from the 3 million year flare-star phase of the Sun following its spiral-in merger, then inner solar system accretion appears to end at chondrule-sized masses (inside the snow line). Large, centimeter-scale chondrules, such as those in late-forming CB chondrites (4,562.7 Ma), point to late formation date at considerably-greater distance from the Sun, suggesting melting of accretionary masses, perhaps against Saturn’s outer resonances in centaur orbits (between Saturn and Uranus) from core material ejected in polar jets from the the spiral-in merger of former binary Saturn.
Gravitational instability (GI) within accretion disks is suggested to require a resonant pressure dam to sufficiently concentrate dust and ice grains spiraling in due to gas drag. This pressure-dam resonance may be,
1) the inner or outer orbital resonances of giant planets,
2) the magnetic corotation radius of a (proto)star (or recently-merged star in the case of a debris disk), or
3) the binary resonances that define the inner edge of a circumbinary accretion disk.
Our suggested former quadruple-star solar system apparently condensed planetesimals against the inner edge of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk when our former binary-Companion had spiraled out sufficiently to allow the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form in the ever-increasing wide-binary gap between binary-Sun and binary-Companion. And these protoplanetary planetesimals are suggested to have accreted to form the hybrid-accretion (Thayne Curie 2005) planets, Uranus and Neptune, with the leftover planetesimals scattered into the scattered disc.
After the emergence of Saturn and Jupiter as circumbinary planets around our former binary-Sun, a second round of protoplanetary planetesimal condensation may have taken place at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, which accreted to form the planet Mars.
Next, following the binary spiral-in merger of binary-Sun, the primary debris disk may have condensed severely-volatile-depleted asteroids at the magnetic corotation radius of the recently-merged Sun, most of which accreted to form the hybrid-accretion planet Mercury. Somewhat later, chondrites may have condensed by GI against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances.
Finally, Kuiper belt objects are suggested to have condensed by GI from the primary and secondary debris disks against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances.
Exponential rate of increase in the wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation:
Note: The actual mass of our former binary Companion is relatively unimportant if the perturbation of KBOs and SDOs is due to the solar system barycenter between the Sun and the Companion, as suggested, so the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB and our former binary Companion corresponding to the mass of Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri would complete the symmetry: suggesting a former .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) binary-Companion.
Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separate the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting an the first of a bimodal pulse LHB. (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in Far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
In addition to earlier lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
Evidence suggesting an an early pulse of a bimodal LHB with hte sharply-defined early pulse around 4.22 Ga when the SSB crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune where the Plutino population resides. The second main pulse of the LHB occurred as the SSB traveled through the KBO ‘cubewanos’ which reside between the 2:3 resonace with Neptune and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.
Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation of the form,
y = mx + b
y is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
x is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
m is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
b is the y-intercept, corresponding to 0.0 Ma (the present)
Calculate ‘m’ and ‘b’:
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune:
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b
1.5955 = log( 39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
1.6335 = log( 43 AU)
1.2370 = log( 1 + 16.26 ) This scales the SSB distance from the Sun to the Companion. With the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is ‘16.26’, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26 (added logarithms are multiplied distances).
Solving for ‘m’ and ‘b’, yields:
y = -x/8421 + 3.334
x = 4,567 Ma, y = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
x = 4,220 Ma, y = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutino orbit)
x = 3,900 Ma, y = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (classical Kuiper belt spike)
x = 2,500 Ma, y = 1088 AU, SSB = 63 AU (Archean to Proterozoic, TTG to granite transition)
x = 542 Ma, y = 1859 AU, SSB = 108 AU
The SSB crossed the 1:3 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2530 Ma at the Archean to Proterozoic boundary, when when Tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) gneiss domes transition to granite in continental basement rock (The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, 2006).
So the timing of the LHB may be calculable and falsifiable rather than fortuitous and ad hoc as in Grand Tack:
1) The Sun-Companion solar-system barycenter (SSB) crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The SSB reaches 43 AU in the classical Kuiper belt Cubewanos at 3.9 Ga, causing the second and extended pulse of the LHB, ending around 3.8 Ga and ushering in the Archean Eon.
3) The SSB reaches the 3:1 resonance with Neptune (62.5 AU) at 2.5 Ga, entering the scattered disc to where the bulk of protoplanetary planetesimals are suggested to have been scattered by Neptune
SSB perturbation makes an additional falsifiable suggestion that (SSB) perturbation initiated aqueous differentiation in planetesimals, forming gneiss-dome cores in Plutinos and KBOs (TNOs = Plutinos + KBOs) and supracrustal rock on the surface of SDOs. (See sections:
– AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF TNOs, DWARF PLANETS AND COMETS
– SUPRACRUSTAL ROCK AS A DIFFERENTIATED DEBRIS-DISK COATING ON TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS)
Asymmetry of the Companion merger at 542 Ma:
While the contact-binary and common-envelope phases of spiral-in stellar mergers are known to bleed gas from the larger stellar component to the smaller stellar component, tending to balance the component masses prior to merger, the process may be less efficient in cooler stars and particularly so in compact brown dwarf binary pairs, permitting sufficient asymmetry in the brown-dwarf merger of our former Companion to have resulted in escape velocity.
Kuiper belt, scattered disc and Oort cloud:
So the well behaved Kuiper belt condensed in situ, explaining its typically low inclination and low eccentricity of TNOs compared to SDOs which are suggested to have been scattered outward by Uranus and Neptune. Then the ‘Kuiper cliff’ can be explained as a combination of in situ condensation of larger debris-disk planetesimals inside the 1:2 resonance with Neptune and orbit clearing of comets by the Companion to a distance beyond its own 1:3 resonance, putting the inner edge of the IOC at about 3800 AU (with the 1:3 resonance beyond the Companion about twice the apapsis distance of the 1859 AU Companion from the Sun by 542 Ma).
Former quadruple-star with binary-Companion conclusions:
– Timing and mechanism for a bimodal LHB
– All the Eon transitions on Earth: Hadean to Archean, Archean to Proterozoic, and Proterozoic to Phanerozoic
– Composition and location of Plutinos and classical (in situ) Kuiper belt and ‘Kuiper cliff’
– Composition of the scattered disc and location of scattered disc
– Composition of the Oort cloud and the location of the inner edge of the IOC
– Cambrian Explosion of life on Earth
– Transitional trends in Earth’s rock record and the origin of continental tectonic plates
Mechanism for perturbation of planetesimals by a former solar system barycenter (SSB):
The Sun and Companion are hypothesized to have spiraled out from the SSB at an exponential rate for 4 billion years on increasingly-eccentric orbits, fueled by core collapse of the hard close-binary-Companion system. The Sun and Companion orbital eccentricity around the SSB could be replaced by Galilean relativity from the perspective of the Sun, by the SSB periodically sweeping through the solar system, with each sweep extending deeper into the Kuiper Belt and then scattered disc due to exponential core collapse of the triple (Sun, binary-Companion) star system.
SSB-periapsis: Specially defined as the closest approach of the SSB to the Sun (in the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB)
SSB-apoapsis: Specially defined as the most distant excursion of the SSB from the Sun (in the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB)
Waxing SSB: The portion of the Sun-Companion orbit during which the Sun-SSB distance was increasing over time
Waning SSB: The portion of the Sun-Companion orbit during which the Sun-SSB distance was decreasing over time
Negative gravitational binding energy is an inverse square function with distance, such that an orbit 100 times further away will have 1/10,000 the binding energy. Angular momentum, by comparison, is an inverse square function of the semimajor axis, such that an orbit 10 times further away will have 10 times the angular momentum. Since the binding energy function is much steeper than the angular momentum function with respect to distance, the components of binary-Companion could effectively reduce the negative Sun-Companion binding energy of the system without materially affecting its angular momentum. Periapsis of an orbit is a good measure of its relative angular momentum while apoapsis is a good measure of its relative binding energy, so the 4 billion year spiral-in of the binary components of binary-Companion effectively increased the Sun-Companion apoapsis at an exponential rate, (by Galilean relativity) causing the SSB apoapsis to spiral out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over time, perturbing planetesimals with progressively greater semi-major axes over time (becoming progressively eccentric over time).
(Note, the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB is assumed to be much longer than trans-Neptunian object (TNO) periods. The following example is of a scattered disc object (SDO) during the Phanerozoic Eon, but a cubewano during the Hadean Eon would work as well.)
At the Sun-Companion barycentric closest approach (SSB-periapsis) the SSB was closer to the Sun than SDO perihelia (< 30.1 AU). With the SSB closer to the Sun than SDOs, their eccentric aphelia would have been gravitationally attracted to the Companion and thus would have pointed toward the Companion, with their long axes aligned with the Sun-Companion axis. But as stellar core collapse caused the SSB-apoapsis to spiral deeper and deeper into the scattered disc, centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB tending to sling the orbit away from the Companion became increasingly more significant while the gravitational attraction toward the Companion became progressively weaker. When the SSB crossed the semimajor axes of planetesimals, their aphelia suddenly flip-flopped from pointing toward the Companion to pointing away from the Companion, and when the SSB-periapsis dipped below the perihelia of the planetesimals, planetesimal orbits reset, once again flip-flopping to point toward the Companion again. So in this way as the SSB reached deeper and deeper into the scattered disk during the Proterozoic Eon, progressively more SDOs flip-flopped with the Sun-Companion period.
Earth ocean tide analogy:
On Earth, ‘spring tide’ experiences more gravitational acceleration toward the Moon on the Moon side of the Earth-Moon barycenter (which lies inside the Earth) and experiences more centrifugal acceleration away from the Moon on the far side. Similarly, a heliocentric orbit which crossed the former SSB would have nominally experienced more gravitational acceleration toward the Companion on the Companion side of the SSB (toward orbital perihelion) and more centrifugal acceleration away from the Companion beyond the SSB (toward orbital aphelion). Note, the semi-major axis [half way between perihelion and aphelion] is stated as the ‘nominal’ crossover point for gravitational vs. centrifugal acceleration without proof in this conceptual approach.
Orbital flip-flop, ‘aphelia precession’:
During ‘waxing-SSB’, when the SSB would reach the semi-major axis of an SDO, the perihelion side of an SDO orbit would feel a stronger centrifugal force away from the Companion than its gravitational attraction toward the Companion, cause ‘aphelion precession’ of the SDO away from the Companion when the SSB crossed the semimajor axis of the SDO. During ‘waning-SSB’, when the SSB retreated below the semimajor axis of the SSB, the SDO experienced a stronger gravitational attraction toward the Companion than a centrifugal force away from it and aphelion precession was toward the Companion. Note that this greatly-simplified analogy completely ignores the position of the SDO in its orbit around the Sun, so the actual precession would likely reverse itself repeatedly with each Sun-Companion period.
The angular-momentum vector precession associated with SSB-mediated aphelia precession is suggested to have initiated the spiral-in merger of binary classical Kuiper belt objects during the Hadean Eon, whereas binary SDOs had presumably merged prior to 4,567 Ma due to perturbative torque during the orbit clearing of Uranus and Neptune.
Beat patterns in aphelia precession may have robbed some planetesimals of their heliocentric energy and angular momentum, causing their perihelia to spiral in to the planetary realm, where the giant planets decided their ultimate fate. Planetesimals with different orbital periods may have experienced exactly the opposite affect, having their orbits pumped with energy and angular momentum, perhaps explaining the origin of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP-113.
Gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, so it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system.
separating Sun-Companion by 100s AU from one another, and perhaps as much as 2000 AU at the wide-binary Sun-Companion apoapsis by 543 Ma. While aphelia precession of TNOs is suggested to be the primary perturbation mechanism, shepherding a trillion comets into the inner Oort cloud through Companion orbit clearing and resonant effects may have been significant as well.
Gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, so it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer in our former triple-star system. But aphelia precession of KBOs and SDOs may have caused a persistent torque which over 4 billion years had a significant cumulative effect.
Oort cloud comets:
Before the wide-binary separation opened sufficiently to permit the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun, an earlier protoplanetary disk may have condensed a trillion circa 1-20 km comets which were gradually shepherded out into the inner Oort cloud (IOC) beyond the Sun-Companion wide-binary pair over the next 4 billion years.
But since gravitational perturbation is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, it’s hard to make a case for the Sun as the perturbator of the binary components of binary-Companion which caused the close-binary–to–wide-binary energy transfer separating Sun-Companion by 100s AU from one another, and perhaps as much as 2000 AU at the wide-binary Sun-Companion apoapsis by 542 Ma. While aphelia precession of TNOs is suggested to be the primary perturbation mechanism of the triple star system, the heavy lift of shepherding a trillion comets into the inner Oort cloud may have been significant as well.
In addition to the heavy lift of boosting comets into the Oort cloud, the orbital kick (‘gravity assist’ or ‘gravitational slingshot’) of comet close encounters with one of the binary components of binary-Companion may have ejected many comets into the outer Oort cloud (OOC) or more likely out of the solar system altogether, extracting more than average angular momentum from the binary-Companion components.
Surprisingly, the potential energy of one stellar hard binary can equal the binding energy of an entire globular cluster. “Binaries provide a huge reservoir of energy; a single hard binary can have a binding energy equal to that of the [globular] cluster as a whole!” (The Dynamic Lives of Globular Clusters, by S. George Djorgovski) So, perhaps, the combined effect of many hard-binary TNOs and comets may have a significant cumulative effect, even on vastly-larger brown dwarfs. And the typical peanut shape of presumed contact-binary comets points to spiral-in-merger perturbation.
Hot-Jupiter SHSC-fragmentation planets Jupiter and Saturn:
When the temperature in the core of protostars with a FHSC reaches several thousand Kelvins, endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen and its ionization absorb incremental energy of compression contributed by new infalling gas, clamping the temperature and promoting nearly-isothermal (runaway) gravitational collapse in the core. Runaway gravitational collapse of the FHSC may isolate the outer layers which have too much angular momentum to collapse into the SHSC and thus assume Keplerian orbit. If the increasingly doughnut shaped ring of isolated gas destabilizes and gravitationally collects on one side into its own Roche sphere, it may subsequently undergo its own Jeans instability to become a gas-giant proto-planet in a low hot orbit.
For Jeans instability, the free-fall time must be less than the sound crossing time, otherwise the system rebounds, but evaporative diffusion of volatile hydrogen across a vast proto-planet Roche sphere will tend to progressively increase the average molecular weight of the proto-planet over time, decreasing the speed of sound until free fall wins, collapsing to form a FHSC. During this initial gravitational collapse, proto-planets themselves will typically fragment due to excess angular momentum, bifurcating to form binary proto-planets, perhaps with even greater frequency than the formation of binary stars, since the fragmented proto-planet formed due to excess angular momentum in the first place. Still higher generations of fragmentations may form proto-moons which themselves may fragment to form binary-moons, (although below a certain mass the collapsing material may be sufficiently gas depleted so as not to have a temporarily-stable hydrostatic state). And the multiplicity of resonant beat frequencies of binary stars with their binary planets binary moons may cause rapid secular core collapse of the system, causing the rapid spiral in of binary pairs chasing nearby beat frequencies.
In our own solar system, the larger A-star ‘Jupiter-component’ of binary Sun formed the SHSC-fragmentation, Jupiter, and the smaller B-star ‘Saturn-component’ may formed the SHSC-fragmentation planet, Saturn. The separation of the Jupiter-component from the Saturn-component of binary-Sun at the time they fragmented their respective hot-Jupiters may have been about the current maximum separation of Jupiter from Saturn at opposition with respect to the Sun, that is about the separation of Jupiter’s semi-major axis plus Saturn’s semi-major axis for a total binary separation of about 15 AU.
Gas-giant proto-planets, in turn, will also form first and second hydrostatic cores, and may typically fragment during the formation of their FHSCs to briefly become binary planets. And each binary-planet component may in turn for spin-off moons during the formation of their SHSCs which may themselves fragment to form binary moons. In this way, Ganymede may be a spin-off moon formed from the larger binary-Jupiter component, with spin-off moon Callisto forming around the smaller binary-Jupiter component. (And Ganymede and Callisto likely fragmented to form binary moons which subsequently spiraled in to merge and form solitary moons, like former binary-Jupiter and binary-Saturn.
As binary Sun spiraled in, Jupiter and Saturn retained their orbital energy and angular momentum and so were left behind their progenitor stars. When Jupiter and Saturn, in turn, reached the nearest Lagrangian point of the binary solar pair they converted from circumprimary and circumsecondary orbits to circumbinary orbits. And Jupiter’s SHSC-fragmentation ‘hot-moons’ Ganymede and Callisto did likewise until Jupiter’s binary components spiraled in to merge to form a solitary Jupiter prior to the 4,568 Ma solar merger. Jupiter’s 4 Galilean moons appear to correspond to the formation process of Jupiter-and-Saturn and Venus-and-Earth. By comparison, Saturn’s former SHSC-fragmentation moons appear not to have spiraled in and merged like Jupiter’s, but instead to have spiraled out and separated, forming the 4 low-density moons, Mimas, Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus, perhaps due to proximity to the solar B-star during Saturn’s transition from circumsecondary to circumbinary status. But like Jupiter’s merger-fragmentation moons Io and Europa, Saturn’s hypothesized merger-moons, Enceladus and Dione, are higher density than Mimas, Tethys, Rhea and Iapetus, and thus likely fragmented to form binary moons which spiraled in to merge.
Merger-fragmentation planets Earth and Venus:
The proceeding subsection on merger-fragmentation describes the suggested process for forming merger-fragmentation planets and moons in circa 1 AU orbits. Along with Venus and Earth, Io and Europa at Jupiter and Enceladus and Dione at Saturn are suggested to be merger-fragmentation moons.
Proto-Venus and proto-Earth underwent substantial volatile depletion in their vulnerable proto-planet phase in which they filled their respective Roche spheres while likely orbiting inside the greatly-expanded red-giant (LRN) phase of the Sun, which lasted less than an Earth year.
The red giant phase of LRN M85OT2006-1 would have reached the Kuiper Belt and perhaps well into it with a size estimated as R = 2.0 +.6-.4 x 10^4 solar radii with a peak luminosity of about 5 x 10^6 solar mass. (Rau et. al. 2007) “Previously published line indices suggest that M85 has a mean stellar age of 1.6+/-0.3 Gyr. If this mean age is representative of the progenitor of M85 OT 2006-1, then we can further constrain its mass to be less than 2 Msolar.” (Ofek et al. 2007) So the red-giant phase of the solar LRN of half the mass likely have enveloped at least the terrestrial planets along with Jupiter and Saturn, and would have contributed to the volatilization of proto-Venus and proto-Earth across the enormous surface area of their Roche spheres, but the red-giant phase only lasts for a few months.
The magnetically repelled gravitationally-bound merger-fragmentation masses cooled by expansion as well as by diffusive evaporation of hydrogen and helium and other volatiles across their enormous Roche spheres. When the twin masses had cooled and the metallicity had climbed sufficiently for the sound crossing time to exceed the freefall time, the globules underwent Jeans instability. collapsing to form a FHSC. Both proto-Venus and proto-Earth likely underwent FHSC-fragmentation forming binary pairs, but the smaller binary Earth component apparently underwent secondary FHSC-fragmentation to form a tertiary component. Then subsequent core collapse caused binary Earth to spiral in, lifting the tertiary component to become Earth’s oversized Moon with high angular momentum. All the former binary components of Venus and trinary components of Earth may have originally begun to differentiate an anorthosite crust by fractional crystallization during slow cooling, but only the Moon failed to merge and thus the Moon alone retains its formational anorthosite crust in its lunar highlands.
The spiral-in merger of the binary Earth components, some 50 million years after the solar merger, may have emitted polar jets of molten core material, highly chemically reduced and highly siderophile in composition. This material may apparently condensed below Jupiter’s 4:1 resonance at about 2 AU from the Sun to form chemically-reduced enstatite chondrites, dated 4.516 ± 0.029 Ga (Minster et al. 1979), elevated in siderophile elements which lie on the terrestrial fractionation line, telegraphing their origin from Earth’s core.
Earth’s ‘terrestrial fractionation line’ (∆17O) on a 3-isotope oxygen plot lies below presumably protoplanetary Mars, which indicates terrestrial contamination with stellar-merger oxygen-16 enrichments, but if the proto-merger-masses were magnetically hurled off during spiral in, then the contamination must have been the result of inward diffusion of oxygen-16 from the red-giant phase of the LRN and subsequently during the 5 million year debris-ring phase during which chondrites were presumably condensed by GI. Mars too would have received an LRN debris-disk coating, but a vastly more massive (if originally Saturn sized) and pithy object like proto-Earth would have had a vastly-larger surface on which to interact with dust and heavy gaseous compounds in heliocentric orbits. Unfortunately we have no Venus meteorites to see if the twin merger-fragmentation planets also have twin isotopic signatures.
Super-Earth planets Uranus and Neptune:
Uranus and Neptune are suggested to be a two-planet ‘hybrid accretion’ cascade of super-Earths formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals condensed by GI at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk around former binary-Sun.
Uranus is suggested to have spiraled in as a result of the lift required to clear its orbit of leftover planetesimals, resulting in its 98° axial tilt. But whether the bulk of the planetesimals condense in one go against the binary-Sun resonances or whether the rise of Uranus disrupted the protoplanetary disk sufficiently to precipitate a second generation of planetesimals near the orbit of Neptune is unknown. If the latter occurred to any great extent, then conceivably, even a third generation of planetesimals might have condensed at the distance of Neptune’s outer resonances or beyond. But even if inner super-Earths disrupt the protoplanetary disk, the outermost gap between adjacent super-Earth orbits in exoplanet solar systems with cascades of 3 or more super-Earths is always substantially wider than then gaps between inner planets within the same cascade, so the last super-Earth apparently subject to less heavy lifting. (See section: CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS)
The elevated ∆17O of Martian meteorites compared to the terrestrial fractionation line suggests a hybrid-accretion protoplanetary origin for Mars, slightly before the 4,567 Ma solar merger.
As binary-Sun continued spiraling in after forming super-Earths Uranus and Neptune, the emergence of Saturn and Neptune as circumbinary planets disrupted any reformation of the protoplanetary disk until the orbit of Mars, at less than 1/3 the orbit of Jupiter. By this time, however, the protoplanetary disk was fast dissipating and only able to condense sufficient planetesimals to hybrid accrete a diminutive super-Earth. Then subsequent orbit clearing by Mars may be the origin of protoplanetary icy asteroids like Ceres.
Mars has significant outcrops of finely-layered rock (with horizontal layering) on a centimeter scale, which has been photographed by the various Mars rovers, but in the Arabia Terra region, Mars orbiters have photographed bedrock layering on a much coarser meter scale in chasmas and central crater uplifts, and much of this coarser layering is tilted. A number of processes are indicated.
After condensation by GI, gravitational perturbation from beat frequencies with nearby minor-planet-sized planetesimals and Mars itself may heat the planetesimal to the melting point of water ice, precipitating authigenic minerals that form surficial supracrustal rock at or near the planetesimal surface. The rhythmic layering occurs on two scales, forming ‘steps’ a few meters thick; then the steps are grouped into ‘bundles’ of 10 steps, so the layering has steps and the steps have bundles suggesting two strong beat frequencies stressing the former planetesimal. Becquerel Crater has a particularly-good exposure of the steps and bundles in the (slightly offset) central uplift. Rhythmic layering on two frequency scales is easily conceived in an orbital environment where the former planetesimal was perturbed by beat frequencies with two perturbing objects, one in a slightly higher orbit with a longer period and the other in a slightly lower orbit with a shorter period. Or perhaps binary-Sun could have constituted one beat frequency component. Such a busy orbital neighborhood with overlapping resonances seems to make the most sense in the context of the early solar system during the active hybrid-accretion formation of Mars. Thus the hybrid accretion of an aqueously-differentiated planetesimal points to Martian formation as a super-Earth.
The twisted terrain of Hellas Planitia (impact basin) is suggested to be something slightly different, perhaps from the outer solar system. If Hellas impact basin occurred during the LHB, then the twisted terrain may represent the differentiated core of a secondary–debris-disk KBO, with aqueous differentiation occurring catastrophically when a former KBO binary pair spiraled in to merge, initiating aqueous differentiation in the core. So while the rhythmic layering in Arabia Terra is suggested to be progressive surficial supracrustal rock, the gneiss-dome twisted terrain of Hellas Planitia is suggested to represent catastrophic aqueous differentiation in the core with typical metamorphic rock, comparable to TTG series gneiss domes formed during the Hadean and Early Archean Eons on Earth.
Asteroids, chondrites, Mercury and the odd rotation rates of Mercury and Venus:
CAIs are suggested to have condensed from polar jets blasting from the core of the spiral-in solar-component merger, explaining their canonical enrichment of stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis aluminum-26. If the flare-star phase of the Sun following the LRN melted dust accretions to form chondrules, then the flare-star phase must have lasted the 3 million-year duration of chondrule formation. The 1 slope of chondrules and CAIs of the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line indicates complete mixing, whereas the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line indicates complete fractionation (not mass-independent fractionation as is commonly supposed). Ordinary chondrites, however, have a greatly-elevated ∆17O bulk-matrix lying above presolar Mars 3-oxygen-isotope fractionation line which may indeed be due to photochemical-induced mass-independent fractionation due to extended solar radiation exposure of small dust grains with high surface-to-volume ratios over some 5 million years prior to their condensation by GI into ordinary chondrites, where mass-independent fractionation may be “occurring mainly in photochemical and spin-forbidden reactions” (Wikipedia–Mass-independent fractionation).
Asteroids are suggested to have condensed by GI from the inner edge of the solar-merger debris disk sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun. And Mercury may be a hybrid accretion of asteroids, followed by asteroid orbit-clearing by the 3 terrestrial planets into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Rocky-iron asteroids may have ‘thermally differentiated’ by radioactive decay of LRN f-process radionuclides, whereas chondrites may have condensed after the relative extinction of the short-lived radionuclides. So the planet Mercury is suggested to have isotopic enrichments similar to the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) meteorites thought to be from 4 Vesta.
If Venus had formerly been in a synchronous orbit around the Sun prior to the loss of our former binary-Companion, the loss of the centrifugal force is suggested to have lowered its orbit slightly, perhaps accounting for its slight retrograde rotation. The planet Mercury is in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance in which it undergoes 3 rotations for every 2 orbits around the Sun, so if Mercury had a former 1:1 synchronous orbit like Venus, then its prograde rotation rate increased, unlike Venus. However, perhaps this configuration was the simplest Sun-Mercury closed-system conservation of total energy and angular momentum.
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos:
“We have searched 101 Classical transneptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space
Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical transneptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)
“The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits (Stevenson et al. 1986).”
“The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI.”
“We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical
composition (and colors) of the binary components
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)
From the proceeding references, the high frequency of binary KBOs in the cold population with similar-size and similar-color components argue for (in situ) condensation of 100 km and larger minor planets by gravitational instability.
Cold and hot classical Kuiper belt populations (cubewanos):
Most cubewanos are found between the 2:3 and 1:2 orbital resonance with Neptune, although there is no formal definition of cubewano or classical KBO. The low-eccentricity, low-inclination cubewanos are defined as the cold population, with the ‘hot’ population having distinctly higher-eccentricity and higher-inclination orbits. The cutoff inclination between the hot and cold populations is set at 12°.
Cold classical KBOs:
– Low inclination
– Low eccentricity
– Reddish coloration
– Typical binary configuration, similar size and color
Hot classical KBOs:
– Higher inclination
– Higher eccentricity
– Bluish coloration
– Typical solitary configuration
If orbital perturbation tends to cause binary pairs to spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate,
if orbital perturbation tends to increase orbital inclination,
if orbital perturbation tends to increase orbital eccentricity,
if orbital perturbation tends to mix blue and red populations,
then cold cubewanos are suggested to have condensed in situ since the last substantial upheaval which perturbed the hot population.
Two discrete populations suggests condensation from two discrete debris-disks, the first ‘primary debris disk’ at 4,568 Ma and the second ‘secondary debris disk’ at 542 Ma. And two discrete populations are provided for by a former quadruple (quad) star system ideology for our solar system which underwent two spiral-in merger incidents separated by 4 billion years. By comparison, two distinct populations are problematical for the Grand Tack Hypothesis.
If the typically-binary cold cubewanos are suggested to have condensed 542 million years ago then binary dwarf-planet Pluto is most likely also 542 million years old, explaining the young uncratered surface with its 11,000 foot high mountains estimated to be no more than 100 million years old discovered in 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft.
The preexisting hot cubewano population and SDOs likely received a substantial accretionary coating from the young 542 Ma secondary debris disk, perhaps in some cases sufficient to initiate surficial aqueous differentiation (forming faux Proterozoic supracrustal-like ‘platform’ rock?). Additionally, the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter may have caused tidal-stress-induced melting of water ice, combined with thermal melting by brown-dwarf-merger nucleosynthesis radionuclides.
Andre, Philippe; Basu, Shantanu; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, 2008, The Formation and Evolution
of Prestellar Cores, arXiv:0801.4210 [astro-ph].
Dixon, E. T., Bogard, D. D., Garrison, D. H., & Rubin, A. E. 2004, Geochim. Cosmochim.
Acta, 68, 3779.
Garrick-Bethell, I.; Fernandez, V. A.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Becker, T. A., 2008, 4.2 BILLION YEAR OLD AGES FROM APOLLO 16, 17, AND THE LUNAR FARSIDE: AGE OF THE
SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN?, Early Solar System Impact Bombardement.
Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295.
Minster, J. F.; Ricard, L. P.; Allegre, C. J., 1979, 87Rb-87Sr chronology of enstatite meteorites, Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 44, Issue 3, Sept. 1979
Nesvorny, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Richardson, Derek C., (2010), Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse, The Astronomical Journal 140 (2010) 785, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/785
Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, William M.; Stephens, Denise C.; Levison, Harold F.; Kern Susan D., 2008, Evidence for Two Populations of Classical Transneptunian Objects: The Strong Inclination Dependence of Classical Binaries, arXiv:0711.1545
Reipurth, Bo; Clarke, Cathie J.; Boss, Alan P.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Rodriguez, Luis Felipe; Stassun, Keivan G.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Zinnecker, Hans, 2014, Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution, arXiv:1403.1907 [astro-ph.SR].
Trieloff, M., Jessberger, E. K., & Oehm, J. 1989, Meteoritics, 24, 332.
Trieloff, M., Deutsch, A., Kunz, J., & Jessberger, E. K. 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 541.
THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs):
Quadruple star system:
Our former protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times during its gravitational collapse to form a quadruple star system which evolved into a hierarchical wide binary system with each wide binary component composed of a close binary pair, (close) binary-Sun and (close) binary-Companion, and comets are suggested to have condensed from the inside edge of an early circum-multiple-star-system protoplanetary disk beyond or before the stellar fragmentation which formed binary-Companion.
Scattered disc objects (SDO) are suggested to have condensed by gravitational instability (GI) at the resonance-pressurized inside edge of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around our former binary-Sun after binary-Companion had spiraled out sufficiently to allow the formation of a circumbinary protoplanetary disk. A majority of these protoplanetary planetesimals hybrid accreted to form Uranus and Neptune, with a small leftover remnant scattered out to the scattered disc by Neptune prior to 4,568 Ma.
Secular perturbation of the quadruple system caused the wide-binary separation to increase (spiral out) at an presumed exponential rate, fueled by the potential energy of the close binary pairs which spiraled in. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge in a ‘luminous red nova’ (LRN) also sometimes called a ‘red transient’, which created a secondary debris disk from which condensed asteroids and chondrites in the inner solar system and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances. KBOs presumably condensed by GI at warmer temperatures than comets and SDOs and are thus predominantly ‘water worlds’, compared to protoplanetary comets and SDOs which presumably additionally condensed a considerable component of more volatile ices like carbon monoxide and nitrogen.
Solar system dynamics:
Continued stellar ‘core collapse’ following the solar LRN continued to increase the wide-binary Sun–binary-Companion separation at a presumably lower exponential rate, fueled by the close-binary presumably brown-dwarf components. Sun and binary-Companion orbited the solar system barycenter (SSB) for the next 4 billion years until the components of binary-Companion merged in an asymmetrical merger which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun at 543 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon.
Solar system barycenter (SSB) perturbation:
As the Sun and binary-Companion spiraled out from the SSB by Galilean relativity from the perspective of the Sun, the SSB effectively spiraled out into the Kuiper belt during the Hadean Eon and into the scattered disc during the Proterozoic Eon. KBO perturbation by the SSB during the Hadean is suggested to have caused the late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the inner solar system from 4.2 to 3.8 Ga and SSB perturbation of SDOs during the Proterozoic Eon is suggested to have caused them to internally differentiate to form granite plutons and surfically differentiate to form supracrustal rock, while also perturbing SDOs into the inner solar system.
Alternative solar-system ideology:
Scattered disk objects (SDOs):
The typically high-eccentricity and or high-inclination orbits of SDOs are suggested to be due to their having been scattered outward by Uranus and Neptune during their planetary orbit-clearing phases, assumedly prior to 4,567 Ma. SDOs are suggested to have condensed by GI from the protoplanetary disk while still within our birth Bok globule, presumably from solid-phase icy chondrules in which the majority of stellar metallicity is suggested to reside within Bok globules (See section, DARK MATTER). Stars, planets, moons and planetesimals formed by gravitational instability (GI) typically fragment (bifurcate) due to excess angular momentum, forming gravitationally-bound close-binary pairs; however, scattering by Uranus and Neptune likely perturbed binary pairs to either spiral in and merge or spiral out and dissociate. Additionally, many SDOs will have undergone collisional mergers at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk. And finally, the orbit-clearing perturbation would have caused tidal stresses on SDOs, contributing perturbative energy; however, the heat of vaporization of sublimed volatile ices is suggested to have clamped SDO temperatures below the freezing point of water during collisions, mergers and orbit clearing perturbation by Uranus and Neptune to the scattered disc, clamping the internal temperature below the melting point of water ice where (inherited) authigenic mineral grains can form.
Debris-disk condensates, including KBOs:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged at 4,567 Ma , creating a ‘luminous red nova’ (LRN), ‘red nova’ or ‘red transient’. The stellar-merger explosion is suggested to have formed a secondary debris disk which condensed asteroids, chondrites and KBOs, of which Mercury may be the largest hybrid-accretion asteroid. Asteroids were the first condensates from the debris disk, and thus condensed most volatile depleted at the highest temperatures in the lowest heliocentric orbit with the most most active stellar-merger-nucleosynthesis radionuclides. Core accretion of asteroids condensed by gravitational instability (GI) formed Mercury, followed by planetary orbit clearing of the leftover asteroids into Jupiter’s inner resonances. Chondrites condensed as late as 5 million years after the stellar merger, perhaps in situ within Jupiter’s inner resonances. But even KBOs, the most distant condensates of the secondary debris disk, are assumedly more volatilely depleted than protoplanetary comets and SDOs. In situ condensation of Plutinos and classical KBOs (‘cubewanos’ between a 2:3 and a 1:2 resonance with Neptune) may explain their typical low-eccentricity low-inclination orbits, and the profusion of similar-size and similar-color binary pairs.
Former Companion to the Sun:
Our solar system is suggested to have formed from a protostar that fragmented 3 times, forming a quadruple star system that evolved into two close-binary pairs, binary-Sun and binary-Companion, in a wide-binary Sun-Companion separation. Secular perturbation of the star system caused progressive stellar core collapse, causing the close-binary pairs to spiral in as the wide-binary pair spiraled out at an exponential rate. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma, and binary-Companion spiraled in to merge some 4 billion years later, at 543 Ma, in an asymmetrical merger that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun and ushered in the Phanerozoic Eon.
Comets vs. SDOs:
While SDOs may be closely related to comets (with both condensing from the presolar protoplanetary disk), they may, however, have formed in slightly different locations at slightly different times. In the framework of our suggested former quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, comets may have condensed before SDOs in circum-quadruple orbit beyond our former close-binary brown-dwarf Companion, or perhaps in circumbinary orbit before the Companion stellar components fragmented from the smaller binary-Sun component. SDOs are suggested to have condensed slightly later in circumbinary orbit around our former binary Sun (perhaps between the present orbits of Uranus and Neptune) after stellar core collapse had opened up a wide-binary Sun-Companion separation sufficient to allow a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun. Orbit clearing by binary-Companion is assumed to have shepherded the comets outward in barycentric orbits for 4 billion years, with binary-Companion sculpting the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud (IOC). Comets only achieved heliocentric status with the loss of our former binary-Companion at 543 Ma in the asymmetrical spiral-in merger which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. So SDOs assumedly formed slightly later than comets and perhaps at slightly higher temperatures with slightly more volatile depletion than comets, but not nearly as volatile depleted as debris-disk KBOs.
Solar-system barycenter (SSB):
The SSB was the point around which the Sun and binary-Companion orbited for 4 billion years. Stellar core collapse caused the Sun-Companion wide-binary period to increase at a suggested exponential rate. The exponential-rate period increase also translates to an exponential increase in the wide-binary apoapsis over time, progressively increasing the wide-binary eccentricity. From a heliocentric perspective (by Galilean relativity), the SSB Sun-Companion apoapsis appeared to spiral out through the Plutinos and into the Kuiper belt during the Hadean, through the 1:2 and 1:3 resonance with Neptune gap during the Archean, and into the scattered disc (beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune) during the Phanerozoic Eon, perturbing progressively more distant planetesimals over time. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS). The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the Hadean Eon is suggested to have been caused by the perturbation KBOs by the SSB: perturbing Plutinos around 4.22 Ga in the first pulse of a bi-modal LHB, and perturbing classical KBOs (cubewanos) between 4.1 and 3.8 Ga in the main prolonged pulse of the LHB. The Archean corresponds to the SSB transit between the 1:2 and 1:3 resonances with Neptune. The SSB reached the 1:3 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon by reaching the main scattered disc reservoir of protoplanetary SDOs, the primary subject of this section.
S-type vs. I-type granites:
Within mixed S-type and I-type batholiths, S-types tend to be older, more highly reduced, formed at lower temperature, surrounded by metasomatic skarns and pegmatites, with hornblende absent but common muscovite, and often containing inherited zircons and supracrustal enclaves. I-types tend to be younger, lower temperature, surrounded by contact-metamorphic hornfels and aureoles and sometimes associated economic mineralization, with hornblende common. (Chappell and White 2001) These differences are suggested to point to an authigenic aqueous origin for S-type granites and a molten (plutonic) origin for I-type granites.
Suggested energy concentration mechanism in SDOs for forming granite plutons and volcanic magma in supracrustal rock:
Boiling saltwater within internal SDO voids, previously voided by the sublimation of low-temperature ices, is suggested to be the distinctive setting for the formation of authigenic S-type granite, with catastrophic energy input by way of intermittant SDO-quake subsidence. Boiling greatly increases circulation, peculating sedimentary grains that would otherwise fall out of suspension by negative buoyancy, thereby increasing the average size of mineral grains for any given gravitational acceleration.
Binary spiral-in mergers, accretionary collisions with other planetesimals and perturbation into the scattered disc followed by perturbation by the SSB is suggested to have significantly hollowed out SDOs by subliming volatile ices, such as molecular nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and etc., perhaps turning the interior into a foam-like structure like Styrofoam Christmas balls, supported internally by a latticework of interconnecting arches of less volatile material. Progressive sublimation ultimately results in gravitational (SDO-quake) subsidence.
Charles law heating:
W = f * ds and W = dP * dV (where W is work, dP is change in pressure and dV is change in volume). Since gases are vastly more compressible than liquids or solids, gasses trapped in internal voids are suggested to absorb the vast majority of potential energy converted to heat in SDO-quake subsidence events. SDO quakes progressively reduce the surface area of SDOs, forcing the supracrustal-rock crust to overlap itself in reverse faults. Reverse faults are typical of supracrustal rock. Internally, subsidence is suggested to flash heat sublimed gasses trapped in the void-riddled interior. The flash-heated gas may melt water ice at depth. If the water fails to boil, it may precipitate authigenic gneissic sediments, but if it reaches the boiling point, authigenic S-type granitic sediments may be the result. Flash-heated gas may even reach the melting point of silicates, forming transient localized pockets of magma. If flash-heated compressed gas vents to the surface, it may drive guisers, volcanic ash and even magma onto the surface, adding new supracrustal-rock layers.
So tidal torquing of low-density pithy SDOs may cause internal heating which sublimes low-temperature ices at depth and melts water ice at or near the surface. Sublimation and melting undermine the structural integrity, leading to SDO-quake subsidence. The gravitational potential energy released is concentrated in compressed gas in the interior which may melt water to form gneissic sediments below the boiling point, S-type granite above the boiling point and I-type granite above the melting point of silicates. Additionally, compressed gas may force magma, ash and water to the surface, forming new layers of upward-younging surficial supracrustal rock. So by this curious method of catastrophically-concentrating energy, SDOs are suggested to have occasionally reached much-higher spot temperatures than generally-warmer water-world KBOs.
Felsic segregation in authigenic granite:
Simple Simon quartz and the feldspars are the most common felsic minerals in granite, which are suggested to crystallize with ease on existing mineral grains due to the relative simplicity of their crystalline structure. More-complex mafic mineral grains, by comparison, may tend to precipitate (nucleate) new mineral grains rather than crystallizing on existing mineral grains, due to the greater relative complexity of mafic mineral grains. (Mafic) minerals, with greater complexity felsic grains, require the juxtaposition of more reagents for crystallization and may have a higher probability of local depletion of one or more necessary reagents in the vicinity of preexisting mafic mineral grains. Mafic biotite, containing K, (Mg, Fe), Al, Si and F + hydrogen & oxygen, need only be locally depleted in one of 5 components (with an allowable either/or substitution in the iron/magnesium mafic component) to retard mineral-grain growth by crystallization in an aqueous setting, whereas feldspar only requires 3 components, (Na, K, Ca), Al and Si & oxygen, with an allowable 3-way substitution in the alkali/alkaline metal component, making felsic feldspar crystallization more flexible than mafic biotite. So mafic species may be more likely to precipitate new mineral grains, whereas felsic species may be more likely to crystallize onto existing mineral grains, resulting in larger, felsic mineral grains and more-numerous, smaller, mafic mineral grains.
Quartz solubility, however, is temperature dependent, causing quartz to tend to precipitate at the cold ceiling junction, so when the negative buoyancy of quartz grains no longer carry them to the cold junction (typically at the ceiling), their growth by crystallization may shut down, making feldspar typically the larges mineral grains in massive S-type granite. Feldspar solubility, by comparison, is more pH dependent than temperature dependent. Quartz is frequently the mineral that fills the sedimentary voids during subsequent lithification, locking the other mineral grains together.
In the rapid circulation of a boiling environment in which only the largest feldspar (felsic) mineral grains are able to fall out of suspension, smaller, more-mobile, mafic mineral grains may remain largely suspended in solution, except for those grains that become wedged between large feldspar grains already settled on the sedimentary floor of growing S-type plutons. But over time, aqueously-differentiated S-type plutons should tend to skew toward mafic composition as the aqueous reservoir gradually assumes a more mafic composition over time due to progressive feldspar depletion. However, even mafic mineral grains grow by crystallization over time until they too begin to fall out of suspension. And as the ferocity of boiling presumably declines over time (going from a ‘rolling boil’ to a slow boil) and mafic mineral grains begin to fall out of suspension en masse, the sediments should progressively skew to a more-mafic composition beyond the definition of granite or granitoid rock to that of mafic rock. So physical segregation suggested to be caused by boiling saltwater will tend to peculate finer-grained mafic sediments in suspension, tending to cause ‘upward maficing’. And presumed cooling over time will tend to cause ‘upward fining’ as well.
Finally, the peculation accompanying boiling will tend to jostle sediments that have already fallen out of suspension, tending to obscure periodic influences which may otherwise reveal sedimentary layering. Boiling peculation jostling may also tend to interlock sedimentary mineral grains by ‘evaporating’ the voids between grains. So peculation caused by boiling may give a massive structure to sedimentary S-type granite.
Mafic xenoliths in S-type granite:
Many mafic country-rock enclaves in S-type granite appear to be composed of the same type of felsic and mafic mineral-grains as the enshrouding granite, but the enclaves are typically, mostly composed of small, mafic mineral grains with relatively-few larger felsic grains. If felsic species tend to crystallize on preexisting mineral grains, compared to mafic species which may tend to precipitate new mineral grains, then the negative buoyancy of the larger, heavier felsic mineral grains will tend to weigh them down to the lower regions of growing S-type plutons. Thus the mineral grains that ‘plate out’ on the walls and ceilings of SDO voids, may be quite mafic in composition. And thus when mafic masses occasionally slough off from the ceiling and walls of growing aqueously-differentiated granitoid plutons, they get incorporated into the more-felsic granitoid sediments on the floor as mafic ‘country-rock enclaves’ or ‘xenoliths’ within S-type granite.
Two major categories of rock, suggested to be of planetesimal origin:
– Gneiss dome: T he binary spiral-in merger of volatile-depleted TNOs condensed from the secondary debris disk, causing aqueous differentiation, precipitating authigenic sedimentary cores which undergo lithification and metamorphism to form gneiss domes with hydrothermal mantling rock, and possibly surmounted by ‘platform’ sedimentary rock.
Problems for a terrestrial interpretation: gneiss dome problem, leucosomes/melanosome differentiation (particularly ptygmatic folds), tight (isoclinal) folds on a centimeter (hand-sample) scale
– Granite plutons: Once the vast majority of more highly-volatile ices have evaporated from SDOs, creating internal voids, further perturbation melts water ice. If subsidence catastrophically raises local temperatures and pressures above the boiling point of water, precipitation and settling out of sedimentary granitoid mineral grains may form authigenic S-type granite plutons. If the energy released by subsidence reaches the melting point of silicates, molten (plutonic) I-type granite or volcanic rock may be the result.
Problems for a terrestrial interpretation: granite (space) problem
Chappell, B. W. and White, A. J. R., (2001), Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 4, pages 489–499, August 2001
CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS:
Thayne Currie suggests a compelling hybrid mechanism for forming (giant) planets by accretion from a population of 1 km planetesimals, in which the planetesimals have been formed by gravitational instability (GI). (Currie, 2005)
Suggested alterations to Thayne Currie’s hybrid accretion model:
1) Planet types formed by hybrid accretion:
This hybrid mechanism may be limited to forming terrestrial super-Earth–type planets like Mars and ice giants like Uranus and Neptune, but not gas-giant planets which are posited to form by GI from outer stellar layers isolated by their excess angular momentum.
2) Hybrid-accretion planetesimal size:
Presolar planetesimals forming super-Earths may be vastly larger than the 1 km planetesimal size envisioned if circa 100 km trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were formed by GI as the evidence of similar size and color of TNO binaries suggests. Secondary debris disks, however, may ‘condense’ smaller planetesimals, perhaps down to 1 km, due to elevated dust-to-gas ratios, forming Mercury as a hybrid accretion planet from asteroids ‘condensed’ from the spiral-in binary solar merger (4,567 Ma) debris disk.
3) Location, location, location:
The formation of planetesimals by GI may require,
1) elevated dust-to-gas ratios, and
both of which may most typically occur in the pressure dam at the inside edge of accretion disks. The inner edge of accretion disks around solitary stars may be governed by the magnetic corotation radius of the star, whereas the inner edge of circumbinary accretion disks may be governed by binary stellar resonances. Finally, a limited degree of planetesimal formation by GI may occur in giant planet resonances, such as chondrite formation which may have occurred in situ in Jupiter’s inner resonances at highly-elevated dust-to-gas ratios.
Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune may be ‘super-Earth’ type planets formed by hybrid accretion of planetesimals in 3 separate planet-formation episodes.
Uranus and Neptune:
The super-Earth cascade of Uranus and Neptune first super-Earth formation episode at the inner edge of the circumbinary protoplanetary disk beyond our former binary Sun, where the binary solar-component separation at the time may have been on the order of the combined semi-major axes of Jupiter and Saturn. When Uranus reached its current size by hybrid accretion of TNOs, it was able to clear its orbit by ‘evaporating’ most of the planetesimals outward. But the effort of clearing its orbit of more than its own mass of TNOs and larger dwarf-planet–sized hybrid accretions lowered Uranus’ orbit, perhaps resulting in its 98° axial tilt due to closed-system conservation of orbital and rotational angular momentum. Neptune formed after Uranus and then similarly cleared its orbit of the remaining TNOs and dwarf planets, most of which were evaporated into the Kuiper belt beyond.
If Jupiter and Saturn are spin-off planets (see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS) that spiraled out from the binary solar components as the solar components spiraled during stellar core collapse, Jupiter and Saturn may have disrupted the circumbinary protoplanetary disk from condensing protoplanets until the binary separation of our former binary Sun was considerably less than 1 AU. So the hybrid accretion of Mars occurred prior to the ultimate binary solar merger at 4,567 Ma. Orbit clearing by Mars of remaining planetesimals and larger dwarf-planet hybrid accretions may have wound up in Jupiter’s inner resonances, with 1 Ceres as the largest surviving hybrid-accretion dwarf-planet.
Mercury’s high density and proportionately-large iron core size suggests a hybrid accretion of highly volatilely-depleted asteroids ‘condensed’ by GI from the solar-merger debris disk with its inner edge at the (super-intense) magnetic corotation radius of the Sun following the solar merger, but we won’t know for certain until we get samples from Mercury to see if it corresponds to the stellar-merger–nucleosynthesis stable-isotope enrichment of ∆17O with rocky-iron asteroids like 4 Vesta. The terrestrial planets in turn cleared their orbits of the left-over asteroids, evaporating them into Jupiter’s inner resonances.
The size of super-Earth planets may be governed by the separation distance from the star or from the stellar barycenter in the case of circumbinary disks around binary stars, with larger super-Earths potentially forming further out in circumbinary accretion disks. The term ‘super-Earth’ implies a planet size larger than Earth, and indeed, super-Earths are more abundant in the exoplanet surveys than smaller terrestrial planets. Super-Earth size may also be constrained by lack of sufficient planetesimals, as may be the case in the diminutive size of Mars and Mercury. In cascades of Super-Earths, all but the outermost planet should have reached its target mass for dynamic orbit clearing, so only Uranus should be typical in size for its formation conditions.
In super-Earth cascades of 3 or more planets, the separation between the outermost two planets will typically be wider than inner separations since only the outermost planet has not sunk in orbit by clearing its orbit of one or more planet’s worth of planetesimals. Cascades of super-Earths tend to exhibit adjacent orbital-period ratios of 1:3 to 2:3 except for the outermost separation. This of course assumes no subsequent planetary dynamics which frequently may be a poor assumption.
The inner edge of circumbinary disks may be governed by corotation resonances and outer Lindblad resonances in the range of 1.8a to 2.6a, where ‘a’ designates the binary-stellar semi-major axis. (Artymowicz and Lubow 1994)
In cascades of super-Earths, do all the planetesimals form first? Can super-Earths push out the inner edge of circumbinary disks, creating renewed spates of planetesimal formation further out? A close examination of planet size and planetesimals separations may provide the answer.
In binary systems, spin-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn may interrupt the formation of super-Earths as our solar system seems to indicate. Around solitary stars, spin-off planets would presumably form before super Earths and may push out the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk, causing super-Earths to form further out at more temperate separations. Merger planets hurled to circa 1 AU separations from their merged stars like Venus and Earth may merely jostle a super-Earth cascade where it can squeeze in, confusing the sequence and thus confusing planetary origins. Indeed Earth may have edged Mars into a slightly higher orbit in Earth’s earliest protoplanet phase when it may have originally had the mass of Saturn or greater before becoming severely volatilely depleted.
Tau Ceti and HD 40307 are apparently five and six super-Earth exoplanet star systems, respectively, without the complication of spin-off planets or merger planets.
Finally, aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores may be visible on Mars in a number of chasmas and impact basins (Melas Chasma, Hellas Planitia, the central uplift in Becquerel Crater and etc.) where prevailing winds have removed sand dunes, revealing Mars’ internal composition.
LUMINOUS RED NOVA (LRN) ISOTOPES:
Our former binary Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating the r-process radionuclides of the early solar system (aluminum-26, iron-60 et al.) and its helium-burning stable-isotope enrichment (carbon-12 and oxygen-16 et al.).
Carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM), including CAI and chondrules, plot with a 1 slope toward the lower left corner of the graph 3-isotope oxygen graph (δ17O vs. δ18O), with a 1 slope representing complete mixing due to rapid condensation from a vapor phase. (The anhydrous modifier is significant since any subsequent aqueous alteration, forming hydrous minerals, would occur slowly, allowing mass fractionation which would move the altered material off the 1 slope line.) By comparison, complete fractionation of oxygen isotopes plot as a 1/2 slope, since 17O – 16O = 1 unit of atomic weight and 18O – 16O = 2 units of atomic weight. The terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) plots with a slope of .52, nominally 1/2. The low cooling rate from a molten magma state on Earth and the similarly slow rate of authigenic precipitation from an aqueous state provides a significant opportunity for chemical reactions to occur within the temperature window in which mass fractionation is significant. So the 1 slope of CCAM merely represents complete mixing while the 1/2 slope of the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) merely represents complete fractionation.
When comparing completely fractionated materials such as terrestrial basalt and Mars meteorite basalt, it can be convenient to force force the nominal 1/2 slope (.52 slope for the TFL) to zero, making it a horizontal line, with the conversion:
∆17O = δ17O – .52 δ18O
∆17O vs. δ18O plots the TFL horizontally with igneous Mars rock on a horizontal rock above.
The degree of 16O enrichment can be be obscured by isotope fractionation when only δ17O (17O/16O) or δ18O (18O/16O) are measured isolation, but the measurement of all three oxygen isotopes and their graphing on a 3-isotope oxygen plot will cause mass-dependent fractionation to wash out, by aligning along a ‘fractionation line’ which is 16O-enrichment dependent. Comparing δ17O or ∆17O to δ18O on a 3-isotope oxygen plot, however, is generally reserved for meteorites, since continental Earth rock is assumedly terrestrial, but if the continental tectonic plates are aqueously and thermally differentiated planetesimal cores from two separate reservoirs (presolar protoplanetary and variably-enriched secondary debris disk) then comparison of all three isotopes becomes significant.
Plotting sufficient terrestrial basalt samples along side Mars meteorite basalt samples shows the two materials lie near fractionation lines, regardless of the extent of mass-dependent fractionation of individual samples. If only that were the end of the story, but ordinary chondrites plot above suggested presolar Mars which makes no sense if they condensed from the secondary debris-disk created by the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma and thus were enriched in 16O. Without subsequent aqueous alteration, ordinary chondrites would plot below the TFL due to their suggested greater 16O contamination than Earth rock.
Secondary aqueous alteration may be responsible for forming secondary magnetite with high ∆17O, which raise ordinary chondrites above assumedly presolar Mars on the 3-isotope oxygen plot. “The maximum fractionation between magnetite and liquid H2O is -13.6‰ at 390 K . In the UOC parent asteroid, H2O probably existed as a gaseous phase when magnetite formed. The maximum fractionation between magnetite and gaseous H2O is -10.5‰ at 500 K .” (Choi et al., 1997, Magnetite in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: evidence for an 17O-rich reservoir in the solar nebula) But rather than a “17O-rich reservoir”, if the mechanism had been a matter of mass-dependent fractionation of gaseous H2O in the crust followed by the escape of the 17O-depleted remainder into interplanetary space, would not the result be the same?
During thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites, if the temperature had reached the boiling point of water, the lightest-weight H2O molecules containing 16O would be the first to sublime or boil, and the least likely to condense or deposit (the opposite of sublimation), and the fastest to diffuse outward in a vapor phase. And outward mass-dependent fractionation may have been the result of repeated episodes of sublimation and deposition during the warming phase of thermal differentiation of ordinary chondrites which progressively expelled water ice from the core, then the mantle and finally the crust, increasing the degree of fractionation with each cycle. Then oxidation into magnetite selected the most mobile of the remaining oxygen isotopes, preferentially incorporating 17O into magnetite.
The flare-star phase of the Sun following its binary spiral-in stellar merger may be recorded in the 3 million year period of chondrule formation by super-intense solar-flare melting of debris-disk dust accretions, spiraling in toward the Sun by Poynting–Robertson drag.
If stellar-merger nucleosynthesis enriched the Sun in the stable isotopes 12C, 16O, and 20Ne by helium burning, then the stellar-merger core temperatures may have been in the neighborhood of 100-200 million Kelvins, with r-process nucleosynthesis forming the neutron-rich short-lived radionuclides (SRs) of our early solar system:
7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 44Ti, 53Mn, 54Mn, 60Fe, 63Ni, 91Nb, 92Nb, 107Pd, 129I, 146Sm, 182Hf and 244Pu.
The high velocities necessary to create spallation nuclides in LRNe may have been observed in LRN PTF10fqs from a spiral arm of Messier 99. The breadth of the Ca II emission line may indicate two divergent flows, a high-velocity polar flow (~ 10,000 km/s) and a high-volume, but slower equatorial flow. (Kasliwal, Kulkarni et al. 2011) Some of the SRs may have been created by spallation in the high-velocity polar outflow of the LRNe, particularly 7Be and 10Be, since beryllium is known to be consumed rather than produced within stars.
The solar wind is ~40% poorer in 15N than earth’s atmosphere, as discovered by the Genesis mission. (Marty, Chaussidon, Wiens et al. 2011) The same mission discovered that the Sun is depleted in deuterium, 17O and 18O by ~7% compared to all rocky materials in the inner solar system. (McKeegan, Kallio, Heber et al. 2011) “[T]he 13C/12C ratio of the Earth and meteorites may be considerably enriched in 13C compared to the ratio observed in the solar wind.” (Nuth, J. A. et al., 2011)
The most apparent deficit in the Sun and in debris-disk material, however, may be the δ15N differences between presolar protoplanetary comets and CAIs condensed from solar-merger polar jets from the core, with canonical 26Al.
Most oxygen isotopes variations are only a few per mill (‰), but δ15N departures from terrestrial values are often measured in hundreds of per mille (tens of percent), with a solar difference of δ15N = -386 ‰ and cometary difference of δ15N ≈+800 ‰ for CN and HCN (Chaussidon et al. 2003). So 15N destruction must have been particularly efficient by way of two mechanisms, 15N(p,α)12C and 15N(p,γ)16O, known as the CN and the NO cycles respectively (Caciolli et al. 2011).
Deuterium will also have been destroyed in the solar merger, dramatically lowering the D/H ratio in the Sun and in debris-disk condensates, but the 2:1 difference in mass between H and D often makes fractionation more significant than the degree of depletion, making the D/H ratio a poor measure of the reservoir depletion.
AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs):
The problem of planetesimal formation is a major unsolved problem in astronomy since meter-sized “boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a ‘head wind’ from the slower rotating gas” (Johansen et al., 2007).
This approach rejects pebble accretion in favor of gravitational instability (GI) for the formation of planetesimals. In protoplanetary disks or debris disks (generically ‘accretion disks’), GI is suggested to occur in the pressure dam at the inner edge of accretion disks around solitary or binary stars. Around solitary stars, the inner edge of the accretion disk is assumed to be sculpted by the magnetic corotation radius, while the inner edge of accretion disks around binary stars is sculpted by the binary resonances. Heliocentric resonances associated with giant planets may also serve as pressure dams against which planetesimals can condense, such as chondrites condensed against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances and Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer resonances.
Our former protostar is hypothesized to have fragmented 3 times in succession, due to excess angular momentum, to form a quadruple star/brown-dwarf system, composed of a close-binary Sun and a close-binary Companion in a wide-binary separation which orbited the solar-system barycenter (SSB).
Protoplanetary reservoir comets and SDOs:
Solar system planetesimals are suggested to have condensed from 2 accretionary reservoirs at slightly-different times, with Oort cloud comets having condensed first from the circum-quaternary protoplanetary disk, most likely while still ensconced in our Bok globule stellar nursery. As stellar core collapse opened up an ever-increasing Sun-Companion wide-binary separation two things occurred. Comets were shepherded by the outer Sun-Companion resonances into ever-higher SSB-centric orbits by the ever-increasing period of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB, and the increasing wide-binary separation opened up a sufficient Sun-Companion gap for a circumbinary protoplanetary disk to form around binary-Sun, causing a second round of planetesimal condensations that would ‘hybrid accrete’ to form ‘super-Earth’ Uranus and Neptune. (Core accretion of planetesimals formed by gravitational instability, hence ‘hybrid accretion’. [Thane Currie 2005]) Orbit clearing by Uranus and Neptune is assumed to have scattered the leftover planetesimals into the scattered disc, as scattered disc objects (SDOs), presumably prior to 4,567 Ma.
Protoplanetary SDOs are suggested to have condensed with a significant percentage of highly-volatile ices, such as CO, N2, CH4, NH3, CO2 and etc., whereas more volatilely-depleted KBOs apparently condensed primarily from water ice, making KBOs the water worlds of the solar system.
If highly-volatile SDOs had undergone similar aqueous differentiation in orbit-clearing scattering prior to 4,567 Ma and found their way to Earth like suggested KBO gneiss-domes, then there should be rock on Earth older than 4,567 Ma, which is not the case, so highly-volatile ices must have sacrificially clamped comet and SDO temperatures below the melting point of water ice during pre-4567 Ma binary spiral-in mergers and hybrid accretion events. As a result, SDOs are suggested to contain numerous internal voids created by the sublimation of volatile ices, with internal compositions like pithy Styrofoam balls used in holliday craft projects. Suggested subsequent SDO differentiation into supracrustal rock and granite batholiths is covered in other sections.
Secondary debris-disk reservoir KBOs:
Our former binary-Sun is suggested to have spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,567 Ma, creating a secondary debris disk from which asteroids, chondrites and
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed. The low-inclination, low-eccentricity typical binarity of classical Kuiper belt objects (cubewanos) speaks to their having condensed in situ, not having been scattered there by a mythical planetary migration of Neptune during the late heavy bombardment. Plutinos are suggested secondary debris-disk condensates as well.
Binary spiral-in mergers of KBO water worlds are suggested to cause ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting salt-water oceans in their cores which precipitate dissolved mineral species of mineral grains, forming sedimentary cores which can undergo lithification and even diagenesis and metamorphism to form rocky gneiss-dome cores with hydrothermal-rock mantles. So ‘geochonology’ of gneiss domes gives the age of their spiral-in mergers.
Perturbation of trans-Neptunian objects:
Our Sun-Companion system is suggested to have undergone 4 billion years of core collapse, feeding off the potential energy of the Companion’s close-binary components to increase the wide-binary Sun-Companion period around the SSB (assumedly at an exponential rate) until the Companion’s binary components asymmetrically merged at 543 Ma, giving the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. After 4 billion years of core collapse, the Companion’s apoapsis from the Sun may have reached the (circa 2000 AU) distance of the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud, explaining the ‘Kuiper cliff’ fall off of planetesimals beyond about 50 AU as orbit clearing by the Companion and explaining the shepherding of Oort cloud comets into the Inner Oort cloud in a circum(wide)binary SSB-centric (not heliocentric) orbit beyond the Companion at apoapsis.
As the Sun and Companion spiraled out from the SSB, by Galilean invariance with respect to the Sun, the SSB spiraled out through the Kuiper Belt and scattered disc, passing through the cubewanos from 3.8 – 4.1 Ga (causing the late heavy bombardment) and perturbing binary KBOs to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation. The perturbation mechanisms since the loss of the Companion and the SSB are less mechanistic and may be related to the loss of the angular momentum of the Companion which may have previously stabilized the solar system against external perturbation from passing stars and ‘globule clusters’ (see section DARK MATTER). Additionally, the solar system may have a large reservoir of ‘detached objects’ in highly eccentric orbits of which Sedna and 2012 VP-113 are two members, with the vast majority beyond detection near perihelia where detached objects spend the lion’s share of their orbit. (Assumedly detached objects have been pumped into high-eccentricity long-period orbits by former Sun-Companion resonances, but with the loss of the Companion’s gyroscopic stability, they may be induced to suffer angular momentum loss by by external perturbations, causing their perihelia to spiral down into the planetary realm where the giant planets eventually perturb them in to the Sun or out of the inner solar system. External perturbation tending to torque objects forward in long-period orbits tends to increase the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, raising their perihelia, but perturbations retarding objects in their orbits decrease the magnitude of the angular momentum vector, lowering perihelia.)
Ignoring Oort cloud comets, detached objects may be the TNO reservoir responsible for the largest Earth impacts in the Phanerozoic Eon since the loss of the Companion, assumedly perturbed by passing stars and dark-matter globule-clusters/giant-molecular-clouds (see section DARK MATTER). And the vast majority of the detached object reservoir are beyond the present limits of detection, so we can only calculate the extent of the reservoir by observing the aphelia tip of the iceberg.
Aqueous differentiation into sedimentary cores:
Aqueous differentiation is initiated when planetesimals collide or when binary planetesimals spiral in and merge to melt water ice and form salt-water oceans in their cores, creating a solution of mineral species from the dissolution of nebular dust. Microbes may catalyze chemical reactions, greatly increasing the number and complexity of precipitated minerals.
Precipitated (authigenic) mineral grains continue to grow through crystallization until they fall out of suspension due to negative buoyancy in microgravity. The gravitational acceleration, and thus buoyancy, is also dependent on location within the planetesimal, ranging from zero at the gravitational center and rising to a peak value some 2/3 of the way to the surface, so aqueously-differentiated planetesimal cores should have the largest authigenic mineral-grain size in the center, barring metasomatic pegmatites.
pH spike during pressure venting:
The partial pressure of CO2 in trapped gas pockets between the core ocean and the overlying ice-water boundary of the icy mantle forces carbon dioxide into solution where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, lowering the pH. Following binary spiral-in mergers when internal temperatures are still rising and expanding the core ocean by melting, subsidence faults in the icy mantle would periodically vent the trapped gas to the surface.
A sudden drop in pressure on the core ocean would cause dissolved carbonic acid to convert to gaseous CO2 by nucleating on suspended mineral grains which the bubbles would float to the surface creating a froth of CO2 foam at the ice-water boundary, like the effect of sugar added to a carbonated drink. And the repetition of gradually rising CO2 partial pressure followed by its sudden venting would cause ‘sawtooth’ pH fluctuations over time.
The solubility of aluminum salts is particularly pH sensitive, so pressure overlying planetesimal oceans could indirectly control the reservoir of dissolved aluminous species in solution. Aluminous species solubility is U-shaped with respect to pH with an inflection point at about 6-1/2 pH (Driscoll and Schecher, 1990). A rise in pH from 3.5 to 6.5 would decrease the aluminous species solubility by a factor of more than 100,000, effectively dumping the entire reservoir of dissolved aluminous species, presumably in a precipitation of felsic feldspar minerals.
Silica solubility, by comparison, is particularly temperature sensitive, so quartz grains will precipitate at the cold ice-water boundary where silica solubility is at a minimum, and a sudden venting of pressure to the surface may cause the surface of the ocean to flash boil, further concentrating solutes and lowering its temperature. So with quartz precipitation at the ice-water boundary and catastrophically precipitated feldspar mineral grains floated to the surface by nucleating CO2 bubbles, the floating mass buoyed up by CO2 foam is suggested to have a felsic composition. And mineral grains would continue to grow by crystallization as long as they remain buoyantly trapped at the surface.
A frothy mass, perhaps cemented with slime bacteria, is suggested to have a degree of mechanical competency, forming a cohesive floating mat. When the mat became ‘waterlogged’ by negative buoyancy, it would begin to sag until finally sinking as a two-dimensional membrane onto the more mafic sedimentary core, and the larger surface area (circumference) at the ice-water boundary would be forced to crumple when mapping onto the smaller surface area of the sedimentary core, bunching into disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds as it fell onto the core below. Some ptygmatic folds in migmatite double back on themselves like alpine hairpin turns or ribbon candy.
Folding in metamorphic rock:
Planetesimal circumferential folding:
Lithification of gneiss-dome sedimentary cores is a process of porosity destruction, forcing out the (aqueous) connate fluids, shrinking the volume of the authigenic sedimentary core and crumpling in the process. This lithification compaction of the circumference at which sedimentary layers were laid down causes ‘circumferential folding’ at all scales by the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids, like grapes dehydrating to form raisins. Lithification of sedimentary rock on Earth similarly results in volume reduction as well, but because of Earth’s enormous diameter, no perceptible reduction in circumference occurs, hence the absence of circumferential folding on Earth. And if circumferential folding of gneiss dome cores typically undergo subsequent metamorphism during the progressive pressure increase caused by the expansion of the overlying ocean freezing solid, then circumferential folding of sedimentary rock may have the misleading appearance having occurred during metamorphism.
Terrestrial tectonic folding:
Large-scale folding due to plate tectonics on Earth, typically forming orogenic synclines and anticlines, is easily explained and demonstrated by folding up into the void of the atmosphere; however, suggested metamorphic folding on Earth at depths necessary for attaining (high-pressure) metamorphic pressures can shear, but has no voids to fold into at depth. So, tectonic folding is readily demonstrable, whereas metamorphic folding at depth is problematic.
Planetesimal or possibly terrestrial crenellations:
Personalization of mica perpendicular to the principal stress field can occur during metamorphism, and if this recrystallization occurs in succession in different overlapping planes, the intersection can create a characteristic texture called crenellation in phyllite. Crenellation is a secondary process, sometimes called overprinting, which occurs during metamorphism, probably primarily during primary planetesimal metamorphism; however, crenellation during subsequent terrestrial metamorphism is not ruled out. If lithification and metamorphic recrystallization occur concurrently, then the distinction between circumferential folding and crenellation may become somewhat blurred.
Planetesimal Ptygmatic folding:
Disharmonic convolute folds or ptygmatic folds (described in the previous section) is suggested to occur during sedimentation prior to lithification.
In aqueous differentiation of icy planetesimals, when primary sedimentation runs to completion in forming gneissic sedimentary cores, hydrothermal fluids expelled during diagenesis of the core precipitate hydrothermal mineral-grain sediments with different chemistry over top of the gneissic core, namely, sandstone/quartzite, schist and carbonate rock (limestone and dolostone) sediments, which form hydrothermal-rock mantles over gneissic cores. Then as the planetesimal cools and the internal ocean freezes solid, the volume increase of the saltwater ocean expanding to form ice may be largely responsible for pressure increase during gneiss-dome metamorphism, converting sedimentary gneissic sediments to migmatite and gneiss, and hydrothermal sandstone to quartzite, and limestone to marble by ‘freeze-out metamorphism’.
Authigenic Mineral-grain size:
A major difference between authigenic terrestrial sediments and authigenic planetesimal sediments would be mineral grain size. On the surface of our high-gravity planet, precipitated authigenic mineral grains fall out of aqueous suspension at clay size to become sequestered in sedimentary layers which lithify into mudstone, but in the microgravity deep inside planetesimal oceans, microgravity dispersion apparently allow mineral grains to grow by crystallization to the size typically found in migmatite and gneiss before falling out of aqueous suspension (although in the case of granulite metamorphism, the mineral grains have typically personalized at that size). Felsic leucosome mineral grains can be significantly larger than the typical mafic mineral grain size, which may indicate entrapment in buoyant flotsam at the ice-water ceiling where felsic grains can grow out of proportion to their negative buoyancy. Gravitational acceleration increases from zero at the gravitational center to a maximum value part way between the core and the surface, so mineral grain sizes would tend to decrease over time from the inside out in sedimentary planetesimal cores, except for leucosomes and metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to prodigious size on surfaces exposed to hydrothermal fluids but protected from sedimentation.
Summary and discussion:
In conventional geology, the supposed segregation of felsic and mafic minerals into leucosome, melanosome and mesosome layers by metamorphism of protolith rock to form migmatite gneiss is explained by the partial melting (anatexis) of lower-melting-point (primarily felsic) minerals and the extrusion of this melt down a “potential force gradient.” “The consensus today is that both in situ melt and externally derived melt are present in most migmatites (Kriegsman, 2001).” (Urtson, 2005) This means that adjacent layers alone can not explain the local enrichments and depletions of felsic and mafic layering, and so non-local externally-derived melt is needed for mass balance. In an aqueous planetesimal setting, adjacent felsic and mafic leucosomes and melanosomes have the entire planetesimal ocean to draw from. “Comingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas” is also suggested as an explanation for alternating felsic/mafic layers. (Sandeman et al., 2000)
Conventionally, gneiss domes are divided into two classes: fault related and fault unrelated. Larger gneiss-dome systems are divided into evenly spaced and unevenly spaced. Evenly spaced dome systems are considered to be instabilities caused by vertical-density or -viscosity contrast and horizontal loads, leading to buckling. Unevenly spaced dome systems are associated with fault development or “superposition of multiple deformational phases.” “In nature, gneiss domes are often produced by superposition of several dome-forming mechanisms. This has made determination of the dynamic cause of individual domes and dome systems exceedingly challenging.” (Yin, 2004)
Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability is a favored explanation for the formation of evenly-spaced gneiss domes which is sometimes called a fingering instability where a finger is theorized to spread into a mushroom cap to explain concentric layering in ellipsoid gneiss domes. RT instabilities, however, fail to explain the typical sedimentary basements: “In some, the lowest horizon of the mantle consists of basal conglomerate with boulders of the same gneiss that forms the dome; in others, the basement stratum is a layer of quartzite, above which follow dolomite and mica schist; and in still others, dolomite forms the basement.” (Eskola, 1948)
The basement horizon of quartzite, carbonate rock and conglomerate in gneiss-dome mantles can only be explained in conventional geology with secondary ad hoc mechanisms, but in aqueous differentiation, the concentric layering of gneiss domes are merely sedimentary growth rings transitioning to hydrothermal sedimentation, followed by diagenesis, lithification and metamorphism. So sedimentary migmatite, gneiss and schist are on an equal footing with the mantle layers of quartzite and carbonate rock. And conglomerate or graywacke outer layer on gneiss domes is merely grinding of the rocky core against the ice ceiling as the freezing ocean finally closes in on the core, creating a clastic frosting on authigenic sedimentary core. Often the conglomerate pebbles, cobbles and boulders in the frosting conglomerate are highly polished with an indurated (case-hardened) surface as freezing tends to reject dissolved minerals, creating a final spike in dissolved mineral species that deposit (plate out) on cobbles and pebbles.
The mantled domes apparently represent earlier granite intrusions related to a orogenic period. The plutonic mass was later eroded and levelled, and thereafter followed a period of sedimentation. During a subsequent orogenic cycle the pluton was mobilized anew and new granite magma was injected into the plutonic rock at the same time as it was deformed into gneiss, causing its migmatization and granitization, or palingenesis.
Our former binary Companion may have somewhat stabilized the solar system prior to its hypothesized loss at 542 Ma. “Culler et al.  studied 179 spherules from 1 g of soil collected by the Apollo 14 astronauts, and found evidence for a decline in the meteoroid flux to the Moon from 3000 million years ago (Ma) to 500 Ma, followed by a fourfold increase in the cratering rate over the last 400 Ma.” (Levine et al., 2005) But the 400 Ma comes from the 400 million-year bin size used in the study.
HYDROTHERMAL QUARTZITE, CARBONATE ROCK, AND SCHIST:
When external perturbation causes binary Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) to spiral in and merge, they undergo ‘aqueous differentiation’, melting saltwater oceans in their cores which is suggested to precipitate authigenic gneiss dome sediments. Subsequent destruction of voids during lithification expels hydrothermal fluids that precipitate gneiss-dome mantling rock in the form of quartzite, carbonate rock and schist, in that order.
Our protostar is suggested to have fragmented 3 times, forming a quadruple star system composed of two close-binary pairs, ‘binary-Sun’ and ‘binary-Companion’, in a wide-binary separation. Resonant perturbation caused the close binary pairs to spiral in, increasing the wide-binary Sun-Companion orbital period around the solar system barycenter (SSB). Binary-Sun spiraled in and merged in a luminous red nova at 4,568 Ma, forming a ‘primary debris disk’ from which asteroids, chondrites and hot classical KBOs condensed by gravitational instability (GI). Binary-Companion spiraled in and merged 4 billion years later at 542 Ma in an asymmetrical merger that gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun and formed a ‘secondary debris disk’, from which cold classical KBOs condensed in situ by GI, including binary Pluto.
Solar system barycenter (SSB) dynamics:
Over the the 4 billion years following the binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma, the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB increased at an exponential rate, fueled by the orbital decay of binary-Companion’s binary components. By Galilean relativity, the SSB effectively spiraled out through the Kuiper belt (between the 2:3 and 1:2 resonance with Neptune) during the Hadean and early Archean Eons, from 4.1-3.8 Ga, and spiraled out between the 1:2 and the 1:3 resonance with Neptune during the Archean Eon, and finally into the scattered disc beyond the 1:3 resonance with Neptune during the Proterozoic Eon.
– Hadean-Archean Eon: SSB passes through the Kuiper belt, < 2:3 to 1:2 resonance with Neptune
– Archean Eon: SSB passes between the 1:2 and the 1:3 orbit with Neptune
– Proterozoic Eon: SSB passes through the scattered disc, beyond the 1:3 orbit with Neptune
(Ideally, from a holistic solar system perspective, the entire late heavy bombardment [LHB] from 4.1-3.8 Ga would be placed in the Hadean Eon, with the Hadean ending at 3.8 Ga rather than 4.0 Ga, but since the Eons are terrestrially inspired, the appearance of the first rocks on Earth at 4.0 Ga marks the beginning of the Archean in the midst of the LHB.)
Flip-flop perturbation by the SSB:
In a triple-star wide binary system, heliocentric (circumprimary) orbits have their major axes aligned with the wide-binary axis, either with their aphelia attracted toward the Companion, or centrifugally slung away from it, with their aphelia pointing 180° away from the Companion. Planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with heliocentric semimajor axes less than the SSB distance from the Sun, had their aphelia attracted towards the Companion, whereas planetesimals (TNOs) with semimajor axes greater than the SSB distance from the Sun were centrifugally slung away from the Companion. So planet and planetesimal aphelia either point towards or 180° away from the Companion, depending on their orbital relationship to the solar system barycenter. In the context of a dynamic triple-star system in which the SSB (by Galilean relativity) is effectively spiraling out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc for 4 billion years, fueled by the core collapse of the binary components of binary-Companion, the SSB causes 180° apsidal precession (flip-flop perturbation) of TNOs as the SSB nominally crosses their semi-major axes. And in the context of an eccentric wide-binary Sun-Companion system in which the SSB retreats below the orbit of Neptune at the closest Sun-Companion approach, the SSB strokes TNOs causing flip-flop perturbation at the frequency of the Sun-Companion orbit around the SSB, so once the SSB caught up with the semimajor axis of a TNO for the first time, its orbit continued to flip-flop until 542 Ma when the Companion escaped the solar system. Flip-flop perturbation caused binary planetesimals to spiral in and merge, initiating aqueous differentiation, but SSB perturbation is also suggested to have caused the late heavy bombardment (LHB) from 4.1-3.8 Ga, by perturbing KBOs into the inner solar system. (See section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS)
Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs):
SDOs presumably condensed from the protoplanetary disk at the bitterly-cold temperatures of our nursery Bok globule with a significant component of highly-volatile ices, such as CO, CH4, N2 and CO2 (with an elevated CO/CO2 ratio) that have substantially-lower freezing points than water ice. Sacrificial sublimation of these highly-volatile ices is suggested to have clamped the internal temperature of SDOs above the melting point of water ice in early binary spiral-in mergers and collisional mergers which occurred during the hybrid accretion formation of Uranus and Neptune and orbit clearing of leftover SDOs into the scattered disc beyond. And temperature clamping below the melting point of water ice prevented the formation of aqueously precipitated mineral grains older than 4,568 Ma. But subsequent perturbation of SDOs by the SSB (predominantly during the Proterozoic Eon) apparently sublimed most of the remaining highly-volatile ices, allowing subsidence events (SDO quakes) to catastrophically melt water ice in internal voids and precipitate granite plutons in boiling saltwater cauldrons of internal voids. (See section, THE ORIGIN OF GRANITE PLUTONS IN SCATTERED DISC OBJECTS (SDOs))
Cold vs. hot classical KBOs:
1) ‘Hot classical KBOs’ are suggested to have condensed from an old ‘primary debris disk’ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from the ashes of the binary spiral-in merger of our former binary Sun at 4,568 Ma, creating an old KBO reservoir. The present high-inclination, high-eccentricity ‘hot’ orbits of hot classical KBOs are a result of subsequent perturbation by the migration of the SSB through the Kuiper belt.
2) ‘Cold classical KBOs’ are suggested to have condensed from a young ‘secondary debris disk’ by gravitational instability against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances from the ashes of the binary spiral-in merger of our form binary Companion at 542 Ma, creating a young KBO reservoir. Since cold classical KBOs haven’t been externally perturbed by the SSB, they still largely reside in or near their in situ formational orbits, although mutual perturbation has likely puffed up their orbits to some extent. The cold stable orbits of the young cold classical KBOs are suggested to largely protect them from perturbation by Neptune into the inner solar system, and apparently none have collided with Earth, so all KBO impacts on Earth are presumed to be from the old, hot classical KBO reservoir.
Aqueous differentiation of hot classical KBOs presumably occurred catastrophically during binary spiral-in mergers, whereas aqueous differentiation of SDOs was more sustained, forming granite plutons during catastrophic subsidence events and forming ‘marine’ sedimentary rock in quiescent periods between catastrophic subsidence events. KBOs are typically much larger than SDOs, which the ‘Kuiper Cliff’ falloff of objects larger than 100 km beyond 50 AU indicates; however, some of the largest TNOs may be hybrid-accretion SDOs formed from the collisions of many many smaller SDOs prior to being scattered to the scattered disc.
Hydrothermal mantling rock over gneiss dome cores:
The suggested mechanisms for the formation of gneiss-dome mantling rock are merely placeholders for the actual unknown mechanisms, particularly in this section, but with the hope that the suggested mechanisms may have some of the properties of the actual mechanisms.
Binary spiral-in merger is a catastrophic event whose effects presumably diminish at an exponential rate over time; however, the overall process entails multiple sequential events that ramp up and ramp down. Thus as primary gneissic sedimentation is tapering off, destruction of voids in the sedimentary core is accelerating, increasing the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids until authigenic precipitation of mineral grains in the saltwater ocean surrounding the sedimentary core is dominated by the differential temperature and chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids compared to the surrounding ocean.
Pressure solution/dissolution, leaching and metasomatism across the vast surface area of sedimentary mineral grains in KBO cores during lithification and diagenesis expels hot aqueous fluids, partially or completely saturated with salts, minerals, (cat)ions and other species that may flash to (super)saturation in the cooler ocean above, precipitating mineral grains and crystallizing on preexisting suspended sediments, particularly in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents. Mineral grains grow by crystallization to a characteristic size for the buoyancy of the planetesimal ocean with its local circulation rate before falling out of suspension to be buried and mostly sequestered from further growth by crystallization.
Convection is essentially absent within sedimentary cores, slowing heat loss and causing cores to heat up due to the various thermal inputs:
– conversion of potential energy to heat caused by densification,
– concentration of radioactive elements during densification, but mostly from
– exothermal chemical reactions.
In the early stages the temperature rises in the core, altering the relative solubility of mineral species which may change the pH and Eh, which further alters solubilities in a feedback loop. Increasing temperature increases silica solubility while reducing carbonate solubility, tending to dissolve quartz while precipitating and crystallizing carbonates from the saltwater in the sedimentary voids. Later as the core begins to cool off, the process is reversed. In mantled gneiss domes, the gneiss core is typically surrounded by a concentrically-layered mantle composed of an outward progression from gneiss to sandstone/quartzite to carbonate-rock (limestone, dolostone or marble) to schist.
Quartzite mantling rock:
The growing weight of sedimentation in differentiating KBO cores gradually squeezes out the lower-density aqueous fluids (destruction of voids), forcing aqueous fluids into the overlying ocean through hydrothermal vents. Hot hydrothermal fluids laden with dissolved mineral species gush into the cold saltwater ocean, lowering the solubility of most mineral species. Dissolved silica does not require the local convergence of multiple mineral species to precipitate or crystallize quartz, so its very simplicity is suggested to aid in crystallizing on preexisting quartz mineral grains in aqueous suspension, whereas more complex silicates may tend to precipitate new mineral grains rather than crystallizing on suspended mineral grains, with the result that quartz grains tend to be fewer in number and larger in size, while complex-silicate mineral grains tend to be more numerous but smaller. In a low-gravity setting where mineral grains have to reach ‘sand-grain size’ to fall out of suspension, sand tends to rain out while smaller complex-silicate mineral grains remain in aqueous suspension. Eventually more-complex silicate mineral grains would grow (albeit more slowly) to sufficient size by crystallization (or by mineral-grain mergers) to rain out on the sedimentary core as well, unless there’s a sequestering mechanism. Feldspars are the next least complex silicates compared to quartzite, with their flexible 3-way substitution (of potassium, sodium and calcium in orthoclase, albite and anorthite), but if the feldspar precipitation/crystallization rate is sufficiently slow, precipitated feldspar mineral grains may tend to undergo chemical alteration by hydration into clay minerals before they can grow to sufficient size by crystallization to fall out of suspension. And perhaps adsorbed hydrogen gas molecules liberated by hydration reactions give hydrated (clay) mineral grains positive buoyancy, floating them to the icy roof where they become frozen into ceiling ice, thereby being sequestered from falling onto the sedimentary core. So quartzite is suggested to be the first mantling rock type, directly overlying gneiss dome cores.
Carbonate mantling rock:
Over time, as the gneissic sedimentary core cools down, carbonate solubility increases, dissolving increasing concentrations of carbonates from the lithifying gneiss dome cores, which gush into the overlying ocean through ‘white smoker’ hydrothermal vents. But since the carbonate solubility of the cooler overlying ocean is greater than the solubility of the hydrothermal fluids (due to the negative solubility of carbonates with respect to temperature), carbonates are not the first minerals to rain out, quartz is. But as the ocean ‘freeze out’ progresses, freezing water ice tends to exclude incompatible dissolved mineral species, gradually raising carbonate solutes to the saturation point, whereupon carbonates begin to rain out faster than quartz sand, forming carbonate mantling sediments, overlying the mantling sand which metamorphoses into limestone and dolostone over quartzite.
Schist mantling rock:
Schistose mantling sediments may form during periods of perturbative warming when sediments frozen into the icy mantle (during the earlier quartzite and carbonate mantling rock phases) are liberated by melting of water ice, particularly, during periods of flip-flop perturbation (apsidal precession) caused by the SSB.
Cap conglomerate mantling rock:
Then as the ice ceiling finally closes in on the sedimentary core, the ceiling may drag on the core, grinding the high points and tumbling the breccia into pebbles, cobbles and boulders smooth to form a cap of conglomerate rock, and orbital perturbation causing differential rotation of the sedimentary core and icy mantle would accentuate the formation and thickness of a ‘cap conglomerate’ layer.
And as the saltwater ocean freezes solid during ‘freeze out’, expansion of water ice builds pressure on the core, and this gradual pressure increase may be responsible for the typical high-pressure metamorphism of gneiss domes, and to a lesser extent to metamorphism of the overlying mantling rock.
Archean TTG to GG transition:
Archean TTG gneiss:
“Gray gneisses of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) affinity make up much of the basement in Archean provinces worldwide; consequently, an understanding of their petrogenesis provides important insights into early crust-forming processes. These rocks, estimated by Martin et al. (2005) to make up around 90% of Archean-age juvenile continental crust,” (Frost et al. 2006)
“Archean terrains are commonly described as being composed of two quite distinct groups of granitoids: an older, sodic, TTG-affinity group, and a late Archean potassium-rich group (e.g., Taylor and McLennan 1985). The change, which some authors place at around 2.75 Ga (Taylor and McLennan 1985) and others at 2.50 Ga (Martin 1994),” (Frost et al. 2006)
If Uranus and Neptune scattered leftover protoplanetary planetesimals (SDOs) to the scattered disk, with semi-major axes largely beyond the 3:1 resonance with Neptune, then assuming SDOs precipitate granite plutons within internal voids during catastrophic subsidence events, the transition from TTG gneiss domes to GG granitoid plutons may represent the gradual transition from KBO to SDO incursions into the inner solar system perturbed by the SSB.
Authigenic mineral-grain size in KBOs:
Authigenic mineral grain size is a function of circulation rates and local gravitational acceleration (buoyancy), which is determined by planetesimal size and the relative distance from the center of mass. (On Earth, zero gravitational acceleration at the center of mass climbs to a maximum value a little more than half way to the surface.) Assuming a sedimentary core lies below the point of maximum gravitational acceleration, authigenic mineral grain size should tend to decrease from the center outward, excepting for metasomatic pegmatites which may grow to fantastic size in sheltered areas. The characteristic, authigenic sand-grain size in Wissahickon schist is about 450 microns (.45 mm).
Highly indurated quartzite cobbles, some with Skolithos trace fossils:
Some gneiss domes are capped with conglomerate, composed of polished cobbles, often in quartzite, with highly-indurated surfaces which take a higher polish than the coarseness of the underlying matrix would take. Cracking open an indurated quartzite cobble reveals a tough, hard, indurated (case-hardened) surface, with little or no porosity, that takes a high polish. Sometimes the indurated surface is stained a much darker color than the interior, but other times it’s nearly the same hue as the underlying matrix. On quartzite cobbles exhibiting Skolithos trace fossils, the trace fossils are often dimpled inward, indicating that organic contamination in the traces reduces the strength of the matrix. In internal KBO oceans in the process of freezing solid, as the ice ceiling closes in on the rocky core the two surfaces may grind on one anther, creating breccia that’s tumbled smooth by sloshing or differential rotation between the rocky core and the icy mantle. As the ocean freezes solid and ice crystals exclude incompatible mineral species, the shrinking saltwater ocean becomes saturated with ever increasing varieties of mineral species which are available to crystallize on exposed cobbles to create indurated rinds. The ocean finally freezes solid, trapping indurated, polished cobbles in a clastic matrix, sometimes forming the outer layer of mantled gneiss-dome cores.
Euhedral garnets in schist:
The round dodecahedron shape of euhedral almandine garnets in schist suggest authigenic crystallization while trapped by the Bernoulli effect in hydrothermal fluid plumes in the low gravity saltwater oceans of KBOs, like a balloon trapped in a vertical air column over a fan blowing straight up. Most other euhedral mineral crystals are flat, needle like, blade like or elongated–all shapes which could not remain trapped for long by the Bernoulli effect due to their spherical asymmetries, so the round euhedral shape of almandine garnets is suggested to be the primary reason for their relative gigantism, in the absence of other pegmatites.
Pegmatites in schist:
Pegmatites in schist often contain large sheets of common mica growing from a bed of quartz crystals, and often accompanied by still-larger masses of euhedral feldspar crystals. Perhaps a local depletion of silica by nearby quartz crystallization symbiotically promotes muscovite crystallization. Quartz pegmatite formations suggests crystallization on the cold-junction ice ceiling where silica solubility is lowest and where pegmatites would be protected from burial by mineral-grain sedimentation, but not from burial by the negative buoyancy of water-ice crystals floating to the ceiling. In the Wissahickon schist of Philadelphia (near where Rising Sun Ave. crosses Tacony Creek), kilogram-scale blocks of feldspar crystals are commonly found near sheets of muscovite up to 10’s of square centimeters in area, embedded in large masses of quartz crystals.
Quartz stalactites in schist terrain:
Suggested quartz stalactites are suggested to have formed on ice ceilings overhanging hydrothermal vents where they were continuously bathed in hydrothermal fluids. Perhaps the best exposure of suggested quartz stalactites is in the creek bed that runs along W. Bells Mill Rd. in Philadelphia (40.078 -75.227). Perhaps the heat conducting ability of quartz stalactites hanging from an icy ceiling lowers silica solubility to the saturation point, promoting quartz crystallization on ceiling stalactites. Curiously, suspected quartz stalactites within (Wissahickon) schist terrain are not found eroding out of schist bedrock but loose in the creek bed as if they were formed on and were preserved in ceiling ice rather than in schistose floor sediments. The occasional appearance of euhedral garnets imbedded in suspected quartz stalactites ties in with hydrothermal vents, in which euhedral almandine garnets are suggested to crystallize. Quartz stalactites associated with schist have sinewy longitudinal furrows like American hornbeam trunks and branches, giving them the appearance of petrified wood of a particularly gnarly species. Stalactite cross sections range from 1 cm Dia to 1 meter Dia or more, with variable lengths which are generally fractured at both ends. Cross-sectional aspect ratios vary widely, some are thin almost like ribbon like, similar to calcium carbonate flows in terrestrial caves, but more commonly they have oval or nearly-circular cross sections.
ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL:
This section suggests an icy-body impact origin for long-chain hydrocarbon reservoirs on Earth, formed in endothermic chemical reactions of carbon ices in impact shock waves.
Energy absorption of compressible ices in icy-body impacts:
Work = force times change in distance, and similarly, Work = pressure times change in volume (W = PdV), so ices that are significantly more compressible than silicates will absorb the vast majority of icy-body impact energy which may (largely) clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target rock and largely below pressures necessary to form shatter cones, shocked quartz and high-pressure polymorphs like coesite, masking icy-body impact structures from identification as such. Thus the relative compressibility of ices is suggested to clamp the impact power of icy-body impacts by extending its duration through the rebound period of the compressed ices.
Super-high shock-wave pressures are suggested to endothermically convert short-chain hydrocarbons (ethane, methane ices and perhaps carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as well) into long-chain hydrocarbons. The high mobility of hydrogen ions may largely scavenge liberated chalcogens and halogens, helping to protect endothermic hydrocarbons from burning during shock-wave rebound. Experimentally, methane converts to long alkane chains and free hydrogen at 60 GPa and 4509 K (Li, Zhang et al., 2011).
Impact induced super-tsunami debris flows are suggested to bulldoze forests before it, forming debris mounds littered with floral debris that internally differentiates into a multiplicity of coal-seam cyclothems in which clastic sediments sink to form basement ‘ganister’ or ‘seatearth’. The lower-density hydrocarbons rise to form hydrocarbon deposits which may terrestrially metamorphose into coal seams. Subsequent slumping (reworking) of debris mounds may form coal seams of apparent younger age, blurring bright line nature of catastrophic impact events.
Rocky-iron impact craters vs. icy-body impact basins:
The clamped shock-wave pressure of icy body impacts, lowers the power by extending its duration during the subsequent rebound of the compressed ices, which may provide time for the deformation of the Earth’s crust into a basin, suggesting an impact origin for many round basins on Earth, such as the 450 km Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay. Additionally, an extended shock wave pressure may tend to clamp fractured target rock in place, largely preventing its (overturn) excavation into bowl-shaped craters, along with mixing to form polymict breccia. Icy-body impact basins may resemble the muted blow of a dead-blow hammer compared to rocky-iron impact craters which may resemble the sharp blow of a ball-peen hammer.
Li, Dafang, Zhang, Ping & Yan, Jun, (2011), Quantum molecular dynamics simulations for the nonmetal-metal transition in shocked methane, Condensed Matter Materials Science, 24 March 2011, arXiv:1012.4888v2
‘PLUTO-METEORWRONGS’ FROM A YOUNG (542 MA) COLD-CLASSICAL-KUIPER-BELT RESERVOIR DEBRIS DISK:
This section discusses a common class of low-nickel meteorwrongs, frequently containing metallic-iron inclusions, sometimes having the appearance of fusion crust. This class of objects will be designated, ‘Pluto-meteorwrongs’ or alternatively, ‘secondary-debris-disk material’, due to their suggested 542 Ma secondary debris disk origin from which the cold classical Kuiper population condensed by gravitational instability (GI), along with some or many of the Plutinos, including binary Pluto with its geologically-young surface. The terms, ‘Pluto-meteorwrong’ and ‘secondary-debris-disk material’ may be used interchangeably, with the former being more memorable and the latter more explicit. The secondary debris disk is suggested to have arisen from the ashes of the spiral-in merger of our former binary brown-dwarf Companion to the Sun at 542 Ma, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon. And the asymmetrical nature of the merger explosion gave the Companion escape velocity from the Sun. (For evolution of our suggested former quadruple star system, see section, STARS, PLANETS, MOONS, MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS).
Secondary debris disk:
The suggested 542 Ma spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion formed a ‘secondary debris disk’ from which the cold classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) condensed, to distinguish it from the suggested 4,568 Ma spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun which formed a ‘primary debris disk’ from which rocky-iron asteroids, carbonaceous chondrites and hot classical KBOs condensed. For the first hours and days (and perhaps longer), the brown-dwarf-merger-nucleosynthesis radioactive decay may have heated the earliest accretionary masses to the melting point of silicates and iron, forming millimeter to meter scale pebbles, cobbles and boulders. As the radioactivity decreased and the temperature declined, basaltic masses froze solid such that subsequent collisions tended to fracture the masses rather than stick them together. A further decline in temperature allowed volatiles to condense to form various types of snow which clumped more effectively than basaltic rock, cobbling together fractured chunks of basaltic rock in a snowy matrix, perhaps 10s or even 100 meters or more in diameter. Over time the brown-dwarf-merger material settled down into a well-behaved low inclination, low eccentricity secondary debris disk from which cold classical KBOs condensed by GI. Additionally, secondary debris disk material accreted onto preexisting hot classical KBOs and scattered disk objects (SDOs), forming a thin veneer on the surface. A number of preexisting minor planets (hot classical KBOs and SDOs) which acquired a veneer of secondary debris disk material are suggested to have been perturbed into the inner solar system in the Phanerozoic Eon, and a few are suggested to have collided with Earth, in extinction-level impacts. So Pluto-meteorwrongs are suggested to have been ferried to Earth as a veneer on trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) (which include both KBOs and SDOs), although the cold classical KBO population which condensed from the secondary debris disk are in stable low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits that haven’t been perturbed into the inner solar system, so only a veneer of brown-dwarf material has found its way to Earth, not entire minor planets condensed from the material.
Incorporation of Pluto-meteorwrongs into carbonate rock:
Aqueous differentiation (melting of water ice) is suggested to have occurred on minor planets of the Kuiper belt and scattered disc from orbital perturbation caused by the loss of the Sun’s Companion (actually the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter). And this orbital perturbation strained the minor planets themselves, causing the melting. Substantial accretion of 2nd-debris-disk material may have contributed to melting as well. Then these saltwater oceans precipitated authigenic carbonate sediments, which in places apparently incorporated 2nd debris disk basaltic rock and metallic iron. The suggested Appalachian KBO, with its Adirondack and Baltimore gneiss domes and the carbonate rock of the Great Limestone Valley, is suggested to have impacted Earth around 443 Ma, causing the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. Local super concentrations of 2nd-debris-disk material are suggested to have been excavated from two round quarries, from the Ledger Formation (Cl) in Conshohocken, PA and from St. Paul group (Osp) in Harrisburg, PA. Doe Run, Pa has considerable 2nd-debris-disk material with up to 1 meter basaltic boulders, which presumably eroded out of Cockeysville Marble (Xc). So presumably, Pluto-meteorwrongs in the Appalachian region may be found in Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rock formations throughout the Great Limestone Valley region of the Appalachians.
Core accretion vs. gravitational instability:
Comets and minor planets are suggested here to have formed by gravitational instability (GI), not by pebble accretion, although super-Earths are suggested to form by ‘hybrid accretion’ (Thayne Curie 2005) of planetesimals formed by gravitational instability (hence hybrid). In the inner solar system, chondrules are suggested to be the scale of pebble accretion; however, pebble accretion may reach a considerably larger scale in the outer solar system, but still falling far short of the 1 km hurtle necessary for gravitational core accretion to come into play. The 45 m “Cheops” boulder on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko discovered by the Rosetta mission may be an indication of the scale of accretionary masses in the outer solar system which formed local super concentrations swept up by preexisting TNOs, forming veneer on their surfaces. So Ivy Rock quarry and the Harrisburg/Swatara-Township quarry are suggested to be the locations of accretionary super concentrations which were swept up by the 443 Ma Appalachian KBO in the Kuiper belt and then aqueously differentiated into authigenic (extraterrestrial) carbonate rock.
Cohesion in molten masses of Pluto-meteorwrongs:
The heat energy necessary to melt meter-scale basaltic masses of Pluto-meteorwrongs and smaller in zero gravity is suggested to have been the radioactive decay of very-short-lived brown-dwarf-merger-nucleosynthesis radionuclides. These formerly-molten accretionary masses cooled in a wide range of sizes, from centimeter to meter scale and quite possibly larger. With only surface tension holding the molten masses together in zero gravity, small (hand-sample-sized) masses had a vastly-higher surface area to volume ratio than larger meter-scale masses; however, internal bubbles may have effectively increased the surface area, causing internal voids to contribute to the overall cohesive force, particularly benefiting large meter-sized boulders. (Think of a frothy mass of bubbles where every bubble surface is held taught by its entire perimeter, where internal bubbles also contribute to the overall cohesive force.)
Pillow-lava-like masses in Phoenixville, PA:
The 2nd-debris-disk basaltic material discarded along the banks of French Creek in Phoenixville, PA is highly distinctive compared to 2nd-debris-disk material found elsewhere, suggesting a single source. Additionally, a high degree of variability on the ground suggests a high degree of variability (heterogeneity) in the 2nd debris disk of the outer solar system as well. In the Phoenixville material, many decimeter-scale chunks of basaltic material have one distinctly-rounded ‘outer’ surface, like fractured sections of pillow lava. After cooling to the solid state, subsequent collisions have apparently typically fractured the ‘pillows’ into pie-shaped sections, with one relatively-smooth rounded outer surface. The nearest large quarries to Phoenixville are several miles to the south-southwest along Rt. 29 just south of Rt. 76, with two quarries possibly in the Cambrian Ledger Formation, which is the same rock formation that hosts the round crater in Conshohocken from which 2nd-debris-disk material is suggested to have been mined.
Primary-debris-disk vs. 2nd-debris-disk:
The suggested spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,568 Ma formed a primary debris disk from which asteroids and chondrites condensed in the inner solar system, along with hot classical KBOs in Neptune’s outer resonances. Four billion years later, the suggested spiral-in merger of our former binary-Companion at 542 Ma formed a secondary debris disk from which (cold classical) KBOs condensed, including binary Pluto. The primary debris disk in the outer solar system is apparently devoid of basaltic rocks with metallic-ion inclusions like that of the secondary debris disk, and the differences between the two spiral-in mergers separated by 4 billion years must explain the disparity. First, the months long duration of the luminous red nova following the primary merger may have largely postponed accretion of solids until after the radionuclides with the shortest half lives had decayed away. Next, while binary-Companion had significant angular momentum around the former solar system barycenter, giving the secondary debris disk significant angular momentum, by comparison, the material of the primary debris disk formed from the binary-Sun merger had comparatively-little angular momentum, so the formation of the primary debris disk may have been much slower process, again postponing the accretion of solids until after the the radionuclides with the shortest half lives had decayed away. Gravitational instability came to the rescue in the inner solar system, condensing kilometer-scale asteroids while iron-60 and aluminum-26 was sufficiently hot to thermally differentiate (melt) asteroids, but vastly smaller meter-scale accretionary masses formed in the outer solar system would have required vastly higher rates of radioactivity that likely died away in the initial hours to days following the binary-Sun merger at 4,568 Ma. So only the secondary debris disk accreted quickly enough to form meter-scale molten masses, but gravity was nonexistent in meter-scale masses, so the metallic iron is often distributed throughout as various-sized metallic iron inclusions.
Siderophile depletion in the secondary debris disk:
While the primary debris disk disbursed chondritic concentrations of elements (including siderophile elements) the brown-dwarf/super-Jupiter components of binary-Companion had presumably sequestered siderophile elements into an iron core which apparently failed to escape the Companion’s Roche sphere. Some siderophile core material was likely squirted out in polar jets from the merging cores; however, only the more energetic equatorial material apparently escaped the Companion’s Roche sphere to be captured by the Sun, resulting in a siderophile-depleted secondary debris disk, particularly depleted in nickel, sulfur and platinum group elements (PGEs) such as iridium. The brown-dwarf mantles presumably contained a significant iron concentration to pass on to a secondary debris disk, perhaps in the form of silicate perovskite, so while other siderophile elements were significantly depleted, the secondary debris disk was presumably only moderately depleted in iron itself.
Centrifugal differentiation in Pluto-meteorwrongs:
While the gravity of meter-scale masses was nonexistent, the centrifugal force of rotation could create buoyancy in rotating masses of molten basalt and molten metallic iron, which may have been responsible for the largest masses of metallic iron in Pluto-meteorwrongs. And if dense metallic-iron concentrations were centrifugally hurled to the outside of rotating masses cohesively held together by surface tension, bubble voids would similarly tend to be drawn to the center. Thus massive iron would have been buoyed to the perimeter of rotating masses while the metallic iron was completely molten, while nodular masses of iron were apparently buoyed to the perimeter after metallic iron had already frozen solid, but was still warm enough to sinter into a nodular mass.
Natural secondary-debris-disk origin vs. Industrial iron-furnace origin:
Many properties of suggested secondary-debris-disk material are at odds with the well-understood properties of rocky-iron asteroids and carbonaceous chondrites from the asteroid belt, and these differences and its method of transport to Earth conspire against an extraterrestrial interpretation, despite basaltic material with suspended metallic-iron inclusions that couldn’t have cooled from a molten state on the surface of a high-gravity planet, either naturally or in the form of industrial slag.
Low nickel, low PGE:
Low nickel content is the death knoll of suspected meteorites, so the low nickel content of Pluto-meteorwrongs halts any further analysis, such as date testing, that might preclude an industrial origin. A mass spec analysis of nickel in a Pluto-meteorwrong metallic-iron inclusion measured only .2%, with no iridium down to 2 ppb in the basaltic component.
Apparent fusion crust:
Small hand sample sized basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs sometimes appear to have a vanishingly-thin, generally-glassy fusion crust, often jet black. True fusion crust forms by ablation on exposed surfaces of meteorites traveling through Earth’s atmosphere at interplanetary speeds. Pluto-meteorwrongs, however, would have had a low probability of direct exposure to Earth’s atmosphere in vastly-larger TNO impacts, so the vanishingly-thin fusion crust frequently found on basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs may have a different origin, perhaps caused by slow cooling from a molten state in the vacuum of space at zero gravity. By comparison, Iron furnace slag sometimes forms a thick layer of glass which rises to the surface. On Pluto-meteorwrongs, the vanishingly-thin jet black layer most typical of true fusion crust appears to form on fractured surfaces, whereas completely-smooth outer surfaces appear to have been formerly molten, which is not a characteristic of fusion crust. So jet-black pseudo fusion crust may form on Pluto-meteorwrong basaltic masses that collide and fracture while still thermally hot enough to create a jet-black exterior surface by means unknown.
Relationship to the early iron industry:
The discovery of large deposits of (2nd-debris-disk) material containing metallic iron inclusions in carbonate rock may have been dismissed as inefficiently-processed colonial iron-furnace slag dumped into sink holes which eventually filled a large undergound chamber. The material was likely mined for its associated magnetite for iron smelting, whereas the metallic iron and basaltic material contained too many embrittling contaminants and thus were discarded as mining gangue. A small amount of 2nd-debris-disk native iron may have been melted in secondary furnaces for undemanding applications where embrittling contaminants are not a drawback, such as window sash counterweights, since melting native iron directly requires considerably less energy than chemically reducing iron ore to its metallic form. The the slag from these secondary furnaces was apparently discarded along with the excess 2nd-debris-disk basaltic and metallic-iron material, and the mixture of iron-furnace slag with 2nd-debris-disk material is enough to cower even the most inquisitive geologist. Indeed broken pieces of window sash counterweights and broken chunks of cast iron plates are strewn along the West bank of the Schuylkill River in West Conshohocken, PA. Ruins of several secondary furnaces can be found along the East shore of the Schuylkill River in Conshohocken (proper). In one small failed iron furnace, several cubic feet of iron froze solid before it could be extracted (40.0747, -75.2845), and a small 4 foot diameter Bessemer-style iron furnace is moldering nearby (40.0746, -75.283). Ruins of a third, somewhat-larger furnace have been pushed into Plymouth Creek (40.077, -75.3125), about a mile due west of the other two furnaces. Discarded 2nd-debris-disk gangue material is used in several places along paths in parks was even used to a small extent in Conshohocken as railroad ‘track ballast’. Finally, the high calcium oxide percentage in the basaltic in Pluto-meteorwrongs (assayed at 20%) is similar to the calcium oxide percentage in limestone/dolomite-fluxed iron-furnace slag, which certainly doesn’t help the case for a natural origin.
Granular/nodular 2nd-debris-disk material:
A large percentage, perhaps even a majority, of basaltic 2nd-debris-disk material is granular on a millimeter to centimeter scale, which includes similar-sized nodules of metallic iron. Some of the contaminants in the metallic iron must create a impervious stainless-steel-like oxide on the surface in order for the metallic iron to have survived for many decades or perhaps more than a century of exposure to the elements following its abandonment by the iron industry. The metallic-iron component is often nodular in appearance even in larger masses, where it often appears to be composed of sintered iron nodules, only partially melted together. Some masses of nodular iron have chips and larger masses of carbonate rock embedded deep crevices which fizz when subjected to vinegar, pointing to their having eroded out of a carbonate rock formation.
Cement-like coating on 2nd-debris-disk material:
Whitish cement-like coating is common on basaltic and magnetite components of 2nd-debris-disk material. The coating which resembles Portland cement residue is concentrated in crevices and voids where it’s partially sheltered from the effects of weathering. In deep voids and crevices, the grain size is typically larger than in more exposed areas, indicating that the entire surface may have been coated with course granular material prior to weathering following mining excavation. The cement-like coating fizzes when exposed to vinegar, indicating a limestone or dolostone component. By comparison industrial iron-furnace slag (free of metallic-iron inclusions) does not have a cement-like coating. So a rough cement-like coating is suggested to be a good indicator of Pluto-meteorwrongs, but its absence may merely be attributable to weathering.
Economic argument against an industrial origin:
Apart from the impossibility of suspending centimeter-scale globules of metallic iron in molten basalt on high-gravity Earth, the significant percentage of metallic iron in Pluto-meteorwrong basaltic material also argues against an industrial origin. In the years before charcoal was replaced by coke as a fuel for iron smelting, iron furnace fuel was particularly dear, heightening the rewards for efficiency prior to the introduction of lower priced coke derived from coal. A batch of iron-furnace charcoal required twenty-five to fifty cords of split hardwood (quickly denuding woods adjacent to iron furnaces), and these roasting hardwood batches had to be tended around the clock for 10 to 14 days by ‘colliers’ in large charcoal pits, making charcoal production for iron furnaces an industry unto itself. When coke arrived, it was as close as the nearest railroad; however, earlier charcoal production was largely local to each furnace, and had to be hauled in by horse cart at increasingly greater distances as the lowlands became denuded of lumber.
A significant amount of Pluto-meteorwrong native iron curiously contains remarkably little associated basaltic component which may indicate centrifugal differentiation in early rotating accretionary masses prior to cooling. Metallic iron inclusions in basaltic Pluto-meteorwrongs tend to be nodular, unlike liquid iron on a high-gravity planet which pools to take the shape of its containing vessel. Larger masses of Pluto-meteorwrong metallic iron often assume three dimensional shapes that couldn’t form in an industrial setting in an open vessel. Additionally, since manufacturing efficiency is enhanced through process and product uniformity, the wide variety of sizes and shapes of metallic iron and basaltic material in Pluto-meteorwrongs argue against an industrial origin. A much stronger argument can be made against the suspension of macroscopic metallic-iron blebs in molten basalt in light of the high differential density between slag and metallic iron and their high differential melting points. Basalt liquidus: 1200 °C, iron: 1538 °C. Basalt density: 3.0 g/ml, iron density: 7.87 g/ml. But, this argument needs to be quantified before it might have even a small chance of being taken seriously.
Massive fractured chunks of magnetite (iron ore) appear to be a common component of 2nd-debris-disk material, and this magnetite is suggested to have been the economic incentive for commercially mining super concentrations of 2nd-debris-disk material, such as from the round Ivy Rock quarry in Conshohocken, PA and the round quarry on Paxton St. in Harrisburg, PA. The cement-like coating common on the basaltic components is also present on massive chunks of magnetite, but it’s absent on high-density bloomery slag and industrial iron-furnace slag (which is likewise free of metallic-iron inclusions). So a cement-like coating comprised of carbonate mineral grains is suggested to be a positive indicator of 2nd-debris-disk material.
A 542 Ma age finding would set 2nd-debris-disk material apart from both the iron industry and asteroidal meteorites, but unfortunately, date testing is largely confined to academic labs and generally unavailable to laymen.
Southeast Pennsylvania locations of 2nd-debris-disk material:
Ivy Rock quarry, Conshohocken, PA, in Cambrian dolostone of the Ledger Formation (Cl):
Ivy Rock quarry, just north of Conshohocken, PA, along Conshohocken Road on the east bank of the Schuylkill River (40.095, -75.315) is suggested to have been the location of a super concentration of 2nd-debris-disk material. Much of the mined 2nd-debris-disk basaltic and metallic-iron gangue material, assumedly mined from the Ivy Rock quarry, was used to level a small triangle of land between Plymouth Creek and I-476, just 1.6 km south of the quarry (40.08, -75.313, with access from Light Street, Conshohocken), and the material has also been used on walkways in nearby parks. Ivy Rock quarry was assumedly mined for its economic magnetite, with the metallic iron and basaltic material discarded in the waste stream due to excessive embrittling contaminants.
Phoenixville, PA, from Ledger dolostone(?):
In Phoenixville, PA, a significant quantity of pillow-lava-like fragments are mixed with industrial iron furnace slag from the nearby Phoenixville iron works. The material has been tumbled into French Creek ravine from the south bank, between N. Main St. and Ashland St. (40.135, -75.513), just east of Phoenixville Foundry (although recent building construction has fenced off access to a majority of the material). The rock formation from which the material was presumably mined is unknown, but may have been from the quarries in the Ledger Formation where the formation is crossed by Rt. 29, just below Rt. 76.
Doe Run, PA in Cockeysville Marble:
Doe Run, PA area has a particularly-diverse range of native iron specimens, many apparently pitched to fence posts of farmer’s fields (39.915, -75.816). The associated basaltic components are generally fractured fragments from larger boulders.
Harrisburg, PA quarry, in Ordovician limestone/dolostone of the St. Paul group (Osp):
Much of the 2nd-debris-disk material used as clean fill in the Harrisburg, PA area is suggested to have been excavated from the former quarry in the 2200 block of Paxton St. Harrisburg/Swatara-Township, PA 17111 (40.256, -76.847). Because transportation is a large portion of the cost of clean fill, material is generally sourced and used locally, making the former quarry on Paxton St. the most-likely origin of the 2nd-debris-disk material in the Harrisburg Area. The similar size and shape of the two quarries in Conshohocken and Harrisburg, historical iron furnaces in both locations along with an abundance of 2nd-debris-disk gangue material used as clean fill in both areas are suggested to be too many coincidences. 2nd-debris-disk material has been used in an abandoned road spur off Paxton Ave. at Paxton Ministries (40.2545, -76.8505), barely a stone’s throw from the quarry itself. Basaltic chunks and magnetite can be found scattered along the southwest bank of City Island in the Susquehanna River (with island access from Market Street Bridge). Pluto-meteorwrongs have been used as clean fill on the East Shore of the Susquehanna River to extend residential parking on the river side of Front St. in Enola, PA. Pluto-meteorwrongs have been found as far west as Wesley Dr. in Mechanicsburg, PA.
Natural limonite and man-made meteorwrongs:
Ferric and ferrous cations leached from local 2nd-debris-disk super concentrations may form secondary limonite concretions on surrounding swampy land. Limonite likely contains even fewer fewer embrittling contaminants than 2nd-debris-disk magnetite, making limonite with a high percentage of iron desirable for iron smelting.
“Bloomery smelting” is the earliest known form of iron smelting which ushered in the iron age. It creates distinctive high-density ‘bloomery slag’ or ‘tap slag’ with flow lines evident on the surface that can’t easily be confused with anything else. Bloomery slag can be found throughout the Roman Empire and in Medieval settlements, and bloomery smelting was apparently even practiced in colonial America based based on bloomery slag found in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Bloomery smelting requires a careful control of the temperature to keep it below the melting point of metallic iron but above the melting point of the iron ore, creating a small amount of spongy metallic iron after the high-density slag flows out near the bottom of the furnace. The ropy flow lines on the surface of bloomery slag are evidence of its having trickled out of small ovens, typically on the order of a cubic meter in size. Larger and vastly more efficient blast furnaces would have quickly displaced bloomery smelting in colonial America in the early 19th century. Finally, as expected, bloomery slag does not exhibit cement-like coating on its outer surfaces, characteristic of 2nd-debris-disk material.
Microscopic examination of iron-furnace slag from historic Cornwall and Johanna furnaces reveals micron-scale metallic-iron spherule (requiring magnification) and nothing larger. The microscopic spherules are most apparent in thin chips of translucent, glassy slag with strong back lighting at 100X magnification. The spherules come into focus and disappear as one varies the depth of focus, revealing hundreds of spherules per cubic centimeter, with a distinctive upper size limit dictated by the high negative buoyancy of metallic iron in molten glassy slag on the surface of our high-gravity planet. By comparison, massive TNO-crust frequently contains millimeter to centimeter-scale metallic-iron blebs which are many orders of magnitude larger than the microscopic spherules in iron-furnace slag.
Silicides, Fe3Si, Cr3Si, Mn3Si, and particularly CaSi, may be components of highly-reduced 2nd-debris-disk basaltic material; however, chunks of high-purity silicides with chrome-like brilliance on fractured surfaces are almost certainly manufactured products for the steel and alloy industry. Calcium silicide is used as a deoxidizer and for removing removing phosphorus in steel manufacturing, and specialty silicides and ferroalloys are used to introduce carefully-controlled additives to make alloy steel and non-ferrous alloys.
Examples from elsewhere:
– “Strange Rock Reports”
(with cement-like coating)
– MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMENS OF A METEORWRONG “FALL” FROM NW IRAN
(with cement-like coating)
This section discusses a characteristic class of isolated boulder fields with uniformly weathered surfaces that often exhibit deep pits and striations not found in boulders outside their narrow confines. This section makes an argument for their catastrophic origin in seconds to minutes from secondary strikes of ice sloughed off from icy-body objects like comets or larger trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), rather than the relative gradualism of an exaggerated freeze and thaw cycle toward the end of the last glacial period as suggested by most academic sources.
Boulder fields of impact origin would tend to be randomly located within a possibly-vast strewn field and therefore generally unassociated with scree and talus slopes below steep cliff faces where boulder fields are well known to form. The suggested randomness of impact fields, however, appear to be highly skewed to the rugged terrain of mountains, hills and slopes which would seem to obviate the random argument. True, mountains may provide significant obstacles for objects in exceedingly-oblique approach angles to Earth that may be nearly parallel to the limb of the planet, but other reasons are hypothesized to predominate. Slopes, relatively unprotected from impacts by thin soils, provide potential energy to concentrate boulders into downhill boulder fields by catastrophic debris flows in the seconds and minutes following impact. Additionally, we may be largely unaware of the effect of secondary impact sites on level ground, partly due to the original protection afforded to the bedrock by thicker lowland soil, but mostly due to their lack of concentration on level ground and due to their subsequent burial by thick lowland sediments. Finally, small boulder fields on low ground may have been largely scavenged for use as building stone, particularly for stone fences, in the early colonial years.
So secondary-impact breccia may form rapid downhill debris flows from a strike higher up on sloped terrain, and a debris flow into a shallow v-shaped gully may serve to concentrate boulders many stories deep. And deeply stacked boulder fields on sloping terrain will make effective French drains to clear the original debris flow sediments and keep it clear of future sedimentation: the relative absence of plant life is a notable characteristic of hypothesized impact boulder fields. Eastern Pennsylvania alone boasts two Ringing Rocks boulder fields, two Blue Rocks boulder fields (near Hawk Mountain, Berks County Park) and Hickory Run boulder field (Hickory Run State Park), as well as numerous smaller boulder unnamed boulder fields scattered throughout the ridge-and-valley terrain of the Appalachians.
Boulder fracturing mechanisms:
In addition to ‘impulse fracturing’, deep surface striations scoured into bedrock by entrained masses of super-high velocity slurries may provide leverage for super-high-pressure shock wave to split rock by tension. And high-pressure high-temperature phyllosilicate slurries are hypothesized to have rock-fracturing properties which may also contribute to bedrock fragmentation. (See section: PHYLLOSILICATE PROPERTIES).
Boulder cup marks from cairn of Great Britain:
Pitting and striations common in boulder fields of Southeastern Pennsylvania are also known on boulders in burial Clava cairns and other stone monument structures in Great Britain. In more-highly populated regions of the Old World, impact boulder fields may have been heavily scavenged for use as building stone, except where sacred monuments preserved them in part. Coincidentally, cairns are often found in uplands, moorland or moors (a type of habitat found in upland areas) and on mountaintops where impact boulder fields tend to form. In Great Britain, pitting associated with cairn boulders are known as ‘cup marks’, with concentric ‘ring marks’, likely added by hand for emphasis. Imagine the prehistoric world of 12,900 years ago with a dwarf planet bearing down on the planet. Intermittent meteoric flashes brighter than the Sun accompanied by a thunderous roar that broke eardrums and collapsed lungs were accompanied by a rain of icy material at interplanetary speed in sufficient density to reduce northern populations to a remnant of their former numbers. All this was visited on primitive people before the advent of agriculture in Great Britain by angry gods apparently intent on world destruction. The sudden appearance of boulder fields were accompanied by special boulders containing sacred writing from angry gods. And so the creation of boulder monuments marking upland boulder fields from the gods, with their sacred texts prominently displayed, is just what one might expect from primitive peoples with modern language development.
The academic geology explanation of boulder fields formed by exaggerated freezing and thawing cycles during the end of the last glacial period does not explain their segregation into narrow boulder fields. Take another example from nature which actually happened to me: imagine you’re driving through the countryside and notice that lots of trees have been knocked down in the woods on both sides of the highway, which have been ground into mounds of wood chips. You might justifiably think that a tornado had recently passed through, but as you continue to drive, you slowly become aware that the damage has gone on for 10s of miles uninterrupted, and you’d do well to alter your opinion to that of an ice storm, which tends to affect vastly-larger areas than tornadoes. In a reverse analogy, when you think of freezing and thawing cycles during the end the ice age you imagine vast swaths of the North American continent beyond the ice sheet, not very-few highly-defined boulder fields with astonishing local concentrations of boulders.
Finally, several characteristic boulder fields exhibit the unusual property that some individual boulders ring like a bell when sharply struck with a hard object such as another rock or a hammer. Two diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania independently go by the name ‘Ringing Rocks’.
Perhaps all of the relatively-recent impact boulder fields were caused by a single event which ended the Pleistocene, some 11,700 + 1,400 – 0.0 years ago, causing the local extinction of 33 megafaunal genera on the North American continent as well as ending the Clovis culture. But rather a than moderate-sized comet airburst over the Laurentide ice sheet, as suggested by proponents of the YD impact hypothesis, a vastly-larger TNO impact may have formed the 430 km Nastapoka Arc basin of lower Hudson Bay. Icy-body impacts are hypothesized to form basins rather than craters when relatively compressible ices clamp the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of target-rock silicates and the formation of shatter cones, masking their impact origins. (See section: ABIOTIC OIL AND COAL)
This hypothesized, end-Pleistocene impact event was apparently accompanied by
legions of secondary impacts suggested to be composed of sloughed off icy crust, apparently from an exceedingly oblique approach through the Earth’s atmosphere that almost missed the Earth altogether. The apparently astronomical quantity of secondary strikes should be suggestive of a non-fortuitous causal mechanism, rather than mere secondary ad hoc mechanisms, such as a collision with another planetesimal or a fortuitous close encounter with one of the giant planets.
Impact boulder-field characteristics:
Pockmarks and striations on boulders in several isolated boulder fields across Pennsylvania are suggestive of high energy processes. Two discrete diabase boulder fields in Southeastern Pennsylvania, separated by more than 50 kilometers, have several distinctive properties in common that they do not share with loose diabase boulders in between. Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Black Eddy, PA and Ringing Rocks Park in Lower Pottsgrove Township, PA share several distinctive properties:
1) a deep field of boulders, many stories high which make a French drain and prevent soil accumulation, precluding most plant life,
2) relatively-recently fractured boulders with a similar degree of weathering on all surfaces indicative of a simultaneous catastrophic origin,
3) similar surface features on some boulders, such as pockmarks, pot holes and striations indicative of a catastrophic origin since the limited degree of surface weathering precludes their formation by erosion,
4) some boulders ring like bells when sharply struck with a hard object as if the rocks had acquired a surface tension rind during the hypothesized, catastrophic, super-high pressure shock wave,
5) Subconchoidal fracturing of monolithic diabase also points to the tremendous force and energy of a catastrophic origin.
Other Southeastern Pennsylvania boulder fields in sandstone and quartzite, such as Hickory Run State Park boulder field and Blue Rocks campground boulder field on Hawk Mountain exhibit the first 3 of the 5 (above) properties exhibited by diabase boulder fields, but lack the ringing quality of diabase rocks. Sedimentary rocks tend to be more brittle and perhaps less erosion resistant than diabase and thus can not be as finely sculpted to begin with, and the features tend to erode faster afterward. Sedimentary rocks also tends to split along bedding planes, which eliminate the subconchoidal fracturing property of diabase boulder fields which point to catastrophic origins. And in particular, Blue Rocks quartzite boulders appear to be particularly susceptible to bioerosion by lichen.
Extinction events separating geologic periods and shorter intervals are often correlated with unconformities and bright-line sedimentary layers, both of which may be attributable to impact events. The YD extinction event has its own bright-line layer known as the ‘black mat’.
“The layer contains unusual materials (nanodiamonds, metallic microspherules, carbon spherules, magnetic spherules, iridium, charcoal, soot, and fullerenes enriched in helium-3) interpreted as evidence of an impact event, at the very bottom of the ‘black mat’ of organic material that marks the beginning of the Younger Dryas.”
(Wikipedia: Younger Dryas impact hypothesis)
SPECIFIC KINETIC ENERGY OF LONG-PERIOD IMPACTS:
The orbital velocity of the earth makes a dramatic difference in the kinetic energy of comet impacts. For a comet falling from infinity toward the sun at earth’s orbit, the ratio of kinetic energy between comets hitting earth head-on in its orbit around the sun and those catching up with earth is a factor of 19, but most fall somewhere in between. (This calculation factors in earth’s gravity.)
Earth escape velocity: 11.2 km/s
Earth, orbital velocity: 29.8 km/s
Body falling from infinity towards the sun to a distance of 1 AU: 42.2 km/s (calculated from gravitational potential energy and checked by comparing velocity falling from infinity to the diameter of the sun with the escape velocity of the sun)
Running into the earth head on in its orbit:
42.2 km/s + 29.78 km/s = 71.98 km/s
71.98 * 71.98 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 5181.12 + 125.21 = 5306.33 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Catching up with earth in its orbit:
42.2 km/s – 29.78 km/s = 12.42 km/s
12.42 * 12.42 + 11.19 * 11.19 = 154.26 + 125.21 = 279.47 km^2/s^2 (specific energy)
Specific kinetic energy ratio between hitting the earth head-on and catching up with earth in its orbit:
5306.33 / 279.47 = 18.99
Dwarf comets having fallen through Proxima’s 3:1 ‘resonant nursery’ resonance will orbit CCW in the Oort cloud like the planets. If the solar-system barycenter (SS-barycenter) acts as an aphelia attractor that pins Oort cloud orbits in its vicinity to the SS-barycenter, then the 73.6 Myr orbit of the Sun around the SS-barycenter will align these pinned orbits with the Galactic core twice per orbit, causing the tidal effect of the Galactic core to gradually reduce their perihelia by extracting angular momentum from the orbits until they dip into the planetary realm of the inner solar system. And the dwarf planets most likely to collide with Earth will have perihelia on the order of 1 AU. These objects would catch up with Earth in its CCW orbit and impact at almost the lowest possible speed.
Finally, comet ice may undergo endothermic chemical reactions (ECRs) in comet impacts, mostly clamping the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of rock.
SPIRAL GALAXY FORMATION BY CONDENSATION:
This section suggests that spiral galaxies ‘condensed’ during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by endothermic temperature clamping in early baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO).
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated ‘proto-galaxies’.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies; however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs. Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound. Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being. And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent ‘BBN-rebound’ of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.
Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle. Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole. (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.) Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes. Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.
And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum. So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse. Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase. So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum. The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.
And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies. Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found. Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.
DARK MATTER AND GALAXY FORMATION:
Two states of giant molecular clouds (GMCs):
A. Dark matter GMCs in ‘normal state’:
Gravitationally-bound giant molecular clouds (GMCs), generally composed of smaller gravitationally-bound entities (Bok globules), orbit the galactic core on disk-crossing halo orbits. GMCs are dark if their acquired stellar metallicity has ‘snowed out’ into the solid phase of icy chondrules, sequestering it from detection, since the remaining primordial molecular hydrogen and helium effectively don’t emit or absorb below (Lyman-alpha) UV frequencies. To avoid confusion, giant molecular clouds in their invisible dark matter state will be designated, ‘globule clusters’.
B. Opaque GMCs in ‘excited state’:
Giant molecular clouds on shallow orbits to the disk plane are exposed to significantly-more stellar radiation than their steep-orbit ‘halo’ counterparts, with stellar radiation subliming icy chondrules, creating opaque gaseous metallicity. And gaseous stellar metallicity lowers the ‘speed of sound’, increasing the ‘sound crossing time’ through dark clouds which promotes Jeans instability, causing excited Bok globules to tend to gravitationally collapse and condense stars.
Epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Endothermic condensation of proto-spiral-galaxies cored with direct-collapse supermassive black holds (SMBHs):
Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
“H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ‘ 10^4.5−5.5M Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas.”
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by merger to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the cores of galaxies. Alternatively, perhaps SMBHs formed much earlier during the epoch of BBN in gravitational collapse mediated by endothermic photodisintegration of helium to form direct collapse SMBHs with gravitationally-bound halos of hydrogen and helium, constituting proto-spiral-galaxies.
While unassisted gravitational collapse can only occur after the universe becomes matter (vs. radiation) dominated around z = 2740 (and then only at the horizon size), this ideology suggests assisted (nearly-isothermal) collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission in the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), with supermassive black hole formation as a latching mechanism, preventing thermal rebound.
Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today still bears the imprint of BAO compressions and rarefactions from the epoch when electrons first combined with protons to form neutral hydrogen, removing the plasma fog from the universe about 378,000 years after the Big Bang. The epoch of recombination only marks the end of the era of baryon acoustic oscillations, so the process was in full swing 378,000 years earlier during Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). During the epoch of BBN (10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang), while hydrogen fusion was in thermal equilibrium with helium photodissociation (helium fission), BAO compressions of the plasma continuum are suggested to have initiated nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse, mediated by endothermic helium fission which prevented thermal rebound. And the ambient temperature and pressure dictated the size of the the Bonnor–Ebert mass of fragmentation in BBN collapse, which is suggested to be the size range of spiral galaxies today, including their dark matter halos, designated ‘proto-spiral-galaxies’ prior to the formation of Population II stars. So runaway gravitational collapse during the epoch of BBN is suggested fragmented Bonnor–Ebert masses which drove BBN backwards, photodissociating helium into its constituent protons and neutrons and ending with direct-collapse supermassive black holes in the cores of gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxy ‘island universes’. And the Tully–Fisher relation, which relates the mass or intrinsic luminosity of (condensed) spiral galaxies with their rotation velocity–essentially their specific angular momentum–is suggested to be the result of asymmetrical fragmentation of spherically-symmetrical BAO compressions, perhaps with differential compression prior to fragmentation imparting a differential spin.
Intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, and sequestered, secondary, proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound’:
So the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum is suggested to have been condensed (sequestered) into warmer proto-spiral-galaxies during the BBN era, causing unsequestered intergalactic baryons to establish the effective baryon density of the universe in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, as measured by the survival ratio of fragile BBN isotopes, namely deuterium, helium-3 and lithium. Gravitational collapse fragmentation into proto-galaxies effectively reversed proto-galactic BBN, with endothermic photodisintegration of helium back into protons and neutrons. Thermal rebound from photodisintegration amounted to ‘BBN rebound’, reburning protons and neutrons to form helium-4, but if the nuclear reaction in the context of exponential cosmic expansion govern all the parameters (temperature, pressure, baryon density and photon-to-baryon ratio), then there are no variables in the process so the outcome of intergalactic primary BBN and secondary, proto-galactic BBN rebound should be identical to within boundary conditions, including the survival ratio of low binding energy isotopes, thus creating identical D/H and lithium to hydrogen ratios. Fine tuning of parameters by nuclear reactions can be seen in the cores of brown dwarfs and protostars in their deuterium burning phase, when the core temperature is clamped at 1 million Kelvins, regardless of size, causing .05 M⊙ brown dwarfs to 100+ M⊙ protostars burn deuterium at exactly 1 million Kelvins until it’s depleted. Boundary conditions during BBN rebound in proto-spiral-galaxy BBN rebound, however, might tweak conditions ever so slightly, showing up most prominently in the most fragile BBN isotope, lithium-6, perhaps accounting for the ‘strong lithium anomaly’ of lithium-6. The observed lithium isotope ratio, 7Li/6Li, is low by a factor of about 50 from the calculated value, which is known as the strong lithium anomaly (P. Bruskiewich 2007). If so, then the strong lithium anomaly may be more pronounced in spiral galaxies than in dwarf galaxies and intergalactic clouds.
Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies is similar to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today’s universe, then the baryon density calculated from BBN isotopes would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent coincidence of sequestered proto-galaxies at the epoch of BBN to the sequestered dark matter today may be far less stringent than it appears due to the ‘missing baryon problem’ of ΛCDM in today’s universe, wherein as much as half of the supposed baryons of the universe (based on baryon density) can not be found. The scale of the missing baryons in today’s universe suggests that the actual percent of dark matter to luminous matter may be closer to a ratio of 10:1 than the stated ratio of about 5:1.
So, assisted (nearly-isothermal) gravitational collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority (~ 4/5) of baryons into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, perhaps in the range of 10E9 M⊙ and larger, with each cored with a direct-collapse supermassive black hole. The proto-spiral-galaxies would have been hydrostatically supported between their outward-directed differential radiation pressure, compared to the intergalactic ambient pressure, and their inward-directed differential gravitational attraction, apparently causing proto-spiral-galaxies to expand and cool over time along with the universe as a whole.
Epoch of recombination:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, cored with Population III stars:
At the epoch of recombination, 378,000 years after the Big Bang at z = 1100, the proton and electron plasma reacted to form neutral hydrogen, decoupling photons from the Big Bang continuum. Decoupling photons eliminated a the most significant component of hydrostatic pressure in the universe, allowing local gravitational collapse. And once initiated, gravitational collapse was sustained by nearly-isothermal conditions mediated by endothermic ionization. The fragmentation scale at z = 1100 is suggested to have been on the order of 105 – 106 M⊙, condensing the universe into gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’, first condensing the intergalactic medium and later moving into the warmer proto-spiral-galaxies. The scale of collapse, with 105 – 106 M⊙ piling on, easily bridged the transition from ionization to deuterium burning, which stabilized the collapsing core at 1 million Kelvins.
Additionally, a very few of the largest fragmenting nebulae may have continued collapsing to form direct-collapse black holes in their cores rather than Population III stars during gravitational-collapse formation, perhaps forming temporary quasi-stars.
Population III stars formed at recombination:
As suggested, when a circa 105 – 106 M⊙ collapsing nebulae fragmentation reached the 1 million Kelvin temperature of deuterium ignition, the core stabilized, even as overlying material continued to pile on. Deuterium burning is well known to clamp the core temperature in protostars and to cause circulation, refreshing the deuterium in the core. The limits of circulation in a 105 – 106 M⊙ object, however, likely caused the very center became deuterium depleted in time, allowing further contraction to ignite the proton-proton (pp) chain reaction to form a Population III star. Proton-proton hydrogen fusion caused the Population III star to exceed its Eddington luminosity, throwing off the vast majority of the overlying mass, which for the most part apparently remained gravitationally bound within the nebulae’s Roche sphere. If the final demise of Population III stars was predominantly pair-instability supernovae in the range of 130 to 250 solar masses, then most Population III stars would not have left stellar remnants, i.e., no white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes, only Population III star and pair-instability supernova nucleosynthesis product contamination in gravitationally-bound nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
So the universe is suggested to have undergone gravitational collapse induced by recombination which fragmented into 105 – 106 M⊙ gravitationally-bound nebulae, cored with Population III stars. The intergalactic continuum presumably condensed first, before condensing warmer proto-spiral-galaxies as they reached recombination temperature. And the Population III stars formed by nebulae collapse contributed Population III star nucleosynthesis isotopes to their nebulae in hydrostatic equilibrium.
Epoch of reionization:
Condensation of 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into 100+ M⊙ ‘globules’:
The epoch of reionization is suggested to have occurred when sufficient intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae atomic hydrogen atoms had combined to form molecular hydrogen, allowing radiative cooling to the 200 K range, promoting nebulae to collapse and fragment into 100+ M⊙ globules. So the characteristic fragmentation size at the epoch of reionization is suggested to be that of circa 100 M⊙ (Bok) globules. And the largest globules continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which partially reionized the universe, beginning about 150 million years after the Big Bang. Because of the relative isolation of nebulae, even within densified proto-spiral-galaxies and accretionary dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies, intergalactic and proto-galactic nebulae may have condensed nearly simultaneously. Instead of location, nebula size may have dictated the timing of condensation into globules, with small nebulae condensing first, while the largest globular-cluster-sized nebulae may have held out until around 2 billion years after the Big Bang, about a billion years after the official end of the epoch. Additionally, larger nebulae were more likely to create the Population II supergiant stars that induced smaller globules to collapse into stars as well.
Nebula condensation into globules (‘globule cluster’):
The state change of nebulae which underwent collapse into globules at reionization merits name change, so gravitationally-bound nebulae which have condensed into gravitationally-bound hydrostatic globules will be designated, ‘globule clusters’. Parenthetical (Bok) globules, will be defined as invisible dark matter globules with their stellar metallicity frozen into the solid state of icy chondrules, whereas the absence of parentheses will indicate the familiar opaque Bok globules of giant molecular clouds, which have a significant component of sublimed (gaseous) stellar metallicity.
Cosmic inflation and gravitational concentration of nebulae formed at recombination is suggested to have created a cosmic (sponge-like) web of baryonic nebulae, with accretionary concentrations along filaments, nodes and around proto-spiral-galaxies and galaxy clusters, with significant nodal concentrations forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, in the prescribed ΛCDM fashion, albeit with baryonic (globule-cluster) dark matter. So this alternative punctuated equilibrium ideology superimposes top-down proto-spiral-galaxy condensation onto bottom up ΛCDM accretionary formation of (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies.
Condensation of nebulae into globule clusters at reionization didn’t effect on the accretionary process into the cosmic web in the process of forming (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies at densified nodes, but condensation of nebulae into globules at reionization primed the globule clusters to induce Jeans instability gas collide, possibly causing globules to ‘go nuclear’ and condense stars. Suggested globule cluster accretion at nodes and in large-galaxy halos in the last 13 billion years resulted/results in wildly varying dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with some concentrations being almost-entirely dark (low-surface-brightness galaxies) while others have undergone episodes of intense star burst activity.
Gravitational accretions of nebulae at cosmic-web nodes are suggested to have formed (spheroidal) dwarf galaxies, with widely-varying baryonic dark-matter to luminous-matter ratios, with the first Population II stars suggested to have formed in the epoch of reionization.
“The fraction of ionising radiation escaping into the intergalactic medium is inversely dependent on halo mass, decreasing from 50 to 5 per cent in the mass range log M/M⊙ = 7.0 – 8.5.” (Wise et al. 2014) So the vast majority of the ionizing radiation in the universe during reionization was apparently leaked from more numerous and vastly more-transparent dwarf galaxies, presumably by large, early Population II stars which ionized the loose intergalactic gas which gave the epoch its name. Later Population II stars presumably had a smaller initial mass function than early Population II stars, since the first Population II stars presumably collapsed the oversized globules, many into supergiant stars, during the globule condensation process.
If early Population II stars reionized the universe, as suggested here, then Population II stars in this ideology may be confused with Population III stars in ΛCDM cosmology, where ΛCDM cosmology suggests that Population III stars formed during reionization.
Following recombination, as the cosmic ambient temperature continued to decrease, an ever increasing ratio of the atomic hydrogen in gravitationally-bound ‘nebulae’ reacted to form molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen allowed radiative cooling down to the 200 K, allowing nebulae to undergo gravitational collapse and fragmentation in the epoch of reionization to form circa 100 solar mass gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules within gravitationally-bound nebulae, thereafter designated ‘globule clusters’. And and the largest globules presumably continued collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars, which reionized the universe from 150 million years (z = 20) after the Big Bang to 1 billion years after the Big Bang (z = 6).
The ΛCDM tenets of non-baryonic dark matter:
1) “The primordial D/H ratio [from BBN] constrains the baryon density to Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002, assuming standard BBN.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
2) “Recently, CMB anisotropies have provided an entirely independent way to constrain the baryon density, yielding Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001.” (Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State)
1) Epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN):
Canonical BBN isotope ratios:
The baryon density of the universe (Ωbh2) is adjusted for cosmic expansion by the Hubble constant, which makes the baryon density a universal constant for all time. A related parameter from the epoch BBN is the baryon-to-photon ratio, eta (η), which controlled the survival of the fragile nucleosynthesis isotopes deuterium, helium-3 and lithium following BBN. The baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratios are derived quantities, however, based on the observed deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio, and the D/H ratio is more reliable than the the lithium assessment because stars can only consume deuterium, whereas stars can both consume and create lithium. The apparent low degree of baryon density uncertainty (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002) from the epoch of BBN, however, should tempered by the ‘missing baryon problem’ today, since something like half the assumed baryon density in the universe can’t be accounted for, and ΛCDM ignores the possibility that baryon sequestration could artificially lower the effective (measured) baryon density.
Accounting for Ωbh2 and η with sequestered baryonic dark matter:
Endothermic assisted gravitational collapse with fragmentation during the epoch of BBN is suggested to have sequestered the vast majority of the Big Bang continuum from participation in intergalactic ‘primary BBN’, by condensing these baryons into warmer gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies, which is suggested to have split Big Bang nucleosynthesis into two subperiods, the intergalactic ‘primary BBN superiod’ and late proto-galactic ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, where late proto-galactic BBN rebound effectively extended the epoch of BBN, when cosmic expansion had cooled warmer proto-galaxies to the same temperature, pressure, local baryon density and baryon-to-photon ratio as in primary BBN, forming the same canonical BBN isotope ratios (D/H et al.) in proto-galaxies as in the intergalactic realm.
So nucleosynthesis with strong thermal equilibrium feedback (where hydrogen fusion is in thermal equilibrium with photodissociation helium fission) is suggested to control, conditions, removing BBN variables other than modest boundary effects, causing late BBN rebound in sequestered proto-spiral-galaxies to mirror primary BBN, allowing sequestered baryonic matter to pass for uncoupled (WIMP et al.) dark matter.
2) Epoch of recombination:
Cosmic microwave background CMB anisotropies:
The intergalactic baryon density at the epoch of ‘recombination’ is recorded in CMB anisotropies as a relic of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) of the epoch, and this number (Ωbh2 = 0.022 ± 0.001) is in close agreement with the intergalactic baryon density derived from BBN (Ωbh2 = 0.021±0.002); however, the missing baryon problem in today’s universe casts a shadow over the high degree of correlation in the two earlier epochs. So with something on the order of half the supposed baryons missing today, all we know with confidence is the the high degree of correlation of the effective baryon density at BBN and recombination, and the correlation is suggested to be consistent (~ 4/5) proto-galaxy baryon sequestration in the two epochs.
So in the same way that BBN may have splintered into two subperiods, the early, intergalactic ‘primary BBN subperiod’, and the late, secondary, proto-galaxy ‘BBN rebound subperiod’, recombination may have splintered into two subperiods as well,
1) the early, intergalactic ‘primary recombination subperiod’, and
2) the late, proto-galaxy ‘secondary recombination subperiod’,
with proto-galaxy sequestration effectively extending the epoch of recombination into warmer proto-galaxies.
The suggested ‘secondary recombination subperiod’ CMB photons would have diluted the primary BAO intergalactic signal and may have superimposed a low multipole proto-spiral-galaxy signal—perhaps the axis of evil—over the higher multipole signal from the epoch of recombination.
Finally, because there’s no correlation between the baryon-to-photon ratio at BBN and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon density in today’s universe, sequestered baryonic matter can not be ruled out based on the CMB photon density.
So if proto-galaxy condensation during the epoch of BBN could mask roughly 4/5 of the baryons in the universe from participating in primary intergalactic primary BBN and in intergalactic primary BAO, then the two tenets supporting non-baryonic dark matter might be greatly compromised.
“H2 may go unseen because its standard tracer, CO, is under-abundant (or frozen out) or because the gas is too cold for excitation to occur. Cold H2 is a candidate for hidden mass or ’dark matter’ in the universe, not at a level to change the global cosmological distribution of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, but as contribution to the galactic baryonic dark matter (Combes & Pfenninger 1997; Kalberla et al. 2001 p. 297ff).”
(Kroetz et al., 2009)
“Molecular hydrogen is very difficult to detect. None of its transitions lie in the visible part of the spectrum. It has no radio lines. The molecular hydrogen is a homo nuclear molecule and has no permanent dipole moment. Because of this it does not have rotation vibration spectrum.” (Detection Of Molecular Hydrogen In Interstellar Medium, 2013)
But with early sequestration into proto-spiral-galaxies, and with intermediate sequestration into globule clusters, and with late metallicity sequestration into icy chondrules, baryonic dark matter is indeed suggested to be the illusive dark matter of the universe.
Jeans instability in Bok globules:
Stellar radiation sublimation of icy chondrules in Bok globules creates gaseous stellar metallicity which raises the average molecular weight of the gas phase of Bok globules, decreasing the speed of sound which reduces their ability to rebound from positive pressure spikes. But if increasing stellar metallicity causes the sound crossing time to exceed the free-fall time, the region may undergo gravitational collapse to form a star. Radiative evaporation of volatile hydrogen by giant stars may supercharge the metallicity of dark clouds, promoting Jeans instability in sub-stellar-sized masses, enabling brown dwarfs and rogue (gas-giant) planets to condense directly.
The initial gravitational collapse in protostars is nearly isothermal as long as the contracting cloud remains transparent to infrared radiation. When the central density in protostars reaches about 10^-13 g/cm-3, a small region starts to become opaque, “and the compression become approximately adiabatic”. “The central temperature and pressure then begin to rise rapidly, soon becoming sufficient to decelerate and stop the collapse at the centre. There then arises a small central ‘core’ in which the material has stopped collapsing and is approaching hydrostatic equilibrium” [formation of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC)]. “The initial mass and radius of the core are about 10^31 g and 6×10^13 cm, respectively, and the central density and temperature at this time are about 2 x 10^-10 g/cm-3 and 170° K.”
Larson suggests the second hydrostatic core begins forming at about 2000 K when hydrogen molecules begin to dissociate. “This reduces the ratio of specific heats, gamma, below the critical value 4/3, with the result that the material at the center of the core becomes unstable and begins to collapse dynamically.” (Larson 1969) However, experimental testing suggests that molecular hydrogen dissociation occurs over a temperature range of around 6,000 K – 8,000 K (Magro et al. 1996) which may grade directly into hydrogen ionization, forming a mixture of molecular-hydrogen + atomic-hydrogen + plasma. Figure 3 in Magro shows the nearly-isothermal decrease in kinetic energy occurring in the dissociation/ionization temperature range, indicating an endothermic event which promotes run-away gravitational collapse to form the ‘second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC).
Dearth of dark matter in elliptical galaxy problem:
“Current thinking is that most if not all elliptical galaxies may be the result of a long process where two or more galaxies of comparable mass, of any type, collide and merge.” (Elliptical galaxy, Wikipedia)
“The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph. The galaxies’ velocity dispersion profiles are found to decline with radius; dynamical modeling of the data indicates the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This surprising result conflicts with findings in other
galaxy types, and poses a challenge to current galaxy formation theories.”
(Romanowsky et al. 2003)
“Whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor, this is at odds with predictions from current ΛCDM cosmological simulations.”
(Lane et al. 2014)
Non-baryonic elementary-particle dark-matter hypotheses (WIMPs, axions, sterile neutrinos et al.) have trouble explaining the low dark matter to luminous matter ratios observed in elliptical galaxies, whereas the alternative dark-matter globule-cluster ideology predicts that galactic collisions will tend to convert dark-matter globule clusters to star clusters, reducing the dark matter to luminous matter ratio.
The cuspy halo problem:
Non-baryonic cold dark matter simulations predict cuspy distributions in galactic cores, that is a steep power-law mass-density distribution (like a y=1/x inverse function), predicting ever increasing dark matter concentrations down to the SMBH of the core. Instead, “The rotation velocity associated with dark matter in the inner parts of disk galaxies is found to rise approximately linearly with radius” (de Blok 2009), which is termed a ‘cored distribution.
Secondary solutions have been proposed to remedy the cuspy halo problem, such as its disbursal by supernovae, along fine tuning solutions, such as tuning the degree of self-interaction of dark matter, whereas baryonic dark matter globule clusters that convert to star clusters in regions of high stellar concentrations, such as in globular clusters and in galactic bulges, predict low to absent dark matter in galactic cores, making globular baryonic dark matter predictive rather than problematic.
– Endothermic collapse in the epoch of BBN is suggested to have condensed a majority (~ 4/5) of the baryons of the universe into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies cored with supermassive black holes during the epoch of recombination.
– Toward the end of the epoch of recombination, radiative cooling is suggested to have condensed both the intergalactic continuum and proto-spiral galaxies into gravitationally-bound 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae, cored by Population III stars which infused the universe with Population III star nucleosynthesis. Intergalactic nebulae began clumping into a cosmic web, with densified nodes forming into proto-dwarf-galaxies.
– By the epoch of reionization, a sufficient quantity of hydrogen had reacted into its molecular form to allow radiative cooling to condense 105 – 106 M⊙ nebulae into gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules, with the largest globules spontaneously collapsing to form supergiant Population II stars which partially reionized the universe, where nebulae composed of (Bok) globules are designated, ‘globule clusters’ or alternatively, ‘giant molecular clouds’.
– Continued cooling, caused stellar metallicity to ‘snow out’ into the solid state, forming nearly-invisible (Bok) globules composed of gaseous helium and molecular hydrogen with stellar metallicity sequestered into the solid state of icy chondrules, with globule clusters as the dark matter reservoirs of the universe.
– Spiral-galaxy globule clusters on steeply-inclined halo orbits pass through the disk plane relatively unaffected, but globule clusters on shallow inclination orbits to the disk plane receive vastly-higher doses of stellar radiation, which may sublime icy chondrules, increasing the gaseous molecular weight which promotes Jeans instability, converting formerly dark-matter globule clusters (giant molecular clouds) to gravitationally-bound star clusters.
– Finally, baryonic dark matter that converts to stars and luminous gas in shocked regions, such elliptical galaxies formed by galaxy mergers, and regions of high stellar concentrations, such as galactic bulges and globular clusters makes baryonic dark matter a primary predictive ideology.
Introduction to Cosmology, Ohio State, 7. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN),
Detection Of Molecular Hydrogen In Interstellar Medium, 2013, http://physicsanduniverse.com/detection-of-molecular-hydrogen-in-interstellar-medium/
de Blok, W. J. G., 2009, THE CORE-CUSP PROBLEM, arXiv:0910.3538
Ibata et al., 2013, A Vast Thin Plane of Co-rotating Dwarf Galaxies Orbiting
the Andromeda Galaxy, Nature 493, 62-65 (2013).
Kroetz, P.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Stupar, D., 2009, Direct Observations of Cold Molecular Hydrogen with Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy.
Kroetz, P.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Stupar, D.; Schieder, R., 2009, Direct Observations of Cold Molecular Hydrogen with Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, “The Evolving ISM in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies, The Fourth Spitzer Science Center Conference, Proceedings of the conference held December 2-5, 2007
Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; and Richtler, Tom, 2014, Dark Matter Deprivation in Field Elliptical Galaxy NGC 7507⋆, Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. NGC7507 ˙spectra˙ accepted December 11, 2014.
Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295.
Magro, W.R.; Ceperley, D.M.; Pierleoni, C.; and Bernu, B., (1996), Molecular Dissociation in Hot, Dense Hydrogen, Physical Review Letters, 19 February 1996, Volume 76, Number 8.
Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Pacucci, F.; Gallerani, S.; Salvadori, S.; Schneider, R.; Schaerer, D.; Sobral, D.; Matthee, J., 2015, The Brightest Lyα Emitter: Pop III or Black Hole?, MNRAS 000, 1–6 (2015).
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Douglas, Nigel G.; Arnaboldi, Magda;, Kuijken, Konrad; Merrifield, Michael R.; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Capaccioli, Massimo; and Freeman, Kenneth C., 2003, A Dearth of Dark Matter in Ordinary Elliptical Galaxies, Science 301:1696-1698, 2003.
Wise, John, H.; Demchenko, Vasiliy G.; Halicek, Martin T.; Norman, Michael L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom; Smith, Britton D., 2014, The birth of a galaxy – III. Propelling reionisation with the faintest galaxies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2014 442 (2): 2560-2579.
Shear thinning properties of phyllosilicates appear to promote earthquake-fault slippage, such as in the earthquake that caused the 11 March 2011 Japanese tsunami. Additionally, (certain) sheet-silicate slurries may promote rock fracturing as occur in stratovolcanoes. Inert and refractory phyllosilicates may subducted under continental plates where heat and pressure on phyllosilicate slurries may fracture the overlying plate, forming stratovolcanoes in which the (remote subducted and/or local devitrified) volcanic ash is the cause rather than the result of the eruption.
Additionally, phyllosilicates may have gotten injected into the upper mantle in large comet impacts which were expelled to form flood basalt. Evidence for rock fracturing properties of hot phyllosilicate slurries:
1) Volcanic ash (phyllosilicates) and steam are released by explosive stratovolcanoes that can blast away mountain sides.
2) Phyllosilicates are commonly used as drilling mud
3) Steam is used to fracture oil shale and shale has a high phyllosilicate content.
4) “Most mature natural faults contain a significant component of sheet silicate minerals within their core.” (Faulkner, Mitchell, Hirose, Shimamoto, 2009) Smectite was discovered in the fault that caused the 11 March 2011 Japanese tsunami which is thought to have facilitated the earthquake with a friction coefficient of .08. (Fulton et al. 2013)
5) Montmorillonite is the major component in non-explosive agents for splitting rock.
Finally, the shear thinning properties of phyllosilicates may contribute to catastrophic mud slides during heavy rains, liquefaction during earthquakes and high-velocity pyroclastic flows during volcanic eruptions of hot volcanic ash.
Anosova, J, Orlov, V. V. and Pavlova, N. A., (1994), Dynamics of nearby multiple stars. The Alpha Centauri system, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 292, 115-118 (1984)
Artymowicz, Pawel and Lubow, Stephen H., (1994), DYNAMICS OF BINARY-DISK INTERACTION. I. RESONANCES AND DISK GAP SIZES, The Astrophysical Journal, 421:651-667, 1994 February 1
Bogard, Donald D., Dixon, Eleanor T., Garrison, Daniel H., (2010), Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites, Meteoritics & Planetary Science Volume 45, Issue 5, pages 723–742, May 2010
Boley, Aaron C., (2009), THE TWO MODES OF GAS GIANT PLANET FORMATION, 2009 ApJ 695 L53
Bruskiewich, Patrick, (2007), The Lithium Anomaly and the 7Li(3He,4He)6Li Neutron Transfer Reaction, Ph.D. Thesis Proposal, Department of Physics and Astronomy, UBC, TRIUMF, Vancouver
Burnett, D. S. & Genesis Science Team, (2011), Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission, PNAS May 9, 2011
Caciolli, A. et al., 2011, Revision of the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction rate and oxygen abundance in H–burning zones, Astron.Astrophys. 533 (2011) A66 arXiv:1107.4514 [astro-ph.SR].
Chiang, E., Youdin, A., (2009), FORMING PLANETESIMALS IN SOLAR AND EXTRASOLAR NEBULAE, arXiv:0909.2652
Choi, B. -G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Krot, A. N.; Wasson, J. T.. 1997, Magnetite in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: evidence for an 17O-rich reservoir in the solar nebula, Conference Paper, 28th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, p. 227.
Connelley, Michael S., Reipurth, Bo, Tokunaga, Alan T., 2008, The Evolution of the Multiplicity of Embedded Protostars. II. Binary Separation Distribution and Analysis, The Astonomical Journal, Volume 135, Issue 6, pp. 2526-2536 (2008)
Cox, Gutmann and Hines, (2002), Diagenetic origin for quartz-pebble conglomerates, Geology, April 2002
Currie, Thayne, (2005), Hybrid Mechanisms for Gas/Ice Giant Planet Formation, The Astrophysical Journal, 629:549-555, 2005 August 10
Dhital, Saurav, West, Andrew A., Stassun, Keivan G., Bochanski, John J., (2010), SLOAN LOW-MASS WIDE PAIRS OF KINEMATICALLY EQUIVALENT STARS (SLoWPoKES): A CATALOG OF VERY WIDE, LOW-MASS PAIRS, The Astronomical Journal 139 (2010) 2566-2586
Dixon, E. T., Bogard, D. D., Garrison, D. H., & Rubin, A. E. 2004, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, 3779.
Driscoll, Charles T. and Schecher, William D., The Chemistry of Aluminum in the Environment, (1990), Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 12, Numbers 1-2, 28-49
Duke, Edward, Papike, James J., Laul, Jagdish C., (1992), GEOCHEMISTRY OF A BORON.RICH PERALUMINOUS GRANITE PLUTON: THE CALAMITY PEAK LAYERED GRANITE PEGMATITE COMPLEX, BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 30, pp. 811-833 (1992)
Eskola, Pentti Eelis, (1948), The problem of mantled gneiss, Feb. 1948 Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 104, 461-457
Faulkner, Mitchell, Hirose, Shimamoto, (2009), The Frictional Properties of Phyllosilicates at Earthquake Slip Speeds, EGU General Assembly 2009, held 19-24 April, 2009 in Vienna, Austria
Fournier, R. O., The behavior of silica in hydrothermal solutions, (1985), Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 2, pp. 45–59.
Frost, Carol D., Frost, B. Ronald, Kirkwood, Robert and Chamberlain, Kevin R., (2006), The tonalite-trondhjemite-grandiorite (TTG) to grandoriorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province, Can. J. Earth Sci. 43: 1419-1444 (2006)
Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Kano, Y.; Mori, J.; Chester, F.; Ishikawa, T.; Harris, R. N.; Lin, W.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Expedition 343, 343T and KR13-08 Scientists, (2013), Low Coseismic Friction on the Tohoku-Oki Fault Determined from Temperature Measurements, Science 6 December 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6163 pp., 1214-1217 DOI:, 10.1126/science.1243641
Garrick-Bethell, I.; Fernandez, V. A.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Becker, T. A., 2008, 4.2 BILLION YEAR OLD AGES FROM APOLLO 16, 17, AND THE LUNAR FARSIDE: AGE OF THE
SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN?, Early Solar System Impact Bombardement.
Goddard Release No. 10-03, (2010), Most Earthlike Exoplanet Started out as Gas Giant, Goddard Release No. 10-03
Golimowski, David A., Schroeder, Daniel J., (1998), WIDE FIELD PLANETARY CAMERA 2 OBSERVATIONS OF PROXIMA CENTAURI: NO EVIDENCE OF THE POSSIBLE SUBSTELLAR COMPANION, The Astronomical Journal, 116:440-443, 1998 July
Hills, J. G., (1989), The Hard-Binary vs Soft-Binary Myth, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 21, p.796
Howard, Andrew W et al., (2012), PLANET OCCURRENCE WITHIN 0.25 AU OF SOLAR-TYPE STARS FROM KEPLER, Andrew W. Howard et al. 2012 ApJS 201 15 doi:10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15, and arXiv:1103.2541v1 [astro-ph.EP] 13 Mar 2011
Hyodo, Masayuki, Matsu’ura, Shuji, Kamishima, Yuko et al., (2011), High-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia, Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 2011 December 6, 108(49): 19563-19568
Ishizuka, O.; Uto, K.; Yuasa, M., (2003), Volcanic history of the back-arc region of the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 01/2003; 219(1):187-205. DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.219.01.09
Johansen, Anders, Oishi, Jeffrey S., Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac, Klahr, Hurbert, Henning, Thomas and Youdin, Andrew, (2007), Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar disks, Letter to Nature 448, 1022-1025 (30 August 2007)
Joy, Katherine H., Zolensky, Michael E., Nagashima, Kazuhide, Huss, Gary R., Ross, D. Kent, McKay, David S., Kring, David A., (2012), Direct Detection of Projectile Relics from the End of the Lunar Basin–Forming Epoch, Science Online May 17, 2012 DOI: 10.1126/science.1219633
Kasliwal, Mansi M., Kulkarni, Shri R. et al., (2011), PTF10FQS: A LUMINOUS RED NOVA IN THE SPIRAL GALAXY MESSIER 99, Astrophysics, 27 Mar 2011
Kelling, Thorben, Wurm, Gerhard, (2013), Accretion through the inner edges of protoplanetary disks by a giant solid state pump, arXiv:1308.0921 [astro-ph.EP]
Kennedy, G. C., (1950), A portion of the system silica-water, E. con. Geol., 47. 629-653
Krot, Alexander N.; Amelin, Yuri;, Cassen, Patrick; Meibom, Anders, Young chondrules in CB chondrites from a giant impact in the early Solar System, (2005), Nature 436, 989-992 (18 August 2005)
Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295
Levine, Jonathan, Becker, Timothy A., Muller, Richard A., Renne, Paul R., (2005), 40Ar/39Ar dating of Apollo 12 impact spherules, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L15201, doi:10.1029/2005GL022874, 2005
Lelli, Federico, (2014), The inner regions of disk galaxies: a constant baryonic fraction?, arXiv:1406.5189 [astro-ph.GA]
Levinson, Harold F. and Dones, Luke, (2007), Comet Populations and Cometary Dynamics, Chapter 31, Encyclopedia of the Solar System (edited by Lucy-Ann McFadden, Paul Robert Weissman and Torrence V. Johnson) 1st Ed. 1999, 2nd Ed. 2007, Academic Press
Lewis, Kevin W.; Aharonson, Oded; Grotzinger, John P.; Kirk, Randolph L.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Suer, Terry-Ann, (2008), Quasi-Periodic Bedding in the Sedimentary Rock Record of Mars, Science 5 December 2008: Vol. 322 no. 5907 pp. 1532-1535 DOI: 10.1126/science.1161870
Li, Dafang, Zhang, Ping & Yan, Jun, (2011), Quantum molecular dynamics simulations for the nonmetal-metal transition in shocked methane, Condensed Matter Materials Science, 24 March 2011, arXiv:1012.4888v2
Lissauer, J. J., Stevenson, D. J., (2007), Formation of Giant Planets, Protostars and Planets V, B. Reipurth, D. Jewitt, and K. Keil (eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 951 pp., 2007., p.591-606
Little, T. A., Hacker, B. R., Gordon, S. M., Baldwin, S. L., Fitzgerald, P. G., Ellis, S., Korchinski, M., (2011), Diapiric exhumation of Earth’s youngest (UPH) ecogites in the gneiss domes of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea, Tectonophysics 510 (2011) 39-68
Low, C; Lynden-Bell, D., (1976), The minimum Jeans mass or when fragmentation must stop, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 176, Aug. 1976, p. 367-390
Magro, W.R.; Ceperley, D.M.; Pierleoni, C.; and Bernu, B., (1996), Molecular Dissociation in Hot, Dense Hydrogen, Physical Review Letters, 19 February 1996, Volume 76, Number 8
Malavergne, Valérie, Toplis, Michael J., Berthet, Sophie, Jones, John, (2010), Highly reducing conditions during core formation on Mercury: Implications for internal structure and the origin of a magnetic field, Icarus, Volume 206, Issue 1, March 2010, Pages 199-209
Martin, H., Smithies, R. H., Moyen, J.-F. and Champion, D., (2005), An overview of adakite, tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG), and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution, Lithos, Volume 79, Issues 1-2, January 2005, Pages 1-24
Marty, B.; Chaussidon, M.; Furi E.; Hashizume, K.; Podosek, F.; Wieler, R.; and Zimmermann L., 2003, Nitrogen isotopes in lunar soils: a record of contributions to planetary surfaces in the inner solar system, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex France Space Science Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.87). 04/2003; 106(1):175-196.
Marty, B., Chaussidon, M., Wiens, R. C., Jurewicz, A. J. G., Burnett, D. S., (2011), A 15N-Poor Isotopic Composition for the Solar System As Shown by Genesis Solar Wind Samples, Science 24 June 2011 Vol. 332 no. 6037 pp. 1533-1536
Matese, J.J.; Witman, P.G.; Innanen, K.A. and Valtonen, M.J., (1998), Variability of the Oort Cloud Comet Flux: Can it be Manifest in the Cratering Record?, J. Andersen (ed.) Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 11A, 252-256
Matese, J. J., Whitman, P. G., Whitmire, D. P., (1999), Cometary evidence of a massive body in the outer Oort cloud, Icarus 141 (1999)
Matese, John, J., Whitmire, Daniel P., (2011), Persistent evidence of a jovian mass solar companion in the Oort cloud, Icarus 211 (2011) 926-938
McKeegan, K. D., Kallio, A. P. A., Heber, V. S., Jarzebinski, G., Mao, P. H., Coath, C. D., Kunihiro, T., Wiens, R. C., Nordholt, J. E., Moses Jr., R. W., Reisenfeld, D. B., Jurewicz, A. J. G., Murnett, D. S., (2011), The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun Inferred from Captured Solar Wind, Science 24 June 2011 Vol 332 no. 6037 pp. 1528-1532
de Meijer, R. J. and van Westrenen, W., (2010), An Alternative Hypothesis on the Origin of the Moon, arXiv:1001.4243v1 [astro-ph.EP]
Muller, R. A., Becker, T. A., Culler, T. S., and Renne, P. R., (2000), Solar System impact rates measured from lunar spherule ages, in Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., and Schmitz, B., eds., Accretion of extraterrestrial matter throughout Earth’s history: New York, Kluwer Publishers, 466 p.
Mumma M. J., Gibb, E. L., Russo, N. Dello, DiSanti, M. A. Magee-Sauer, K., (2003), Methane in Oort cloud comets, Adv. Space Res., 31, 2563; Icarus 165 (2003) 391–406
Murthy, V. Rama & Hall, H. T., (1970), Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors, Volume 2, Issue 4, June 1970, Pages 276-282
NASA RELEASE : 12-425, (2012), NASA Astrobiology Institute Shows How Wide Binary Stars Form, RELEASE : 12-425 ammonium nitrate
Nesvorny, David, Youdin, Andrew N., Richardson, Derek C., (2010), Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse, The Astronomical Journal 140 (2010) 785, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/785
Nittler, L. R., (2005), Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions Are Not Supernova Condensates, Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk ASP Conference Series, Vol ###, 2005
Nittler, Larry R., Hoppe, Peter, (2005), ARE PRESOLAR SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS FROM NOVAE ACTUALLY FROM SUPERNOVAE?, The Astrophysical Journal, 631:L89-L92, 2005 September 20
Nuth, J. A., Johnson, N. M., Elsila-Cook, J., and Kopstein, M., (2011), CARBON ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION DURING FORMATION OF MACROMOLECULAR ORGANIC GRAIN COATINGS VIA FTT REACTIONS, 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2011)
Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Rau, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Peng, E. W.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Cote, P.; Ferrarese, L;. Jordan, A.; Mei, S.; Puzia, T.; Bradley, L. D.; Magee, D.; Bouwens, R., The Environment of M85 optical transient 2006-1: constraints on the progenitor age and mass, (2007), arXiv:0710.3192 [astro-ph]
Ogliore, R. C., Huss, G. R., Nagashima, K, (2011), Incorporation of a Late-forming Chondrule into Comet Wild 2, arXiv:1112.3943v2 [astro-ph.EP] 30 Dec 2011
Palme, H. & O’Neill, Hugh St. C., (2003), Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition, Treatise On Geochemistry, Volume 2; pp. 1-38, ISBN: 0-08-044337-0
Patiño Douce A.E., Harris N., (1998), Experimental constraints on Himalayan Anatexis, Journal of Petrology, v. 39, no. 4, p. 689-710
Patiño Douce, Alberto E., (1999), What do experiments tell us about the relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of granitic magmas?, pp 55-75, From: Castro, Fernandez, C. and Vigneresse, J. L. (eds) Understanding Granites: and Classical Techniques, The Geological Society of London
Peplowski, Patrick N., Evans, Larry G., Hauck II, Steven A., McCoy, Timothy J., Boynton, William V., Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J., Ebel, Denton S., Goldsten, John O., Hamera, David K., Lawrence, David J., McNutt Jr., Ralph L., Nittler, Larry R., Solomon, Sean C., Rhodes, Edjar A., Sprague, Ann L., Starr, Richard D., Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R., (2011), Radioactive Elements on Mercury’s Surface from MESSENGER: Implications for the Planet’s Formation and Evolution, Science Vol. 333, 30 September 2011
Pieters, C. M., Ammannito, E., Blewett, D. T., Denevi, B. W., De Sanctis, M. C., Gaffey, M. J., Le Corre, L., Li, J.-Y., Marchi, S., McCord, T. B., McFadden, L., A., Mittlefehldt, D. W., Nathues, A., Palmer, E., Reddy, V., Raymond, C. A., and Russell, C. T., (2012), Distinctive space weathering on Vesta from regolith mixing processes, Nature 491, 79-82 (01 November 2012), doi:10.1038/nature11534
Pinte, C., Menard, F., Manset, N., Bastien, P., (date?), TOMOGRAPHY OF THE INNER EDGE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, published?
Podosek F. A. and Cassen P., (1994), Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula., Meteoritics, 29, 6–25
Rau, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Yan, L., Spitzer Observations of the New Luminous Red Nova M85 OT2006-1, (2007), The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 659, Issue 2, pp. 1536-1540
Rimstidt, J. D. and Barnes, H. L., (1980), The kinetics of silica-water reactions., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 44 (11), pp.1683-1699
Rimstidt, J. D, (1997), Quartz solubility at low temperatures., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 61 (13), pp.2553-2558
Ryder, R. T., (2002), Appalachian Basin Province (067), United States Geological Survey (USGS)
Sandeman, Clark, Scott and Malpas, (2000), The Kennack Gneiss of the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, SW England: commingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas accompanying Givetian continental incorporation of the Lizard ophiolite, Journal of the Geological Society; November 2000; v. 157; no. 6; p. 1227-1242
Schmidt, Burkhard C. & Keppler, Hans, (2002), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 195, Issues 3-4, 15 February 2002, Pages 277-290
Schroeder, Daniel J., Golminowski, David A., Brukardt, Ryan A., Burrows, Christopher J., Caldwell, John J., Fastie, William G., Ford, Holland C., Hesman, Bridgette, Kletskin, Ilona, Krist, John E., Royle, Patricia and Zubrowski, Richard A., (2000), A SEARCH FOR FAINT COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS USING THE WIDE FIELD PLANETARY CAMERA 2, The Astronomical Jorunal, 119:906-922, 2000 February
Schultz, A. B., Hart, H. M., Hershey, J. L., Hamilton, F. C., Kochte, M., Bruhweiler, F. C., Benedict, G. F., Caldwell, John, Cunningham, C., Wu, Nailong, Frantz, O. G., Keyes, C. D. and Brandt, J. C., (1998), A POSSIBLE COMPANION TO PROXIMA CENTAURI, The Astronomical Journal, 115:345-350, 1998 January
Sharov, Alexei A., Gordon, Richard, (2013), Life Before Earth, arXiv:1304.3381 [physics.gen-ph]
Shi, Ji-Ming, Krolik, Julian H., Lubow, Stephen H., Hawley, John F., (2012), Three Dimensional MHD Simulation of Circumbinary Accretion Disks: Disk Structures and Angular Momentum Transport, arXiv:1110.4866v2 [astro-ph.HE] 7 Feb 2012
Staal, C. R., Williams, P. F., (1983), Evolution of a Svecofennian-mantled gneiss dome in SW Finland, with evidence for thrusting, Tectonophysics, Volume 74, Issues 3–4, 20 April 1981, Pages 283-304
Tohline, J. E., Cazes, J. E., Cohl, H. S., (1999), THE FORMATION OF COMMON-ENVELOPE, PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY STARS, Astrophysics and Space Science Library Volume 240, 1999, pp 155-158
Tomida, Kengo, Tomisaka, Kohji, Tomoaki, Matsumoto, Yasunori, Hori, Satoshi, Okuzumi, Machida, Masahiro N., and Saigo, Kazuya, Arxiv 2012 (Draft Version January 1, 2013), RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR COLLAPSE:
PROTOSTELLAR CORE FORMATION, arXiv:1206.3567V2 [astro-ph.SR] 28 Dec 2012
Trieloff, M., Jessberger, E. K., & Oehm, J. 1989, Meteoritics, 24, 332.
Trieloff, M., Deutsch, A., Kunz, J., & Jessberger, E. K. 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 541.
Urtson, Kristjan, (2005), Melt segregation and accumulation: analogue and numerical modelling approach, MSc. Thesis, University of Tartu
Wertheimer, Jeremy G. and Laughlin, Gregory, 2006, Are Proxima and Alpha Centauri Gravitationally Bound?, The Astronomical Journal, 132:1995-1997, 2006 November
Wielen, Fuchs and Dettbarn, (1996), On the birth-place of the Sun and the places of formation of other nearby stars, Astron. Astrophys. 314, 438
Yin, An, (2004), Gneiss domes and gneiss dome systems, Geological Society of America Special Paper 380
by Dave Carlson
P.S. Soliciting contributions, criticism and collaborators. Pseudonyms are acceptable and assistance will be attributed.